1. Last 7 days
    1. The criteria you put in your assessment will guide students toward the content and skills you want them to learn. You might even want to get their input before you finalize the project’s assessment.Be sure that your assessment gives students lots of leeway in how they investigate and share their projects. Every project should turn out differently. As Chris Lehmann says, “If you assign a project and you get back 30 of the exact same thing, that’s not a project, that’s a recipe.”

      assessments and project based learning

    2. Below is a checklist to help you refine your question. You might not be able to check off all the items, but the more the merrier! ‼️ The question is appealing to students.🗜 The question is concise. 💦 The question has no easy answer. 😍 The question taps into students’ interests and passions. 💤 The question does not sound like a test question. 💗 The question leads to more questions. 🔀 There is more than one answer to the question. 🔰 The topic is personal or local.🏡 Students can relate to the question in their daily lives.🤔  Students will have choices for end products. 💬 There is an authentic audience for the project.🕵️‍♀️ The question requires serious investigation. ℹ️ Students will learn important skills and content.💥 The project will somehow make a difference in the world.

      Suggestions on how to refine a driving question

    3. 📐 Solve a Problem: There’s a real-world predicament with multiple solutions.How can we stop phantom traffic jams?How can we beautify the vacant lot across the street for $200?What’s the best way to stop the flu at our school?Design a better lunch menu for our school.Design a safe and sturdy bridge to replace one in our city.🎓 Educational: The purpose of the project is to teach others.How can we teach second graders about helpful insects.Create a campaign to teach senior citizens how to use an iPad.What do the students at our school need to know about being respectful?👍 Convince Others: Students persuade a specified audience to do something or change their opinions.Create a public service announcement (PSA) that persuades teens to drink more water.Drive yourself to define a question and then Prove It to your classmates.Convince grocery shoppers to return their shopping carts.How can we convince our principal that we should have a party in December?🌏 Broad Theme: The project tackles big ideas.What does it mean to read?How does conflict lead to change?How does math influence art?How do writers persuade others?How are good and evil depicted in different cultures?💬 Opinion: Students need to consider all sides of an issue in order to form and justify their opinions.Should pets be allowed to attend class?Why has a woman never been a U.S. president?What makes a good astronaut?🚥 Divergent: Students make predictions about alternative timelines and scenarios.What if Rosa Parks gave up her seat?What if the world ran out of oil tomorrow?How might your city change if the climate became an average of 10°F warmer?What if the USA switched to the metric system?🚀 Scenario-Based: Students take on a fictional role with a mission to accomplish.You’re a NASA engineer, and you are in charge of building a moon base. What are the ten most important things to include and why?Imagine that you are King George. What would you have done differently to keep American part of England?You are the CEO of a company that is designing a new social media app. Present a business plan to your investors that explains how your company will make money.You’ve been hired to revamp your local shopping mall. Come up with a plan to increase business.How would you spend $1,000,000 to help your community?🚧 Scaffolded Around Framing Words: BIE has a tool to help you develop driving questions called a Tubric. It provides possible framing words, actions, audience, and purpose. If you’d rather not take the time to construct a tube, you could use Rhoni McFarlane’s Developing Inquiry Questions chart, Amy Mayer’s Scaffold for Writing a Driving Question, or TeachThought's PBL Cheat Sheet.How can I create a campaign to reduce bullying in my school? (from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we find a solution to reduce the litter in our school permanently? (also from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we as first graders create geocaching sites to promote physical fitness in our neighborhood? (from Washington Discovery Academy)

      Types of Driving Questions with examples

    4. Driving questions pose simply stated real world dilemmas. They pose predicaments that students find interesting and actually want to answer. The question drives students to discuss, inquire, and investigate the topic. It should push them toward a production or solution. In the process of investigating the question and sharing their answers, students learn important content and skills.  

      Driving Question

    5. it’s not surprising that we have a variety of other terms for a question or statement that is the project’s driving force. These terms include essential question, challenge, prime question, WILD HOG question, focus question, and smart question. I’ll stick with driving question, but do know that sometimes the driving question is not interrogative. It might be a statement, but I’ll still refer to is as a question.

      Other "names" for a Driving Question

    6. Projects begin with a driving question—an open-ended question that sets the stage for the project by creating interest and curiosity.

      What is a driving question in project based learning?

    1. should allow us to examine the molecularmechanisms of photoinhibition of PSI, as well as thenature of chilling sensitivity

      1.3 future tense in discussion as well

    2. rom an artificial electron donor tomethyl viologen does not provide a good measure of PSI ac-tivity because methyl viologen at a high concentration canaccept electrons even from a partially destroyed PSI, asdiscussed earlier (Terashima et al. 1994, Sonoike andTerashima 1994).

      1.3 discussion in present tense

    3. was performed

      1.3 past tense in methods

    4. were measured

      1.3 past tense in methods

    5. The difference in the level of P-700 deter-mined chemically and photochemically suggests the inacti-vation of the acceptor side of PSI rather than of P-700itself. In the case of photoinhibition of PSI in cucumberleaves, similar inactivation on the acceptor side has beenproposed (Sonoike and Terashima 1994), and an EPRstudy revealed the destruction of the iron-sulfur centers bythe photoinhibitory treatment (Sonoike et al. 1995)

      1.2 This is an example of interpreting results as opposed to simply summarizing them

    6. After this treatment, the concentration of P-700 was determined from the changes in absorption at 701nm. As the duration of pre-illumination increased, the levelof photochemically quantified P-700 decreased (Fig. 1A)

      1.2 this is an example of summarizing results, not interpreting them

    7. hydroponically

      What does this word mean?

    8. We showed recently that PSI is readily photoinhib-ited in leaves of Cucumis sativus at low temperatures(Terashima et al. 1994), with almost no damage to PSIIthat had long been believed to be the main site of photoinhi-bition (Powles 1984). When cucumber leaves were illumi-nated by moderate light at 220//molm~2s~1 for 5 h at4°C, the maximum quantum yield of the photosyntheticelectron flow through PSI (measured in terms of the flowfrom reduced DAD to NADP+) decreased by 70-80%, butthat through PSII decreased by less than 20% (Terashimaet al. 1994). This observation clearly demonstrated thatPSI is the main site of the photoinhibition at chilling tem-peratures in cucumber leaves.

      1.1 This entire paragraph is a great example of the claim-evidence-reasoning model. The claim was that PSI is photo-inhibited in cucumber leaves at low temperatures. They gave the evidence of how much PS1 was inhibited and the reasoning of other researchers finding the same results.

  2. cdn.inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net cdn.inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. Social ownership protects against political changes hostile to the presence of low-income resi-dents. That is a very long-term and expensive solu-tion, but taxes on land value or land rent would be one very fair way to raise the money.

      I see how this would work in theory but at the same time , I think it would be problematic and would essentially turn into section 8 housing. I dont think this would stop gentrification either because wealthier people would most likely not want to live in a house owned by the community. This would eventually lead to one class living here while upper class move to other communities.

    2. “vacancy control,”

      Vacancy control is a form of rent control that is linked to a unit rather than a tenant – meaning that the landlord would be restricted in the amount they could raise the rent between tenancies. https://www.vancourier.com/real-estate/vacancy-control-could-be-death-knell-for-12-000-new-rental-units-survey-1.23504580

    3. companion policies

      A companion policy is offered by insurance companies who offer multi-line insurance policies at a discount for having more than one insurance policy provided by them. Most commonly, you will find 10-15% discounts if you carry your personal auto insurance along side your homeowners insurance under the same provider. www.stisonline.com/index.php/component/content/article/20-articles/55-faq

    4. estimates that two-thirds of San Francisco’s excessive housing cost is the result of its geography, since 75% of the area within 50 miles of its downtown is under water or on steep hills

      The supply and demand factor ALONG with geographic factors create this expensive rent cost. Because of San Francisco's geography (on a peninsula) there are limitations for building housing- especially in terms of horizontal land use- therefor, one of the ways this has been thought to be battled is by building taller buildings. However, because of the restrictive zoning laws, this option is not possible. In many parts of San Fransisco, buildings cannot be taller than forty feet. The options for building housing is quite limited due to these geographic factors and zoning laws, and in turn, there is a limited supply and a very high demand, which drives up the prices.

      (to read more about zoning and San Francisco's housing problem, see website url) https://www.businessinsider.com/why-housing-is-so-expensive-in-san-francisco-2014-4

    5. Adam Smith pointed out that the “rent of houses” can be divided into the “building rent,” the rent actually necessary to operate and maintain the building, and the “ground rent,” which reflects demand for a desirable location.

      Rent is going to be more expensive if the property is located in a high quality area with a large demand for rental units. The increased demand will directly result in higher rent prices.

    6. In the economics literature, it is said that rent control results in “reduced mobility” and that this causes an “inefficient allocation” of rental units.

      In New York city, some landlords have to keep apartments vacant due to a lack of funding to properly repair them. This is due to heavy taxes and regulations from the city. This has also made it more difficult to build additional affordable housing. https://nypost.com/2020/02/13/the-push-for-universal-rent-control-will-devastate-new-yorks-housing-stock/

    1. Google Docs is an excellent example of this: by allowing learners to collaborate and communicate with one another through a web-based word processing document, time and space are no longer factors in a collaborative enterprise, as the technology removes those barriers for students.

      interesting take and I have noticed this while in college it is definitely easier for group members to be on a google doc vs finding a time and place that works for everyone

    2. Personalized learning technologies can, ironically, make the learning experience less personal, less human

      completely agree

    1. peripheral nervous system helps us contract our muscles, moderates the flow of incoming sensory information and even oversees automated processes such as heart function and digestion.


    1. French fries, or chips in Britain, are an evocative and ubiquitous aspect of life in many parts of the world. The most delicious french fries combine a crisp exterior with a soft and light interior—texture in this case is a defining characteristic. A mealy pear or a soggy apple will disappoint: crispness is expected of an apple, whereas more of a crunch is expected from a pear. Certainly, a stick of celery is expected to be crunchy; wilting and soft celery will find few takers. Crisp lettuce is definitely preferable to the flaccid variety. Carrots, when cooked, are transformed...

      This chapter explains why sound is a very important part of what we eat. The crispy, crunchy, and crackly sounds can be associated with certain foods (Ex: an apple or chips) that give us satisfaction when eating them. We expect a food to have a certain taste and texture by the sound of biting into it and we are much less satisfied if we don't here these crispy/crunchy/crackly sounds. I chose this chapter because after reading this I actually thought about how I feel when eating these things and it is something that you want in many foods to be satisfied. The sound of biting into something tells you exactly what is is because you have associated that noise with it before. This was a very interesting chapter and I learned something new that I will think about when eating now.

    1. Here are a few guidelines for parents to consider: In terms of social interaction, a child who is kindergarten-ready should be able to play and work well with others and know how to cooperate and share (both with physical objects and with ideas). While some children are slow to warm to others, particularly if they don't have siblings, it's best if they are at least willing to participate in group activities such as singing, rhyming, and talking. For the most part, a child who is in kindergarten will be expected to listen to the teacher and to other children, be able to pay attention and follow directions, and have some level of self-control, particularly in a group setting.

      General Social Skills for kids in kindergarten

    1. As a matter of practical significance, however, most of the technologies under consideration in current literature are newer and digital and have some inherent properties that make applying them in straightforward ways difficult.

      Teachers that aren't "tech savvy" may struggle with incorporating tech in the class room

    2. never hear of teaching as an ill-structured discipline until now but it does make sense

    1. understanding of other cultures, and other people seems to be more critical than ever. In addition to learning about other countries and cultures, children need to learn early about the ways in which countries and people are connected. This includes an understanding of history and economics. It's not that children will learn all about world history or even all about the history of their own country and certainly not that they will learn all about economic theory. However, they can begin to learn some basics. We can think of this learning as "social science readiness."

      General Social Science learning in Kindergarten

    1. When you recognize symptoms of burnout in others, help them to get out the "Burnout trap". Don't just tell people to take a break, but help them arrange things so they can take a break. Ask why they feel they can't take a break (there are almost certainly real, concrete reasons) and then ask permission to get busy putting things in place that will overcome those barriers. People might be trapped by their own fatigue, being too worn out to find the creative solutions needed to take a break.
    1. In the past two decades, earnings have dropped for those without high school degrees, while dropout rates have continued to remain high among vulnerable populations.

      we as educators have to answer the question of how can we better engage students at higher risk for dropping out in order to keep them in school ?

    1. Usually, before kindergarten, most children can use words they've learned from conversations with others or by being read to. Throughout the academic year, your child's speech will become more structured and understandable, and reading and writing skills will emerge and advance. As the school year goes on, children should be able to understand basic sentence structure and punctuation. They will learn, for example, that the first word in a sentence is capitalized and that sentences end in periods, question marks, or exclamation points. Most kindergarteners learn to print letters in both lower- and uppercase. During kindergarten, children also learn to use question words, such as who, what, when, where, why and how, as well as how to make words plural by adding an 's' or "es". They also learn how to use common nouns and prepositions. By the end of kindergarten, most children can learn to read age-appropriate books by themselves, and your child might like to have you listen while he or she reads out loud at home.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in language arts

    2. In kindergarten math, children learn the names of numbers and how to count them in sequence. They begin to become familiar with numbers 11-19. They should also be able to count objects and begin an introduction to geometry by learning to recognize and name shapes such as triangles, rectangles, circles, and squares. Kindergartens begin to learn the concepts of addition and subtraction, respectively, as "putting together and adding to" and "taking apart and taking from," according to the Common Core State Math Standards.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in math

    1. What can you expect your child to learn about science by the end of kindergarten? In general, they will learn some basics of the physical sciences, Earth sciences, life sciences, and scientific principles of investigation and experimentation. Children are encouraged to develop their curiosity about the world around them and to make observations. As they are introduced to science, children develop organized and analytical thinking as well as problem-solving skills.

      what kindergarteners learn in science generally

    1. Peer Supported Connected learning thrives in a socially meaningful and knowledge-rich ecology of ongoing participation, self-expression and recognition. In their everyday exchanges with peers and friends, young people fluidly contribute, share and give feedback. Powered with possibilities made available by today’s social media, this peer culture can produce learning that’s engaging and powerful

      way to incorporate today's technological and social media influences into learning

    2. Traditional education is failing to engage many students as they enter their middle school, high school, and college years. The culture clash between formal education and interest-driven, out-of-school learning is escalating in today’s world where social communication and interactive content is always at our fingertips. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

      I've noticed my college professors are sometimes struggling to keep students engaged because every single one of us has our phones out ready to check any notification

    1. In addition to brain scans acquired in a research or clinical setting, such data would be acquired via wearable devices or smart phone apps

      Beyond the privacy issues involved, it is crucial to keep in mind how skewed the information provided by such devices can be. Given the amount of variables to take into account, how can we safely use this kind of data without infringing subjects' privacy?

    1. when he ordered her to leave Antioch as soon as possible and go whithersoever  p395 she wished, and she heard, moreover, what was said in Rome about her son, she no longer cared to live, but hastened her death by refusing food, though one might say she was already in a dying condition by reason of the cancer of the breast that she had had for a very long time; it had, however, been quiescent until, on the occasion referred to, she had inflamed it by the blow with which she had smitten her breast on hearing of her son's death.

      Having failed to re obtain some of her power Julia loses her will to live and speculations around the cause of her death abound.

    2. she hoped to become sole ruler and make herself the equal of Semiramis and Nitocris, inasmuch as she came in a sense from the same parts as they. But as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . letters . . . . . . . . . . of Macrinus . . . . . . . . . . some for which . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fearing she might be deprived of the title of Augusta and be forced to return to her native country and

      Maybe it's because of her life experience, Julia possesses a lust for power.

    3. Now Julia, the mother of Tarautas, chanced to be in Antioch, and at the first information of her son's death she was so affected that she deal herself a violent blow and tried to starve herself to death. Thus she mourned, now that he was dead, the very man whom she had hated while he lived; yet it was not because she wished that he were alive, but because she was vexed at having to return to private life.

      Despite all the wrongs Antonius had done on both her and the empire, Julia still grieves for her son, though the last part of the quote seems to suggest that she's more sad about the fact that she's going to become a "normal" person than the death of her son.

    4. But it happened that this letter was diverted to Antioch to the emperor's mother Julia, since she had been instructed to sort everything that arrived and thus prevent a mass of unimportant letters from being sent to him while he was in the enemy's country

      That this was mentioned may mean that Julia had intentionally delayed this letter in hopes that Antoninus will die.

    1. “Breakthroughs indecentralized computing show promise for new patterns of organizing ourselves—sometimesreplacing the need for certain centralising institutions. But this requires ensuring people’sautonomy over their data and cryptographic keys,” says Holochain Co-Founder, Arthur Brock.

      autonomy over data and cryptographic keys

    1. He spoke out his opinions very solemnly

      A luxury to having money

    2. he was in debt

      This is kind of like a live by the sword, die by the sword kind of moment. This entire merchant section seems to be a critique on man's relationship to money, and how it can really be an unquenchable thirst you lose yourself in.

    3. his name I can’t recall.

      It's as if somebody who completely makes their life about money loses their identity in the process.

    4. Which holds that hunters are not holy men

      Saying that hunters are not holy men contrasts the later imagery of the man dressed in fur sleeves, fat and roast loving. I'm confused as to whether or not this man and the monk are different men or the same. Either way, the contrast between nature, keeping it as it is and loving it, and the gutting of it, getting fat off of it and making it your clothing is interesting.

    5. Though so strong and brave, he was very wise And of temper as meekly as a maid. 70 He never yet had any vileness said, In all his life, to whatsoever wight.

      The Knight is being set up as a model of humanity, with ideals held up so that other men below him can pursue such goals. Thinking about how Arthur was fictitious and wondering why, I feel like this description of the Knight feeds more into the answer being people needed something to follow, a human that wasn't God, but close to it. Contrary to Arthur, the knight seems to be something easy to achieve. He is not defined by only his battles, but by being wise, and noble, which are things much easier to obtain than victory in battle.

    1. As a result, great numbers pretended to pursue philosophy, hoping that they might be enriched by the emperor.

      Was the influx of wealth-seeking philosophers good or bad for the development of philosophy I wonder

    2. he passed away on the seventeenth of March, not as a result of the disease from which he still suffered, but by the act of his physicians, as I have been plainly told, who wished to do Commodus a favour.

      maybe a conspiracy, maybe not. as already stated, Marcus was already a frail man naturally plus he neglected his health in his obsessive ruling style.

    3. Now if Marcus had lived longer, he would have subdued that entire region

      A strong assertion

    4. Marcus gave audience to those whom came as envoys from outside nations, but did not receive them all on the same footing; for this varied according as the several states were worthy to receive citizenship, or freedom from taxes, or perpetual or temporary exemption from the tribute, or even to enjoy permanent support. And when the Iazyges proved most useful to them, he released them from many of the restrictions that had been imposed upon them, — in fact, from all save those affecting their assembling and trading together and the requirements that they should not used boats of their own and should keep away from the islands in the Ister. And he permitted them to pass through Dacia  p61 in order to have dealings with the Rhoxolani, as often as the governor of Dacia should give them permission.

      Diplomacy's unchanging, parallels can be drawn to modern day diplomacy.

    5. When Marcus had come to Athens and had been initiated into the Mysteries,

      Mystery cults are very compelling, wish we knew what the mystery was.

    6. For surely Cilicians, Syrians, Jews, and Egyptians have never proved superior to you and never will, even if they should muster as many tens of thousands more than you as they now muster fewer.

      Fostering pride in the Empire's military prowess. Maybe some racism?

    7. Fellow-soldiers

      relating to the soldiers as a peer, shows intermingling of political and military position in Rome

    8. 10 Dio goes on to say that when the rain poured down, at first all turned their faces upwards and received the water in their mouths; then some held out their shields and some their helmets to catch it, and they not only took deep draughts themselves  p33 but also gave their horses to drink. And when the barbarians now charged upon them, they drank and fought at the same time; and some, becoming wounded, actually gulped down the blood that flowed into their helmets, along with the water. So intent, indeed, were most of them on drinking that they would have suffered severely from the enemy's onset, had not a violent hail-storm and numerous thunderbolts fallen upon the ranks of the foe.

      poorly supplied units if they're so thirsty they need to drink while fighting

    9. Marcus, both because he knew their race to be untrustworthy and also because he had been deceived by the Quadi, wished to annihilate them utterly.

      hearken back to Julius Caesar's genocide of the native Gallic people?

    10. The emperor, as often as he had leisure from war, would hold court; he used to allow abundant time to the speakers,3 and entered into the preliminary inquiries and examinations at great length, so as to ensure strict justice by every possible means. In consequence, he would often be trying the same case for as much as eleven or twelve days, even though he sometimes held court at night. For he was industrious and applied himself diligently to all the duties of his office; and he neither said, wrote, nor did anything as if it were a minor matter, but  p23 sometimes he would consume whole days over the minutest point, not thinking it right that the emperor should do anything hurriedly. For he believed that if he should slight even the smallest detail, this would bring reproach upon all his other actions. Yet he was so frail in body that at first he could not endure the cold, but even after the soldiers had assembled at his command he would retire before addressing a word to them; and he took but very little food and that always at night. It was never his practice to eat during the daytime, unless it were some of the drug called theriac. This drug he took, not so much because he feared anything, as because his stomach and chest were in bad condition; and it is reported that this practice enabled him to endure both this and other maladies.

      A perfectionist to a fault. Did his obsession over minutiae hinder his ability to hold court? Seems his obsession with ruling the empire also had poor effects on his health

    11. At first, arrayed in women's garments,

      another example of tactical cross-dressing, like in the festival from the in class reading a couple weeks ago

    12. Marcomani
    13. Iazyges

      A Sarmatian tribe who emigrated from central Asia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iazyges

    14. Among the corpses of the barbarians there were  p13 found even women's bodies in armour.

      What would the Romans think of women in combat?

    15. the Rhine

      Interesting to see this term so long ago, I associate it with WWI and II history

    16. the Ister

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ister seems to reference the Danube river in central and eastern Europe.

    1. van a presentar la información al resto de la clase.

      And what will the rest of the class do with the information that is being presented by the other groups?

    2. principales y secundarias

      Will students know what these are from before or do you think you will need to explain them?

    3. Antes de leer

      I am happy to see a pre-reading! Before you even do this, can you have some instructions before that contextualize all of the phases of the activity?

    1. .

      And explain why you like them. How long will the paragraph be? How many reasons do you want the students to include?

    2. la nacionalidad

      Maybe ask for the nationality and two details about them (something more than just one word).

    3. la actividad 11

      In Activity 11 they described the images from West Liberty. I think you mean Activity 12?

    4. .

      I would also put the modelo/ejemplo before the picture too. Also, I suggest adding a follow up step after this activity so that the students have to do something with the information they've learned about their classmates (i.e., hold them accountable for paying attention to each other's talk other than just for the purposes of a signature).

    5. los deportes más practicados en West Liberty

      Pre-viewing activity?

    6. siguientes imagenes

      Again, can we make these bigger? Maybe it's because I am using a Mac, but the pictures are really small in relation to the text size.

    7. ?

      Why? For the first two...

    8. (aprender)

      As I suggested earlier, I would move the verbs to a word bank so that it's not just about manipulating form, but also understanding meaning.

    9. :

      Maybe you could ask an open-ended question at the end like, "Would you want to work at this school? Why or why not?"

    10. 1.

      I like this activity and the graphic organizer a lot!

    1.  Neither in these matters nor in any others did he heed his mother, who gave his much excellent advice. And yet he had appointed her to receive petitions and to have charge of his correspondence in both languages, except in very important cases, and used to include her name, in terms of high praise, together with his own and that of the legions, in his letters to the senate, stating that she was well. 3 Need I add that she held public receptions for all the most prominent men, precisely as did the emperor? But, while she devoted herself more and more to the study of philosophy with these men,

      Julia is shown to have great willpower and patience as she willing does her son's job for him.

    2. Once when Julia chided him for spending vast sums upon  p301 them and said, "There is no longer any source of revenue, just or unjust, left to us," he replied, exhibiting his sword, "Be of good cheer, mother: for as long as we have this, we shall not run short of money."

      Despite having witnessed the death of her younger son, Geta, at the hands of her other son, Antoninus, she still actively participates in Roman politics by trying to correct Antoninus.

    3. Once when Julia chided him for spending vast sums upon  p301 them and said, "There is no longer any source of revenue, just or unjust, left to us," he replied, exhibiting his sword, "Be of good cheer, mother: for as long as we have this, we shall not run short of money."

      Despite having witnessed the death of her younger son, Geta, at the hands of her other son, Antoninus, she still actively participates in Roman politics by trying to correct Antoninus.

    4. The first time Cassius talks about Julia at length. Though unfortunately it's not anything bright as evidenced by the text.

    1. César Chávez

      I would suggest a pre-viewing activity or more information to contextualize why you are showing a video of César Chávez.

    1. Escriban un diálogo

      Maybe a bit more instruction about how long you want the dialogue to be?

    2. cómo será tu vida en 10 años

      Can you relate this more to the content/theme of the chapter?

    3. Cómo podemos ayudar a los estudiantes inmigrantes

      Same as my comment above. Introduce the video and have a pre-listening activity to activate students' prior knowledge and help them anticipate the content.

    4. Mira

      I would suggest doing some pre-viewing activities before each of these activities. Like, "What do you think are some of the difficulties of immigrant students?" Then after viewing, you could even ask whether they identified the same difficulties as the experts in the videos.

    5. Ilegalmente:

      I don't think they'll need to look this up since it's a cognate...

    6. .

      Maybe include information about why you want them to look these up in the dictionary? For what purpose they'll use this information, for example?

    7. .

      I love this video and that you are using local Iowa people!

    8. I do not like this activity. Although I see what you are trying to do here, each of these terms are not mutually exclusive and may lead students to create a false dichotomy about their meanings. In other words, I can be bilingual and multicultural at the same time, but I can't be bilingual without being multicultural because of the intimate relationship between language/culture.

    1. [Discuss the false and ignorant general stereotypes of Africans (based on region) thatKolchin talks about on page 19.

      Not sure this helps with this particular question.

    2. Atlantic creoles

      Who were they? When were they?

    3. Of Africanization Berlin writes on page 56 that it “marked a sharp deterioration in theconditions of slave life” (Berlin, 56). He continues on page 61 that “[w]ith the decline of whiteservitude, slaves could no longer take refuge in the standards established for English servants.”

      Definitely don't begin a paragraph with two quotes.

    4. Dependingon when and where, or where and when, the look and feel of slavery manifest in a plethora ofways.
      1. That's not a sentence. 2. This needs to go at the beginning of the paragraph so that you can explain what it means better than this.
    5. It is by this understanding of the transition from ​white​ to​ black​ labor(Africanization) that there can be a greater understanding of the origins and stages of Americanslavery (variants in slavery over time).

      It's another good point, but you need a few more sentences of explanation here. Tie back directly to your overall point.

    6. is divulgingthrough geographic differences

      What exactly does that mean?

    7. an opportunity is missed

      That's passive voice. Who did what to whom?

    8. emerged to meet the pervasive labor shortage”

      Don't begin paragraphs with quotes. Start with your analysis.

    9. within the organization of their research lend to the ideathat slavery in America was not uniform nor was it free of fluctuation.

      That's their idea. Are you embracing it?

    10. American slavery was a system in which newer and deeper understandings of contrastingpoints are more important and more valuable than regurgitating familiar points that havetraditionally been explained without the necessary depth.

      I don't think that sentence works well. It just isn't clear to me what you mean.

    1. Ce qui veut dire – attention, c’est un peu déprimant – que les années vécues entre l’âge de 5 et 10 ans vous paraissent aussi longues que les années qui séparent vos 40 ans de vos 80 ans. Alors, activez-vous ! Le temps passe vite… et ça ne s’arrange pas avec le temps.

      Dans les dernières lignes, la conclusion est un peu fataliste et ne permet pas d'ouverture vers d'autres pistes. De plus la vision du constat est orientée de façon négative. Mais finalement peut-on considérer que cela est une si mauvaise chose de ressentir le poids des années qui passent de la même façon entre 5 et 10 ans ou entre 40 et 80 ans?

    2. La faute à la routine ? Une autre théorie suggère que cette sensation est associée à la quantité de nouvelles perceptions auxquelles nous sommes exposés au fil de notre vie

      Dans ce paragraphe, l'auteur utilise le même procédé que dans le paragraphe précédent à savoir un titre avec un point d'interrogation. Là encore il oriente le lecteur en considérant ses propos comme une hypothèse et non comme un fait. Adrian Bejan, professeur en genie mécanique à l'université de Duke, lui retient cette explication comme valable. Pour ce scientifique, "les divergences entre le temps physique et le temps psychologique sont responsables du temps qui passe" (European Review, le 18 mars 2019).

    3. Mais pourquoi mesurer notre perception à l’aide d’une échelle logarithmique ? Parce que notre rapport au temps est relatif à l’âge que nous avons : pour un petit de 2 ans, une année représente la moitié de sa vie, ce qui explique que la distance entre deux anniversaires semble si longue à un enfant. Pour un marmot de 10 ans, une année ne représente que 10 % de sa vie (il devient alors un peu moins difficile d’attendre son prochain anniversaire), et pour un jeune de 20 ans, une année ne représente plus que 5 % de sa vie. Voilà pourquoi le temps semble s’accélérer avec l’âge.

      Voilà, dans ce paragraphe-ci nous connaissons désormais l'argument retenu par l'auteur .Il s'appuie sur un outil scientifique afin de prouver la pertinence de l'argument. Je trouve cela regrettable qu'il ne reste pas plus neutre et surtout qu'il exclut d'autres raisons tout autant valables ou peut-être même complémentaires.

    4. La piste mathématique

      Grâce à ce titre affirmatif, l'auteur nous annonce maintenant son point de vue et l'argument qu'il compte défendre.

    5. La faute à la biologie ? Plusieurs théories tentent d’expliquer cette sensation d’accélération du temps avec l’âge. L’une d’elle évoque une dégradation progressive de notre horloge biologique, due au ralentissement naturel de notre métabolisme au fil des ans : quand nous vieillissons, notre respiration et nos battements de cœur ralentissent

      Chrisitan YATES propose "plusieurs théories". Il ne veut laisser planer aucun doute sur le fait qu'il les considère comme des hypothèses car en plus de dire qu'il s'agit de "théories", il ajoute la forme interrogative dans ses titres. Une des premières pistes évoquées est la cause biologique. Cette sensation déformée serait dû à des rythmes cardiaques différents suivant les âges mais il reste très approximatif et ne s'appuie sur aucun élément scientifique. Il nous montre dans ces différents procédés, qu'il n'est pas convaincu par cet argument et on sent une volonté de sa part, de faire en sorte que le lecteur n'adhère pas non plus à cette explication

    6. Notre perception du temps évolue au cours de la vie, et à l’âge adulte, le temps semble filer de plus en plus vite : si nous nous sentons perpétuellement pressés et débordés, c'est précisément à cause de cette perception déformée

      L'auteur parle de la perception donc quelque part d'une forme d'illusion du temps qui s'écoule. Ce n'est donc pas la réalité. Il explique que c'est "précisément" à cause de cette vision "déformée" des choses que nous nous sentons constamment "débordés". Expliquer ce phénomène de surcharge et d'empressement simplement par une sensation erronée du temps qui passe et parce que nous prenons de l'âge me semble un peu réducteur et écarte les autres raisons qui sont multiples (tâches quotidiennes nombreuses, de plus en plus de responsabilités en fonction des âges, etc)


      Por qué los algoritmos no son reglamentos

      Luis Arroyo Jiménez

      1. La tesis que defiende A. Boix en este artículo se concreta en las dos afirmaciones siguientes: (i) los algoritmos que utilizan las Administraciones públicas para adoptar decisiones son reglamentos porque cumplen una función de regulación de sus actuaciones futuras semejante a la que desempeña con carácter general este tipo de norma jurídica; y (ii) precisamente por ser reglamentos, los algoritmos que utilizan las Administraciones públicas para adoptar decisiones deben quedar sometidos a las garantías tradicionales –todas ellas, aunque con ciertas posibles modulaciones–que nuestro ordenamiento impone a la adopción de ese tipo de norma jurídica. La argumentación establece pues una vinculación necesaria entre la función que despliegan los algoritmos, su naturaleza o calificación jurídicas y, en fin, el régimen jurídico al que han de quedar sujetos. Esta línea de razonamiento plantea dos dificultades importantes, de orden teórico y metodológico, a las que me referiré sucesivamente.

      2.Desde una perspectiva teórica, la tesis descansa sobre un presupuesto discutible, como es la afirmación de que son reglamentos los instrumentos cuya función sea programar el comportamiento futuro de las Administraciones públicas. En el lenguaje que manejamos normalmente los juristas (por cierto, no sólo los españoles) los reglamentos se caracterizan por cumplir esa función, así como por presentar otras dos propiedades. La primera, que se refiere a su objeto, consiste en ejercer tal función a través de determinaciones abstractas. La segunda es de carácter formal y consiste en expresarse a través de un determinado tipo normativo al que las normas secundarias del sistema jurídico, que ordenan el reconocimiento de la validez y de la eficacia de los elementos que lo conforman, reconocen como norma jurídica.

      Un reglamento es, por tanto, un tipo característico de norma jurídica que programa el comportamiento de sus destinatarios mediante determinaciones abstractas. Podemos precisar algo más la categoría, pero no es necesario a los efectos que nos ocupan. Baste aquí señalar que si un concreto instrumento cumple esa función institucional pero, o bien lo hace a través de determinaciones concretas, o bien no se expresa a través de un tipo normativo reconocido por el sistema, entonces no será un reglamento. Veamos los dos supuestos.

      En ocasiones las Administraciones públicas adoptan decisiones de función reguladora que, sin embargo, no son reglamentos porque tienen un objeto concreto. Un ejemplo de ello son las decisiones administrativas habilitantes de función reguladora: se trata de actos, contratos o convenios administrativos que configuran el estatus jurídico de concretos operadores económicos y que, al hacerlo, cumplen una función de regulación sectorial (Arroyo Jiménez, Libre empresa y títulos habilitantes, CEPC, Madrid, 2004). Otro ejemplo son los actos materiales concretos de función reguladora a los que la doctrina jurisprudencial del Tribunal Constitucional federal alemán reconoce excepcionalmente la aptitud de crear restricciones sobre las libertades económicas a pesar de no producir efectos jurídicos sobre sus destinatarios, debido precisamente a que desempeñan esa función de regulación sectorial. Todos estos son ejemplos de actos (jurídicamente formalizados unos, de carácter material otros) que despliegan una función reguladora pero que, sin embargo, no son reglamentos porque tienen un objeto concreto.

      Una mayor proximidad con los reglamentos presentan los instrumentos de función reguladora cuyas determinaciones tienen un objeto abstracto, pero que no se expresan a través de un tipo normativo reconocido como tal por el sistema jurídico. Encontramos numerosos ejemplos de ello en la enorme variedad de instrumentos de soft law elaborados por las Administraciones públicas. Se trata de instrumentos que programan el futuro comportamiento de sus destinatarios a través de disposiciones generales (o, para ser más precisos, de disposiciones definidas mediante un supuesto de hecho abstracto), que incluso pueden producir efectos jurídicos de diversa naturaleza. Sin embargo, no son reglamentos (ni ningún otro tipo de norma perteneciente al Derecho objetivo) porque carecen del efecto jurídico característico de las normas jurídicas: operar como presupuesto de validez de otros actos o normas posteriores.

      Los instrumentos de soft law no se distinguen de los reglamentos ni en su función reguladora ni en la textura lingüística de sus determinaciones, sino más bien en el hecho de que carecen de efectos anulatorios directos (Arroyo Jiménez/Rodríguez de Santiago, European and domestic soft law within Spanish administratve law, 2020). Lo expresa con claridad el art. 6.2 LRJSP (y la regla se encuentra en muchos otros sistemas jurídicos): el “incumplimiento de las instrucciones u órdenes de servicio (o de cualesquiera otras medidas de soft law, podríamos añadir) no afecta por sí solo a la validez de los actos dictados por los órganos administrativos”. Su incumplimiento puede generar otros efectos jurídicos distintos (efectos anulatorios indirectos, efectos interpretativos, efectos resarcitorios y efectos sancionadores internos), pero no determina la invalidez de los actos en los que se concrete (efectos anulatorios directos). La razón por la que no lo hace es que los instrumentos de soft law no son normas jurídicas y, por lo tanto, no son reglamentos. Por la misma razón no se benefician de su inderogabilidad singular, que es una propiedad de los reglamentos en tanto que normas jurídicas.

      En esta circunstancia los algoritmos se asemejan a los instrumentos de soft law. Los algoritmos que utilizan las Administraciones públicas para adoptar sus decisiones no son reglamentos, a pesar de cumplir una función reguladora y de concretarse en disposiciones abstractas, porque no operan por sí solos como presupuestos de validez de los actos dictados por las Administraciones públicas, de tal manera que si éstas se separan de ellos en el futuro, los actos correspondientes no serán necesariamente inválidos porque no habrán incurrido al hacerlo en una infracción del ordenamiento jurídico.

      De nuevo, ello no impide que los algoritmos empleados por las Administraciones públicas puedan producir efectos jurídicos. Por un lado, es posible que una norma jurídica (esta sí Derecho objetivo) ordene su cumplimiento, o bien imponga un deber de motivación en caso de que la autoridad pretenda separarse de ellos en un caso concreto (por ejemplo, el principio de igualdad). En cualquiera de los dos supuestos los efectos anulatorios serán meramente indirectos, y resultarán de la infracción de esa otra norma. Si se prefiere, la inaplicación del algoritmo en un caso concreto puede formar parte del supuesto de hecho al que esa otra norma vincula como consecuencia jurídica la invalidez del acto administrativo. Por otro lado, es también posible que la inaplicación del algoritmo en un caso concreto suponga apartarse de una práctica administrativa consistentemente observada en el pasado y que ello determine, no ya la invalidez del acto (por ejemplo por lesión del principio de igualdad) como en el caso anterior, sino el nacimiento de una pretensión indemnizatoria en virtud del principio de confianza legítima. En definitiva, la consistente utilización del algoritmo puede dar lugar a un supuesto de autovinculación administrativa, en los mismos términos que el precedente o el soft law administrativo. Finalmente, es posible que la utilización del algoritmo haya sido ordenada por una autoridad jerárquicamente superior, de modo que, al no utilizarlo, el titular del órgano administrativo haya incumplido el principio de jerarquía y su titular pueda ser sancionado disciplinariamente (arts. 6.2 LRJSP y 95.2 EBEP). Nada de ello convierte, sin embargo, en reglamentos a los algoritmos que utilizan las Administraciones para adoptar decisiones.

      1. Desde una perspectiva metodológica, la tesis presenta una cierta inconsistencia: por un lado, en ella subyace la idea (a mi juicio plenamente acertada) de que es la función de los instrumentos jurídico-administrativos la que determina más intensamente su régimen jurídico; por otro lado, sin embargo, el autor siente la necesidad de interponer entre aquella y éste la perspectiva de su naturaleza y calificación formales. Parece como si no bastara constatar la función reguladora de los algoritmos para llegar a la conclusión de que deben quedar sujetos a un régimen jurídico adecuado a esa tarea, y fuera preciso aplicarles antes la etiqueta o concepto tradicionalmente utilizado para racionalizar jurídicamente a los instrumentos que han venido cumpliendo dicha función en el pasado.

      Sin embargo, no hay tal necesidad. Hace ya décadas que Villar Palasí observó la (relativa) intercambiabilidad funcional de las técnicas de intervención administrativa (Villar Palasí, La intervención administrativa en la industria, IEP, Madrid, 2004). Instrumentos o tipos de actuación conceptualmente diferentes pueden cumplir la misma función institucional, es decir, pueden utilizarse para perseguir la misma finalidad. Así, antes se ha demostrado que para programar el comportamiento futuro de los sujetos que desarrollan una actividad la Administración puede utilizar formas jurídicas muy diversas: reglamentos, actos, contratos, convenios, actos materiales y medidas no vinculantes.

      Pero es que, además, el hecho de que instrumentos y técnicas de actuación administrativa conceptualmente diferentes cumplan una misma función determina que su régimen jurídico tienda a aproximarse (Arroyo Jiménez, Libre empresa y títulos habilitantes, CEPC, Madrid, 2004). El motivo reside en que el régimen jurídico al que está sometida cada técnica de actuación jurídico-administrativa no depende sólo (ni siquiera principalmente) de su concreta ubicación en un sistema conceptual (por ejemplo, en el de las formas jurídicas a través de las que se expresan las potestades administrativas: norma acto, contrato, etc.), sino sobre todo de su función regulatoria o institucional, es decir, de aquello para lo que va a ser utilizada por las Administraciones públicas (programación, selección, control, etc.).

      En definitiva, para justificar que la utilización de algoritmos por las Administraciones públicas en la adopción de decisiones administrativas tiene que estar sometida a ciertas garantías, tradicionalmente asociadas a los reglamentos, no hace falta decir que los algoritmos son reglamentos, sino que basta constatar que su utilización por las Administraciones públicas cumple la misma función que en el caso de los reglamentos justifica su sometimiento a ese régimen jurídico. Se logra así, en fin, el mismo resultado, sin necesidad de deformar una categoría como la del reglamento, cuyo régimen jurídico no sólo resulta de su función (reguladora), sino también de la manera específica en la que con ellos se despliega (carácter vinculante y determinaciones abstractas). Más aún, por este camino se evita aplicar en bloque el régimen jurídico de los reglamentos a la decisión de utilizar un algoritmo para adoptar decisiones administrativas, un resultado éste que el propio A. Boix reconoce excesivo por cuanto que admite la necesidad de adaptar o reelaborar ese régimen.

      1. Es cierto, en fin, que el Derecho debe extender ciertas garantías jurídicas propias del Estado democrático de Derecho (transparencia y publicidad, explicabilidad, participación, estabilización, etc.) a las decisiones administrativas adoptadas mediante la utilización de ciertos algoritmos. Y esa labor debe realizarse simultáneamente en los planos de la dogmática jurídico-administrativa y de la reforma del Derecho administrativo. Sin embargo, para ello no es ni necesario, ni sistemáticamente adecuado sostener que los algoritmos son reglamentos.
    1. Rivers are bridged by the Romans with the greatest ease, since the soldiers are always practising bridge-building, which is carried on like any other warlike exercise, on the Ister, the Rhine, and the Euphrates.

      an interesting skill set i wouldn't normally associate with the military, maybe not relevant to Marcus' life though

    2. For he was frail in body himself and devoted the greater part of his time to letters. Indeed it is reported that even when he was emperor he showed no shame or hesitation about resorting to a teacher, but became a pupil of Sextus, the Boeotian philosopher,1 and did not hesitate to attend the lectures of Hermogenes on rhetoric; 3 but he was most inclined to the doctrines of the Stoic school.

      why he is called "the philosopher"

    3. his adoptive father

      I assume the same process Octavius went through with Caesar?

    1. naturalistic

      In a common or "natural" well known surrounding

    2. researchers found that conversations in the absence of mobile communication technologies were rated as significantly superior compared with those in the presence of a mobile device

      Studies shown that relationships without the use of social media and technology are better off and healthier than relationships that do.

    3. people and 150 adults, Turkle found that children were often times the ones complaining about their parents’ obsession with technology. Turkle discovered that many children believed their parents paid less attention to them than to their smartphones, often times neglecting to interact with them face to face until they had finished responding to emails.

      Technology's effect is so negatively impacted on society that studies have shown even parents have less attention span towards their family and more on their electronic devices.

    4. Though much research has shown the negative effects of technology on face-to-face interaction, one study found that cell phone use in public might make individuals more likely to communicate with strangers.

      Although there are many negative effects that have shown based on the advances in technology use, one positive is that even though the face to face communication ratio is low the number for interactions with people known and unknown are better.

    5. Abstract Recent technological advancements have had a drastic impact on the way individuals communicate.

      Unlike my other sources so far, this one reminds me of the scholarly articles we analyzed in class, this source contains an abstract and discussion which are key parts to expert articles.

    1. a forma correcta de los verbos

      You could potentially have the verbs in a box for the students to choose too. That way it wouldn't only be an activity about form, but rather form AND meaning.

    2. ¿Por qué?

      Good follow up here! I would like to see this with all of your questions.

    3. Paso 2

      Another idea might be to have the students first write the verbs in the indicative on one side and the verbs on the other. Then in another paso, they could ask the students to form rules.

    4. Claire / Mike / Karla

      Maybe ask who they agree with and then why.

    5. ?

      Follow up: What languages? Who?

    1. trusted timestamps

      blockchain block hashes are trusted timestamps... but yes, this protocol is better than that.

    2. Revoking a device requires a trusted root authority, which is the Identity Key. This approach is required because if any device were allowed to revoke another it would not be possible to know which devices remain under the control of the Identity owner and which have been compromised. An attacker might revoke all the non-compromised devices and thereby take over the Identity.

      if a user controls multiple devices they can quarantine a device from one device, or mark it suspect, then use all of their other devices to vote it out. I only mention this because this is what would be required to have the constraints make sense. Having a single primary device is much easier I think. and then just use social key revocation if that device is lost.

    3. a device publishes the Device Certification Messages for all its siblings

      I think this is a good MVP protocol. It's not a good protocol for production.

    4. Devices form a certification DAG with the Identity Key as its root.

      This explicitly disagrees with the constraints and makes a lot more sense.

    5. Bot Identity Keys are created by the host Bot Container during Bot Instance creation and are securely stored within the container environment for the lifetime of the Bot Instance.

      What happens when this invariant varies?

    6. Interactive users create their Identity Key during initial onboarding: "Create New Identity". After initially signing certification messages that assert the user's name, and authorize the local device (see device keys below), the Identity Private Key is not retained. It must however be saved as a paper key or word phrase, or in a secure hardware token for potential later use in device revocation.

      This doesn't sound quite right to me, it seems like we are trying to side-step "the model requires a primary device", It's very difficult to reason about MVP key/device management protocols.

    7. Joining a new party requires user action on only one device. Other devices can automatically join without user intervention. (Each device may be configured by the user to only replicate a subset of parties).

      If I add a party on device A, how do I get information about that party to Device B? These constraints are confused. Where is the nexus of control that allows a user to define which devices automatically join parties? There is an implicit assumption of a primary device, which is what's so confusing about these constraints.

    8. a user's devices operate under a single identity for the purposes of access control in a party.

      But there may also be an identity per party, so somehow the devices need to non-interactively discover parties that other devices have joined? Sounds like magic.

    9. The device provisioning process is one-step (once provisioned a new device is admitted to all current parties).

      Calling this one step is misleading because it must be an interactive process.

      Also this means sending an update to every entity in every party every time an identity does device management, which sounds more like a DoS vector than a feature.

      This also exposes that much of the complexity in this system is around device management as a very concrete proxy for key management. So one device can have many keys, but a single key can only ever be on one device, this means we need some fairly sophisticated Distributed Key Generation (DKG) Something like this: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397516001626

    10. Private keys are never exchanged across devices. Devices must be revocable, with other nodes able to determine which feeds and messages from a revoked node should still be considered valid, dating from prior to revocation.

      These together seem to invalidate 2. It's the set of private keys across the set of devices on which the identity exists, not a single key. 8 makes this distinction more clear.

    11. Each device needs to have only its own Device Key and keys for its local feeds. No need to have a master key available on devices for normal operation.

      Power users will want to use a hardware key and to manually add each device into a party. That being said, I appreciate the UX tension here.

    12. which cannot be changed.

      Why not just make the history easy to access?

    13. An identity is secured by a private key (which has a recovery mnemonic), which is used as the root of trust.

      Could be more clear.

    1. la imagen

      Is there any way to make these pictures bigger? I had to choose "idioma extranjero" by process of elimination because I couldn't see the board.

    2. How are we supposed to know this based on the images above? Are we just supposed to guess? If so, maybe you should put that in the instructions?

    1. The results presented here assess three different aspectsofF. oxysporumethanol tolerance (effects on growth,enzymes, fermenting ability) for the use of a micro-organism in a bioethanol production process and showthatF. oxysporumcan be used in a biorefinery both asa pentose fermenting and enzyme producing micro-organism.

      Restated purpose of the experiment

    2. The effects of ethanol on growth ofF. oxysporum(aer-obic conditions) were more severe when xylose was thecarbon source

      The ethanol effect on F. Oxysporum growth on xylose showed to reach a maximum biomass concentration of 4 g/L where on glucose it was 3g/L, therefore the effects of ethanol showed more severe effects on the over all growth

    3. Figure 1

      This graph displays the effect of F. oxysporum growth on glucose. The test with no ethanol added had the largest biomass at 3g/L, where the 6% w/v initial ethanol had the lowest biomass. The graph shows a trend where the more w/v initial ethanol, the lower the biomass.

    4. In your own words, what is the biologicalquestion that the researchers are asking?

      Does ethanol have and effect on growth and performance under aerobic and micro-aerobic conditions?

    5. Ethanol, like other organic molecules such asbutanol or acetone, binds on the non-catalytic region ofthe enzyme, causing changes in the shape of the proteinmolecule, which in turn affects the catalytic activity.

      is this similar to the example in class where enzymes changed their shape to break the stick, releasing ATP?

    6. hexoses but also frompentoses

      hexose: simple sugar molecule with six carbons vs pentose:simple sugar molecule with five carbon

    1. ¿Cuáles son las ventajas del tipo de escuela que eligieron? ¿Cuáles son los retos del tipo de escuela que eligieron?

      Again, for some of your questions, I think you could add follow up questions (like why, how, etc.) so that the elicit more extended discourse--and you will get more complex utterances that way too.

    2. una presentación

      A presentation about? Will you have a rubric that you will provide them ahead of time too?

    3. Paso 1

      I suggest you give a short descriptive title to each Paso to orient your students ahead of the actual instructions.

  3. pressbooks.uiowa.edu pressbooks.uiowa.edu

      I love this infographic! If you wanted, I think you could do even more with this than just having the students answer the question. ACTFL has some great strategies for creating interpretive communication activities in the HLTP book and their IPA manual.

    2. ?

      I would add follow up questions to the first two questions so that they will elicit more extended discourse.

    3. Identify

      Students at this level (2002, right?) should be doing more than identifying as identifying is normally associated with Novice-level performance objectives. The ACTFL Can-Do Statements should help you with these: https://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/ncssfl-actfl-can-do-statements Also, ACTFL's Keys for Planning and Learning book has an excellent section on writing objectives and descriptive verbs: https://www.actfl.org/publications/books-and-brochures/the-keys-planning-learning

    1. The author tell what Zhou Xuan's job is and what he did to interpret. It would be better to add the time period and relationship of Zhou Xuan.

    1. The structure of this generation is good. First paragraph introduced who GuoYu is and his greatest achievements. The second paragraph gives some examples to show his abilities and experience. The example about Yin and Yang was not specific.

    1. Characteristics of visual images such as the emotional dimension (valence/arousal), subject matter (familiarity, ambiguity, novelty, realism, and facial expressions), and form (sharp and curved contours)

      These characteristics were all used to observe the patient to determine how they process their emotions.

    2. In addition to valence and arousal, novelty is a critical stimulus dimension for amygdala engagement. Weierich, Wright, Negreira, Dickerson, and Barrett (2010) conducted an fMRI study that examined the contributions of novelty, valence, and arousal to amygdala activation. The study showed that in comparison to negative (vs. positive) and high (vs. low) arousal stimuli, the amygdala had higher peak responses and a longer period of activation to novel (vs. familiar) stimuli. They also found that novelty could be dissociated from valence and arousal and have independent affective significance. On a behavioral level, the authors found a strong relationship between novelty and arousal, demonstrating that subjects found novel images more arousing, which would, in turn, also have an impact on the amygdala. Because amygdala activation links to fear and anxiety, the novelty of stimuli should be considered carefully in settings where people might be vulnerable.

      Weireich, Wright, Negreira, Dickerson, and Barrett (2010) found that the amygdala had higher and longer responses when exposed to new stimuli rather than familiar stimuli.

    3. The expression of fear as emotion is manifested in physiological responses such as blood pressure, freezing, and hormonal change, and it is mediated by the outputs of the amygdala to lower-brain centers (insula, hypothalamus), whereas the experience of fear is a feeling, a conscious higher-level recognition of being scared, involving the frontal and sensory cortices (Nanda, Pati, & McCurry, 2009).

      How is fear different from being scared?

    4. Ulrich (2009) shares two theories supporting the impact of nonthreatening nature scenes on improved physiological and psychological outcomes. The first is the evolutionary theory or biophilia theory, which holds that millions of years of evolution have lefthumans genetically prone to respond positively to nature settings that fostered well-being and survival for early humans. As outlined in Appleton's (1975) evolutionary theory, specific attributes of landscapes that dictate aesthetic preference concern prospect (opportunity/ vantage point) and refuge (safety/shelter)-both essential for survival. The second theory Ulrich identifies is the emotional congruence theory, the notion that emotional states bias human perception of environmental stimuli in ways that are congruent or match feelings (Ulrich, 2009).

      Biophilia Theory: humans respond to nature in a more positive way because of millions of years of evolution. Emotional Congruence Theory: associating emotion with environment based on the emotional state of that being.

    5. Accordingly, key word searches using emotional state (fear/pain/anxiety), fMRI, and visual were conducted in PubMed (an online database for biomedical literature).

      I found another source that could be helpful. "Submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli evoke electrical brain responses" Wiley Online Library December 9th, 2014

    1. Additionally, nearly half of survey respondents (46%) communicate more frequently with friends and family via technology than in person,

      I feel though that the older generations are the only ones not reliant on technology to communicate with others, so overtime will the generations now and future ones to come just be completely controlled by their electronics?

    2. Field observations, a survey of 100 Elon students, and an analysis of previously conducted studies provided evidence that the rapid expansion of technology is negatively affecting face-to-face communication.

      As technology advances more the face to face communication level and skill consistently is decreasing.

    1. MERS-CoV was the pathogen responsible for severe respiratory disease outbreaks in 2012 in the Middle East

      From what I have read, the MERS-CoV is different from SARS-CoV and the new 2019 Virus. Here we see an example of this virus spreading. I am a little curious on how this virus spreads, and how similar it is to the 2019 strand. I am wondering if a virus such as this is to mutate, or if is able to spread in a fashion, that it could impact society as harshly as the 2019 strand?

    1. "Soon, nearly one in six shops in the city – ranging in size from small neighbourhood cafés to large community centres – served coffee. Gradually, kahve percolated through to the far reaches of the empire." Why this quote is important is because a few decades before this, coffee didn't even exist. Now, at this time, it appears any shop (1 in 6) you walk into, you can go drink coffee and chat with others. Who would those other people be? Some would be friends and family, but others would be important people discussing rumors of war and creating aliiances. This soon led to the independence of Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria. But as mentioned early in the article, coffee played a little role in the eventual downfall of the empire.

    2. The quote, "Coffee houses gave men somewhere to congregate," appears to me as why the empire collapsed. These men would go to the coffee houses and plan new tactics they can use in war and create alliances. It was later mentioned too how their "caffeine-fuelled efforts" made Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria all independent in the early to mid 1800's. I also found it interesting that each of those independent nations after the empire fell, added their own twist to coffee that other empires/countries did not do or think of at the time.

    1. You love working in teams and across disparate groups, and enjoy diving into design projects of every stripe. You’re the ultimate collaborator, but also a self-starter


    2. You’re great at turning human behavior and needs into real concepts


    1. Main Theme: The article explores various types of AI models who operate on Instagram and within the fashion industry. There is special emphasis placed on Lil Miquela. Ethical questions about AI modelling are asked through a series of examples of AI models.

      Evidence: Includes references to the Instagram resence of Lil Miquela, statements from industry experts with future predicitions about AI modelling and its role in society. Also features an interview with the creator of one of these models which caused controversy due to the model being a female POC character created by a white man.

      Analysis; The author is highlighting the dangers of using AI models to young people on instagram with the potential redefining of beauty standards that it could cause and the harmful impact that could create in the young people who try to emulate them. The author highlights the impact of AI modelling on the modelling industry which could cost models their work. The author does also look positively at the future with possible ideas about how this technology could improve our daily lives.

      Links: The common theme running through all examples and ethical issues raised is the use of AI models in the beauty industry. The author uses this thread to highlight different issues and future benefits.

      Critical Opinion: I believe that this article raises some interesting points. However, I believe that many key issues are ignored in order to create superficial overview rather than a larger analysis into the potential affects of the AI modelling industry. It would be more convincing if the article was more focused on one or two key issues.

    1. In the United States, open heart surgery can run as much as $150,000—more than most Indians make in a lifetime. Given the cost, almost no one in India who needed heart surgery actually got it. Shetty saw an opportunity to create a new market for cardiac care. Today NH performs open heart surgeries for $1,000 to $2,000, with mortality and infection rates comparable with those in the United States. By increasing the utilization of its most expensive resources—personnel (especially surgeons) and medical equipment—it drastically reduced the cost of operations. It uses tiered pricing, whereby wealthier patients can pay more to get certain services, such as a private room. But the quality of care is standard across all patients.

      Price-based discrimination can actually create social welfare

    2. This is what sets market-creating innovators apart: the ability to identify opportunities where there seem to be no customers and to create a business model that upends the way things have always been done

      does it always have to be technology-intensive? How can you create this in already well-developed market? what areas of our lifes still have implementation holes in them?

    3. So Leftley tried again, changing both the product and the way he reached potential customers—offering them free insurance through their mobile phones. People could sign up without paying any premiums; they simply had to buy a certain number of extra minutes. They could keep earning this insurance by renewing the purchase each month. When a customer buys the required minutes, the telecom company pays his or her premium to both MicroEnsure and the partner insurer. Over time customers are offered additional insurance products, such as “double cover” (for a spouse) and “family cover,” which cost extra—from three cents to $1 per month, with payment collected through their phones. Revenue from the supplemental plans is split among MicroEnsure, the partner insurer, and the phone company.

      Leverage the growing connectivity in Africa --> rapidly growing population asking for phone and internet

    4. Founded in 2002, MicroEnsure has registered more than 56 million people in emerging economies for insurance (adding 18 million in 2017 alone), paying out $30 million in claims and radically innovating the insurance business model. It has introduced new forms of protection for customers, including microhealth, political-violence, crop, and mobile insurance.

      Bringing already-developed solutions adapted to local context in development.

    1. Like the poetic notion of a sink on the floor, this drawing conveys with artistic precision the sense of smallness that children often experience in the world of adults.

      Children want to be independent, and they are capable when adults invite them into the adult-sized world. When we put children in an environment where things are sized to their ability, it's amazing what they will do for themselves!

    2. The literal meaning of "infant" is unable to speak, but children's "voices" can be heard from birth,

      I didn't know that fact, and I love the way the article describes how they do have a voice and it's up to adults to find a way to listen.

    3. "A right is like you know in your heart it's okay to do it ... you can do it if you want and that's it."

      And they ARE capable! What an incredible answer from a child to this question!

    4. "What is a right?

      I love the idea of asking children this question. Instead of asking how to be a friend, or what makes a good friend, I like how this recognizes the child as a whole citizen instead of simply thinking in 'child' terms.

    1.  So greatly did Plautianus have the mastery in every way over the emperor, that he often treated even Julia Augusta in an outrageous manner; for he cordially detested her and was always abusing her violently to Severus.

      That Severus would allow Plautianus to abuse his wife seems to suggest that he and Plautianus are a little more than just friends. And it seems that Julia's and Severus' relationship is not that great.

    1. Douglas: concurring

      I'm not sure he would be considered concurring. it's noted in the textbook he adopted mere designation and just said if the president has the power it has to stem from congress or the constitution.

    2. Jackson: dissenting

      Jackson was concurring

    3. president himself

      It was something the president thought he may be able to do within his executive power since there were other instances where a president has seized private property.

    4. n the president's favor is the fact that his order commands the steel industry to

      The textbook also notes that president was not following policy set by congress

    5. but Congress has clearly chosen to rid itself of that power and give it to the president.

      the congress does not rid itself of that power, they noted in the textbook that congress has not lost its executive constitutional authority.

    6. can be upheld as an exercise

      his actions can not be upheld because the can not with "faithfulness"to the constitution say the president has the power to overtake an industry even if it connects to the threat of war.

    7. Congress

      the question really is, "does the president have the power to take over an industry from going on strike if there is a threat of war?"

    8. 6-3 the Court ruled against Youngstown Sheet & Tube.

      it was a 6-3 vote but it was in favor of the steel industry not in favor of the president's actions

    9. Vietnam War

      It was the Korean War, not the Vietnam war.

    10. sugar manufacturing industry,

      it was not the sugaring manufacturing but the steel industry.

    1. People can make bad economic choices based on something Thaler dubbed the “endowment effect,” which is the theory that people value things more highly when they own them. In other words, you’d ask for more money for selling something that you own than what you would be willing to pay to buy the same thing.

      How do the backgrounds of politicians shape the public policies they push for?

      For example, how does personal wealth affect the way they value redistribution issues/ equality? --> excuses of lack of commitment/effort from poor people could be asking for more than you would be willing to pay

    1. Legislation to stem the tide of Big Tech companies' abuses, and laws—such as a national consumer privacy bill, an interoperability bill, or a bill making firms liable for data-breaches—would go a long way toward improving the lives of the Internet users held hostage inside the companies' walled gardens. But far more important than fixing Big Tech is fixing the Internet: restoring the kind of dynamism that made tech firms responsive to their users for fear of losing them, restoring the dynamic that let tinkerers, co-ops, and nonprofits give every person the power of technological self-determination.
    2. Today's Web giants want us to believe that they and they alone are suited to take us to wherever we end up next. Having used Adversarial Interoperability as a ladder to attain their rarefied heights, they now use laws to kick the ladder away and prevent the next Microcomputer Center or Tim Berners-Lee from doing to them what the Web did to Gopher, and what Gopher did to mainframes.
    3. The Gopher story is a perfect case history for Adversarial Interoperability. The pre-Gopher information landscape was dominated by companies, departments, and individuals who were disinterested in giving users control over their own computing experience and who viewed computing as something that took place in a shared lab space, not in your home or dorm room. Rather than pursuing an argument with these self-appointed Lords of Computing, the Gopher team simply went around them, interconnecting to their services without asking for permission. They didn't take data they weren't supposed to have—but they did make it much easier for the services' nominal users to actually access them.
    1. Aristotle’s view of the process: “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.”

      This is a really handy quote. totally borrowing it.

    2. Buying carbon offsets might still have greater impact in the short run, but you can’t see them, so their purchase is less likely to be contagious.

      I've never thought of them in terms of 'contagion' like this. interesting

    1. Whitakers XWhitakersWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In Two Stories. Richmond: Hogarth Press, 1917.Whitaker'sWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. The Mark on the Wall. 2nd ed. Richmond: Hogarth Press, 1919.Whitaker'sWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In Monday or Tuesday. Richmond: Hogarth Press, 1921.Whitaker'sWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In Monday or Tuesday. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1921.Whitaker'sWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In A Haunted House and Other Short Stories. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1944.Whitaker'sWITNESS: Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In A Haunted House and Other Short Stories. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Press, 2012. Print. Reprint of Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” In A Haunted House and Other Short Stories. London: Hogarth Press, 1944. Almanack

      Whitaker's is a reference book, published annually in the United Kingdom. The book was originally published by J Whitaker & Sons from 1868 to 1997, then by The Stationery Office until 2003, and then by A & C Black which became a wholly owned subsidiary of Bloomsbury Publishing in 2011. The 152nd edition of Whitaker's was published on 14 November 2019.


    2. I looked up through the smoke of my cigarette and my eye lodged for a moment upon the burning coals, and that old fancy of the crimson flag flapping from the castle tower came into my mind, and I thought of the cavalcade of red knights riding up the side of the black rock

      If what the materialist did was to portray stream of the outside environment to its extreme, then could we say that stream of consciousness is the detailed portray of inner thoughts that are building off of the subjects that already exist in the environment? We could say that for the stream of consciousness, the subjects being portrayed are more mundane, but I also do not believe that in the materialists' writings everything is being commodified, the extravagance that they have portrayed could be another type of "mundane" for some people.

    1. you want

      why use "you"? it seems a bit informal for an essay, no?

    2. Citation   https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html Website TitleLetter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.]     https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/16/05/lift Website TitleHarvard Graduate School of Education 

      Works Cited: not in MLA format I would be glad to help.

    3. s my transition between switching from one key term in each paragraph smooth?

      I will pay attention to your transitions and overall clarity

    4. bit more confidence

      a bit more confident

    5. how they’re writing can affect people internally is a different type of thinking. 

      interesting: can you elaborate?