1. Last 7 days
    1. ■こんな車が

      典型的なアメリカ車が4台停車している。ここは駅前だという。車の名前を誰か当ててくれないか。水色の車はオールズモビルだろうか……? 1960年代だろう。

    2. 風に吹かれて転がっていく草玉

      西部劇でよく見る「転がり草」については、ネットでこんな記述もある。 分類上はオカヒジキ属の一種(学名Salsola tragus )で、ハリヒジキとも呼ばれる。もともとはユーラシア大陸の植物で、ウラル山脈の東に広がる草原地帯に生えていた。

      http://natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp/nng/article/20131122/374591/

    3. 想像を超した乾燥をしてますから、夜寝てる時に喉がヒビ割れて血が出てくる

      乾燥の話で、後日、片岡義男さんからお聞きしたところ、頭髪が倍ぐらいに膨れ上がったと。よく見ると、毛髪の一本一本がみんな二本に割れているというのです。想像を超える乾燥レベルのようです。

    4. 延々、走れども走れどもこの風景

      グーグル・ストリートビューを利用してこんな加工をしてみました。一体どんな景色を延々と走ったのか……疑似体験ではありますが、参考になるでしょうか? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DydaKnCDWP4

    5. 枯れると西部劇でよく見かける、風に吹かれて転がっていく草玉になる

      イリノイ州出身の作家、ナチュラリストのメアリー・オースティン(1868〜1934)の『雨の降らない土地(The Land of Little Rain)』という作品の中にも登場します。 http://happano.sub.jp/happano/landoflittlerain/contents.html

      「九月、夜になると、ムネアカヒワの若鳥がラビット・ブラッシュから巣立っていく。近隣の果樹園で見つけられる巣の数からは、その多さは説明がつかない。」

      ウサギだけでなく(rabbitbrush)鳥の住処にもなるようです。

    6. ■セージの花

      セージの花は何種類もある。北米だけでも各種分布している。ここに写っているセージがどの種類かについて、スタッフ間で論議になった。

    7. イーリー

      ネバダ州イーリー(ELY)

    8. ■ラスベガスを抜けて

      2017年10月10日から佐藤秀明さんの“旅”『ロンサム・カウボーイふたたび』は始まった。成田からサンフランシスコ経由でラスベガスに入った。やっと街中から抜け出した最初の写真とのこと。どこまでも続く道はやはり最初の一枚としてとして欠かすことができないものだった。

    1. You have been warned

      I'd consider adding a link to a resource for people who want to run linux from windows. Non-programmers may not know the best way to do it. (I don't use a Windows machine for programming, or I'd suggest a good resource.)

    2. we recommend simply using the same LTS because it is simpler and is guaranteed to work

      What are the instructions on ensuring this?

    3. --resolver=lts-9.14

      Why use a specific resolver, and not the default?

    1. who are not familiar with scientific psychology are sometimes surprised to learn that psychological theories can take the form of mathematical equations and computer programs.

      useful

    2. scientific theories are meant to provide accurate explanations or interpretations of phenomena. But there must be more to it than this explanation. Consider that a theory can be accurate without being very useful.

      helpful

    3. Because the sociocognitive theory and the posttraumatic theories attribute dissociative identity disorder to fundamentally different processes, it seems unlikely that both can be accurate.

      unclear

    4. g

      Not sure what the "g" stands for in this section.

    5. heories and hypotheses always have this if-then relationship

      helpful for forming a hypothesis for an experiment/paper

    6. Replication means conducting a study again—either exactly as it was originally conducted or with modifications—to be sure that it produces the same results. Individual researchers usually replicate their own studies before publishing them. Many empirical research reports include an initial study and then one or more follow-up studies that replicate the initial study with minor modifications. Particularly interesting results come to the attention of other researchers who conduct their own replication

      Useful, helpful, and necessary

    1. learning curve

      An interesting English Expression

    2. unexceptional intellectual capacities

      A very important point: this story is not a tale of specially gifted people. In French: "Il n'y a pas de disposition, il n'y a que des dispositifs". There is no such a thing that talented people, there are only talented didactic designs.

    1. ecall that internal validity is the extent to which the design of a study supports the conclusion that changes in the independent variable caused any observed differences in the dependent variable.

      Helpful

    2. What Is Non-experimental Research

      interesting

    3. What it cannot do, however, is answer questions about statistical relationships between variables. This detail is a point that beginning researchers sometimes miss. Imagine, for example, a group of research methods students interested in the relationship between children’s being the victim of bullying and the children’s self-esteem.

      unhelpful

    4. on-experimental research is appropriate—even necessary—when these conditions are not met. There are many ways in which preferring non-experimental research can be the case.

      confusing

    1. the office is a horror

      Kafka used to work at Assicurazioni Generali, an insurance company, for a year until he resigned because of the extreme and long work time schedule that required him to work from 08:00 am till 08:00 pm and even overtime. Two weeks after he tried to find another job, he landed a position at the Workers' Accident Insurance Institute in Prague. At this company, Kafka would work from 8:00 or 9:00 in the morning until 2:00 or 3:00 in the afternoon. He would use the rest of the day to write.

      Reference: Currey, M., & Currey, M. (2013). Daily rituals: How artists work.

      Kafka, F., & Bauer, F. (1973). Letters to Felice. New York: Schocken Books.

    2. Fraulein Felice

      Kafka was never married but his personal life was not empty of his relationships with women. One of those most-known women was Felice Bauer. This relationship with her was, can be described as "epistolary relationship".

      In the evening of August 13 1912, at one of Kafka's closest friends' apartment, Max Brod, he met Bauer for the first time. Kafka's most detailed description of his first encounter with her was written in a letter to Bauer dated from October 27th 1912. He wrote, "During the piano playing I sat diagonally behind you; you had your legs crossed and kept plucking at your coiffure which I can no longer visualize from the front; all I know is that while the piano was being played, your hair struck out a little at the sides."

      They corresponded only for five years. Despite he met her only a few times, he engaged twice with her. Sadly, the marriage never took place. In 1919, Bauer married a man named Moritz Marasse.

      Reference: Kafka, F., & Bauer, F. (1973). Letters to Felice. New York: Schocken Books.

    3. My life consists, and basically always has consisted, of attempts at writing, mostly unsuccessful.

      Despite he had published some of the most influential novels and short stories in the 20th century, Kafka even felt a profound sense of self-doubt to his writing skill.

    1. process of random assignment is a tried and true method for equating confounds between conditions.

      confusing

    1. 14.1

      Figure not showing

    2. Imagine if chemistry could tell us only that there is some relationship between the temperature of a gas and its volume—as opposed to providing a precise equation to describe that relationship.

      Good example, showing the importance of quantitative data over qualitative findings

    3. announced6

      typo

    4. This part is confusing to me.

    1. These questions assume and point to the silences found in both traditional theological discourses as well as in Black Theology and Feminist Theology about important elements in Black women’s lives and their religious experiences. As the opening quotation from [Toni] Morrison demonstrates, such silences and absences are not confined to the theological worlds of academic discourses.

      I believe that many people stay silent when it comes to race and feminism, because they are scared that they will be judged or even harmed for their believes. It is hard to except the fact that, this world has had such a split view on these topics. But in all fairness it is something that is going to take a very long time to ever go away, mainly because believes are passed on through families. Schools are also not really allowed to force this chance, so there is always this disagreement. Because of these disagreements, people stay silent and just go along with what society states.

    2. The endgame is to win and win it all—status, influence, place, creation.

      The only way to win is the same way we have to began, with ourselves. In order to reach the end goal of having the biggest impact, or being the most know, you must first begin by bettering yourselves. If you can't better yourself, you can't reach the end goal.

    3. it is to be confronted with an endless cataloguing of losses, gains, skirmishes; it is to feel virtuous, outraged, helpless, as though [our] continuing status among us were somehow analogous to disease—cancer, perhaps, or tuberculosis—which must be checked, even though it cannot be cured.”3

      The blacks must face multiple obstacles for things that they didn't bring upon themselves. Instead of receiving the sympathy of those around them, they receive a constant rate of losses. It's as if they were to get diagnosed with a disease, without being told the cure.

    1. Angular joint kinematics were similar between the obeseand normal-weight groups (Table 4, Fig. 2). Midstance hip-,knee-, and ankle-joint angles were not different (P=0.41,0.61, and 0.86, respectively) between the groups across allwalking speeds.

      It is interesting that the article keeps mentioning the p-value for the result, but it doesn't indicate the t value.

    2. At each walking speed, peak vertical GRF wereapproximately 60% greater for the obese versus normal-weight subjects (PG0.001). Scaled to body weight, peakvertical GRF were significantly smaller for the obesesubjects versus normal-weight subjects at 1.00 mIs

      The results make the statement that there was a significant difference that exists between the obese and healthy weight adult and it stated explicitly in what direction and by how much.

    3. Thus, the level of significance forthe Student`st-tests was set at 0.0083

      I was confused by the term students t-test, I've never heard the referred to that term.

    4. A two-factor (obesity and speed)ANOVA with repeated measures determined how obesityand walking speed affected peak GRF, temporal gaitcharacteristics, midstance lower-extremity joint angles, peaknet muscle moments, and peak external knee adductionmoment.

      It is interesting the study used a two-factor (obesity and speed) ANOVA with repeated measures, which allows the administrator to measure how obesity and speed affect multiple things.

    5. During each trial, subjectswalked with the right leg on the right treadmill and the leftleg on the left treadmill for 2 min, followed by 2 min ofwalking with both feet on the right treadmill.

      I thought it was fascinating that the experiment instructed the participants to walk with the right leg on the right treadmill and the left leg on the left treadmill, and then they walked with both feet on the right treadmill.

    6. First, we familiarized the subjects to the treadmill byhaving them walk for at least 10 min at a comfortablewalking speed. The familiarization was followed by theexperimental trials

      It was good that the administers had a familiarization phase of the trail first before experimenting, I believe it may lessen the amount of variability in the analysis.

    7. ubjects gavewritten informed consent that followed the guidelines of theUniversity of Colorado Human Research Committee.

      Other than the written consent how did they know the participants regularly maintained their body mass for three months.

    8. Two groups of young adults volunteered forthis study: obese (N= 10; five females and five males) andnormal-weight (N= 10; five females and five males).

      I liked that the study had an equal amount of participants that were tested obese adults versus healthy weight participants. It also studied men and women.

    9. However, no study has comprehensively examinedthe relationship between walking speed and lower-extremityjoint loads in obese versus normal-weight adults.

      I think it would have been helpful to have studies to honestly measure the connection between walking speed and lower-extremity joint loads in obese versus normal-weight adults.

    10. Walking at slower speeds may be an effective way toreduce knee-joint loads in obese adults. Previous studieshave shown that in normal-weight subjects, GRF and lower-extremity net muscle moments are smaller at slowerwalking speeds (21,40).

      I guess I understand the point they are trying to make that the obese adults walk slower to reduce the extra force required to carry around their weight.

    11. found that the absolute peakknee moments when walking at 1.5 mIsj

      I think this sentence is confusing when it mentions the knee moments.

    12. class II and III obese adults

      Maybe it would be helpful if it mentioned what the differences that exist among the classes of obesity.

    13. study provided no information about the GRF of non-arthritic obese adults walking at a normal walking speed.

      I think the study should have included information about the GRF of non-arthritic obese adults walking at a normal walking speed.

    14. Absolute peak anteroposterior and mediolateralGRF also increased proportionally with body weight.

      This sentence is interesting because it mentions the anatomical positions of the body, anteroposterior and mediolateral, but maybe it would be helpful to tell with positions they are talking about because everyone might not know.

    15. Messier et al. (25) provide the only published reports ofground-reaction forces (GRF) for obese adults walking.Absolute peak vertical GRF increased in almost directproportion with body weight.

      When I was beginning bio mechanics, I thought I was never going to have to see some the terms again and if they were so important why I am I just seeing them now. Well, I was wrong the ground reaction force (GRF) explains with every force applied to the ground there is an equal opposite force push back. It could be used to describe how much force is needed to walk.

    16. Spyropoulos et al. (35) compared stride and jointangle differences between obese and normal-weight men.They reported that the obese males walked slower (1.09mIsj1) with wider steps and similar knee flexion atmidstance compared with their faster-walking (1.64 mIsj1)normal-weight counterparts,

      This semester in bio mechanics we were taught how to calculate joint angles also known as relative angles, and I learned the importance of the joint angles and how they were used to tell a story about your body. For instance, these angles were used to illustrate the differences that exist among the obese and healthy weight men.

    17. ntuitively, it would seem likely that obesitygreatly increases the biomechanical loads involved inwalking and that these loads increase with walking speed.If so, the common prescription of brisk walking as exercisefor treating obesity (28) may inadvertently increase the riskof musculoskeletal pathology

      I think this was a fascinating point to make because every older adult that I ask if they are involved in physical activity, their first response was they are walking. They are involved in something that prescribed to help with one epidemic that could cause problems somewhere else.

    1. Gender socialization can direct some men to withhold or restrict emotional expression, leaving men with limited ways to express their feelings of emotional pain and psychological distress.

      ... Or not. It's just as likely, if not more likely, to be biological. Unless there has also been a sex-specific bias in autism diagnosis, it could just as easily be argued that men's autistic personalities cause this effect

    1. Athletic environments, American football in particular, have long been viewed as a potentially rich test-bed for understanding concussions. Over the last decade, two methods have been employed to obtain head acceleration measures occurring from actual impact events. Laboratory reconstructions utilize precision measurement equipment to recreate on-field impacts but are limited by cost, technical expertise, and the necessary assumptions of the human surrogate models. The HIT System is an on-field measurement system that allows for large-scale data collection by actively measuring head acceleration of athletes during play. Given that the current knowledge base has been developed using both techniques, the current study was required to establish the relationship between these two measurement methodologies. From these laboratory tests, a relationship has been established between the two systems, particularly when considering peak metrics such as linear and rotational acceleration for distributions of impacts; however, it is important for users of HIT System technology to understand the practical limitation of ensuring proper fit of a player’s helmet. This limitation could result in error for single impacts that is similar to those previously reported for laboratory reconstructions. Results from this study indicate that measurements from the two methods of study are correlated and provide a link that can be used to better interpret findings from future study using either technology.

      This paragraph summarizes the main findings of the article and shows just how much more research needs to and can still be done on this injury. Technology is consistently improving, therefore it can be hopeful for further discoveries on the matter in the future. Scientists should even consider examining impact even more closely to find more detail

    2. In general, though, the relationship found through regression suggests distributions of measurements obtained on-the field with the HIT System will be nearly identical to those obtained in the laboratory as long as the laboratory tests reflect field conditions. This relationship appears to be strong even for distributions of relatively few data points, as shown by the 54 impacts evaluated in this study.

      It would be interesting now to do an analysis of which system or distribution of measurement is really most effective not just in this type of testing, but athletic testing in general.

    3. This relationship, though, should only be assumed for conditions included in the test distribution. For example, considering the A, B, C, and D impact sites and associated test velocities were previously found to be representative of concussion in the NFL, it would be expected from these test results that HIII measures obtained by Pellman et al. would closely match those recorded by the HIT System for concussive injuries when compared as a group. This close relationship has been confirmed in several studies

      It is important to note the relationship between results, and the environment or condition that was chosen to be the focal point of research. Since this particular study examined head injuries in the NFL specifically, it somewhat limits its validity variablitity. More studies on collegiate, and interscholastic football players should be implemented to make work more credible.

    4. We chose to use regression analysis as the primary means for correlating output between the HIT System and HIII. One of the primary benefits of the HIT System is its ability to record large amounts of in vivo impact data that are inclusive of all on-field scenarios that can be experienced by different playing positions and skill levels.5,11,12,27,42,44 It can reasonably be assumed that each of the 286,636 impacts reported in the previously described study by Crisco et al. represents a specific combination of input conditions that could influence the player’s head kinematics. Because of this variability in conditions, researchers have primarily chosen to present data from the HIT System in the form of impact distributions inclusive of a variety of impact conditions (e.g., impact location, impact severity, playing position, etc.).

      Testing and results are decided carefully for this specific study due to the amount of variability that can be involved with such kinematic variables. Because there are so many subjects that have been tested, and so many contact points and conditions, regression and the HIT system analysis is deemed the most effective for this work.

    5. Mihalik et al. have reported statistically lower average peak linear acceleration for impacts to the frontal region of the head than to the top.

      Studies have shown that the location of impact that may lead to serious injury is found to be higher than most scientists anticipate. This can be deemed truthful because of how players tackle and block. Recently you have seen more "spearing" type impacts where a player puts his head down lower than recommended to create a bigger impact on the field.

    6. The results from this study predict that impacts to the A′ and A′′ tests measured by the instrumented helmet will result in much higher accelerations (e.g., 2–5 times the actual value) for a given impact velocity when compared to other impact locations. It is important to note, however, that, independent of the large differences in acceleration magnitudes recorded between the systems at A′ and A′′, the impact location was closely identified. While impacts will inevitably occur on the field at these sites, we do not believe that the A′ and A′′ sites and, in some instances, the A site, as currently tested using the linear impactor represent realistic cases of helmet impact and helmet motion that occurs on the football field

      impacts from helmets prior to testing were anticipated to have much higher accelerations. The results from lab work did not yield these predictions. This disparity occured because of manual error in the set up of testing. On field location of impact did not match the lab location of impact.

    7. The unknown parameters of head mass, head moment of inertia, and the point of rotation about the neck are determined by the relationship of peak linear and rotational acceleration of on-field impacts obtained from a similar device paired with a full six degree of freedom processing algorithm.

      Angular kinematics was also beneficial in route to concluding this study. Mass, moment of inertia are both relate-able to the neck as the neck can rotate and not just move in a line. A big thing that happens in football that people do not know are neck injuries. This would be a good extensional study from this one.

    8. Researchers have long sought to determine the relationship between head kinematics following impact and the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. One approach to understanding this relationship for mTBI has been to treat the football playing field, where athletes may sustain more than 2000 impacts to the head during a season,11, 12, 13 as a living laboratory. Specifically, researchers have monitored the impacts sustained by football players and have attempted to correlate their impact exposure with signs and symptoms of injury. Over the last decade, two primary approaches have been implemented for quantifying head kinematics following impacts experienced during play: laboratory reconstruction of impacts recorded on video and on-field measurement using instrumented helmets. The aim of this study was to correlate HIT System output with Hybrid III ATD output in a laboratory test using a linear impactor system under realistic input conditions.

      Research about brain injuries and football has been seen in a multitude of ways but has not come to an easy conclusion. The only two methods for determining the effect these collisions have in respect to kinematics is on field digitizing and laboratory time. It would be important to think about what other ways can be used to go about solving the issue of why these injuries happen and how improvements can be made.

    9. Coefficients of determination were indeterminate due to poor correlation

      Coefficients of determination place a role in the examination of regression and how fit a regression line is. The more fit that data can be to a set regression line, the more correlated it was to anticipated results. With the use of multiple tables and graphs on the testing of concussions, you can see the correlation was poor meaning that the results from the ATD and other mechanical tests did not go as predicted.

    10. Linear acceleration time series data from both the HIT System and HIII were processed in real time to obtain the resultant linear acceleration for each impact. Because a simultaneous trigger was not feasible, the linear acceleration resultants were synchronized post-processing by minimizing the RMS error between resultants.1,41 HIII data were then truncated to a 40-ms time window to allow direct time series comparison with the instrumented helmet. Resultant linear acceleration data from both systems were utilized to calculate two impact metrics used for relating time-weighted head acceleration to risk of injury, GSI and HIC15. GSI was calculated for each impact event19:GSI=∫Ta(t)2.5dtGSI=∫Ta(t)2.5dt {\text{GSI}} = \int\limits_{{}}^{T} {a\left( t \right)^{2.5} dt} (1)where a(t) is the linear resultant acceleration of the head CG, and T is the impact duration. HIC15 was evaluated over an incremental time window38,45 of maximum duration t2 − t1 = 15 ms:HIC15=⎧⎩⎨⎪⎪⎪⎪(t2−t1)⎡⎣⎢∫t1t2a(t)dt/(t2−t1)⎤⎦⎥2.5⎫⎭⎬⎪⎪⎪⎪maxHIC15={(t2−t1)[∫t1t2a(t)dt/(t2−t1)]2.5}max {\text{HIC}}_{15} = \left\{ {\left( {t_{2} - t_{1} } \right)\left[ {\int\limits_{{t_{1} }}^{{t_{2} }} {a\left( t \right)dt/\left( {t_{2} - t_{1} } \right)} } \right]^{2.5} } \right\}_{\max } (2)where t1 and t2 are the initial and final points of the time window and a(t) is the linear resultant acceleration of the CG.To establish a correlation between severity measures from the HIT System and HIII, linear regression analysis (Microsoft Excel 2010) was performed on all acceleration and severity measures—peak linear acceleration, peak rotational acceleration, GSI, and HIC15.1 All regressions were performed both on the entire dataset and by impact site using Eq. (3):y=mx+y0y=mx+y0 y = mx + y_{0} (3)where x is the HIII measure, y is the HIT System measure, and the linear slope, m, is the relationship between the measurements. For all conditions, y0 was constrained to be zero since both systems have a baseline output of zero when not impacted. The coefficient of determination (r2) was also calculated for each regression as a measure of goodness of fit. Finally, the average absolute location difference between the estimated instrumented helmet location and the direction vector (in spherical coordinates) of the peak HIII linear acceleration was calculated for each impact. The overall average difference between the two measures along with the difference by impact site was calculated.

      For data analysis, linear acceleration was the focused measure. Resultant acceleration to be exact was looked upon as a way to relate impact with severity. The faster the acceleration of the head or a moving object towards the head, the harder the impact. Acceleration equations include time, velocity, and other variables.

    11. Primary Impact SitesFour primary impact sites, designated as A, B, C, and D (Fig. 2), were identified by Pellman et al.37 as points of contact that most frequently result in concussion for NFL athletes. In that study, the average impact velocity for impacts associated with and without concussion was determined to be 9.3 ± 1.9 m/s and 7.0 ± 2.6 m/s, respectively. For this study, each site was impacted at four target speeds: 4.4, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/s. The highest three velocities correspond to the average speed, ±1 standard deviation, of video-reconstructed impacts sustained before diagnosis of concussion in NFL players.38 4.4 m/s represents the average velocity, −1 standard deviation, of all sub-concussive impacts evaluated by the NFL. This lower impact velocity was selected to insure inclusion of conditions that may not result in injury, but occur most often in the field.20,24,30 Between three and five trials were conducted for each site and speed combination (Table 1).Open image in new windowFigure 2Four primary impact sites were (A, B, C, and D) were identified as points of contact that most frequently result in mTBI for NFL athletes. Each site was impacted at four target speeds: 4.4, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/sTable 1Kinematic parameters were recorded from instrumented helmets and a Hybrid III ATD following 54 linear impactor tests to correlate output measures from on-field and laboratory measurement systemsTarget velocity (m/s)Number of trials per primary impact siteABCD4.433347.433349.3333511.23335Total trials12121218Test conditions are representative of sites and velocities previously identified as being most associated with concussion in the NFL. The number of trials conducted by impact site and target impactor velocity is providedSecondary Impact SitesAfter initial testing and analyses were conducted, two additional impact sites, A′ and A′′ (Fig. 2), were added to the test protocol at the request of the then co-chairman of the NFL mTBI Committee to characterize HIT System measurement capability during conditions where extensive helmet movement was anticipated to occur. Sites A′ and A′′ were identified by Craig (2007) who, when reevaluating video from the initial NFL studies, suggested a sub-category of site A impacts existed that resulted in chinstrap loading.9 The two additional sites were variations of the original site A, located directly in line with the mid-sagittal plane of the headform, and tilted away from the impactor at −10° and −20° angles, respectively. Based on the recommendations made by Craig,9 and previous experience which predicted that facemask deformation and HIII neck damage were likely to occur, the 11.2 m/s speed was not used for A′ and A′′ tests. Three trials were conducted at each test condition except for A′′ at 4.4 m/s which had four trials.

      This section speaks on the location or point at which most concussions occur in the cranium. The tests were run in relation to a helmet and initially discovered 4 places of common contact while 2 more spots were discovered during the trials.

    12. The sliding table allows for both more realistic kinematics and improved equipment durability while not affecting the head response, since the head acceleration impulse occurs before significant neck bending.39Open image in new windowFigure 1A pneumatic linear impactor (Biokinetics, Inc) was employed to replicate on-field reconstruction of head impacts. The ram mass, impactor surface, and target velocities were selected to best simulate on-field head impacts occurring in the National Football LeagueImpacts were delivered to the HIII using a pneumatically activated linear impactor

      Impulse will be a very critical factor to measure through the use of such special equipment because it involves the tracking of velocity, and mass of an object. It can also include overall surface area that will be impacted over a certain amount of time.

    13. Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System technology (Simbex, Lebanon, NH; Sideline Response System, Riddell, Chicago, IL) records the frequency, location, and magnitude of impacts sustained by football players during live play,4,11,16,20,27,44 and was specifically developed to enable research to better understand the relationship between measured parameters of head kinematics and concussion. This technology incorporates an array of non-orthogonal accelerometers (Analog Devices, Inc., Cambridge, MA), data acquisition, and RF telemetry hardware into self-contained inserts placed in commercially available helmets. While physically connected to the helmet, the instrumented insert acts as an effective spring to maintain contact with the head during impact and to decouple head acceleration from helmet acceleration.26 Because traditional mathematical approaches to calculate linear and rotational acceleration at the head center of gravity, such as those employed by the HIII, require precise mounting of accelerometers that is not practical for field implementation, the HIT System uses proprietary, simulated-annealing optimization algorithms to estimate linear and rotational acceleration

      Head Impact Telemetry technology has revolutionized the game of football. there are mechanical inserts that are physically connected to helmets to ensure that all the kinematic data that is needed for research is directly gotten by live in game hits. This is the beauty of technological advances and progress making research easier in the long run.

    14. In an additional study to quantify the effect of head, neck, and torso coupling, Beusenberg et al. found that if a player’s neck coupling with the head (e.g., stiffness, strength, etc.) deviates from that of the HIII head and neck, peak linear acceleration can be altered by more than 15% and peak rotational acceleration will be drastically different.3 Due to the complexity of these reconstructions and the beneficial insight they provide, these errors were deemed to be within an acceptable level, and output measures from the reconstructions were considered reasonable for use in estimating the actual head kinematics for this group of impacts.31

      Additional research shows that specific deviations away from the standard ATD machines in a group of tested athletes is something to be interested in. We see that peak linear and rotational acceleration are important when it comes to impacts. These sentences foreshadow what measures are going to be focused on throughout the paper.

    15. To assess the accuracy of acceleration measures derived from the NFL studies, Newman et al. quantified the error associated with reconstruction variables, including effects of noise in the data acquisition system, processing inaccuracy, and determining the impact velocity from multiple camera angles.

      When assessing such measures like linear acceleration, which is a form of linear kinematics, the author of this article discusses quantifying effects of noise in a data system. This relates to the data filtering and work that us undergraduates students did during biomechanic laboratory assignments.

    16. By matching the obtained impact velocity and observed direction, these 31 cases were re-enacted in a laboratory using Hybrid III (HIII) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). Head linear and rotational accelerations were measured from accelerometers in the ATD’s head, permitting calculation of injury metrics such as Gadd Severity Index (GSI) and Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

      anthropomorphic test devices or ATD is a fancy term for crash dummies. With the use of these devices over a large number of reenactments will allow in depth research on the bio-mechanical aspect of a head collision.

    17. To better understand the etiology of concussion and the relationship between head impacts and injury, however, a large number of measured impacts from multiple athletes, both concussed and non-concussed, are required.

      This is considered to be a good introduction into the methods section of a scientific paper. it sets up nicely the variables and the different groups that variables will rely on.

    18. Recent studies suggest a link exists between concussion history and developing mild cognitive impairment, clinical depression, and early onset of Alzheimer’s disease,21,22 creating a public and scientific debate about effective prevention strategies for concussions.

      It is truly important to understand the causes and effects of such an injury. These concussions can be traumatic and everlasting into adulthood that could further intervene into daily living.

    19. Over the last decade, advances in technology have enabled researchers to evaluate concussion biomechanics through measurement of head impacts sustained during play using two primary methods: (1) laboratory reconstruction of open-field head contact, and (2) instrumented helmets. The purpose of this study was to correlate measures of head kinematics recorded by the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System (Simbex, NH) with those obtained from a Hybrid III (HIII) anthropometric headform under conditions that mimicked impacts occurring in the NFL. Linear regression analysis was performed to correlate peak linear acceleration, peak rotational acceleration, Gadd Severity Index (GSI), and Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) obtained from the instrumented helmet and HIII. The average absolute location error between instrumented helmet impact location and the direction of HIII head linear acceleration were also calculated.

      Due to increasingly prevalent concussion incidents in the game of football, scientists and specialists are finding ways to increase head gear technology. Through the use of bio mechanical measures like linear acceleration, research will be able to correlate impact to kinematics.

    1. someone who is not a feminist.

      Understatement!

    2. Meninists?)

      Sigh. Ugh.

    3. were on this hashtag.

      I literally cannot bring myself to look. Thank you for taking one for the team in the name of research.

    4. “it pisses me tf off that everyone treats men like shit ngl like take your feminazi ass 5 steps back n look at the bigger picture bitch.”

      !!!!

    5. Minority women made their own organizations to represent racial and gender oppression.

      So much of this resonates today after black women did so much to elect Doug Jones in Alabama, partially (maybe) as a response to the sexual assault and harassment charges against Moore... Was that a feminist vote? And yet white women overwhelmingly went for Moore. Complicated rewriting of feminist history going on...

    6. meninist

      whoa

    7. I tell them: Women’s Studies

      I was a double major (Women's Studies and English) in college, and I distinctly remember, despite being VERY political and engaged, being very nervous to tell the average person (especially man) that I might meet that I was a WS major. It took bravery then and I think it takes bravery now to do that, and that sure tells you something.

    1. e passed a barrier of dark trees, and then the fa<rade of Fifty-ninth Street, a block of delicate pale light, beamed down into the park. Unlike Gatsby and Tom Buchanan, I had no girl whose disembodied face floated along the dark cornices and blinding signs, and so I drew up the girl beside me, tight-ening my arms. Her wan, scornful mouth smiled, and so I drew her up again closer, this time to my face.

      Describe, as precisely as you can, the mood of this passage. Use multiple adjectives to catch as many facets of the mood as possible. Then discuss how the mood is created.

    2. It was dark now, and as we dipped under a little bridge I put my arm around Jordan's golden shoulder and drew her toward me and asked her to dinner. Suddenly I wasn't think-ing of Daisy and Gatsby any more, but of this clean, hard, lim-ited person, who dealt in universal scepticism, and who leaned back jauntily just within the circle of my arm. A phrase began to beat in my ears with a sort of heady excitement: "There are only the pursued, the pursuing, the busy, and the tired.

      Examine the timing of Nick's sudden interest in Jordan. What is the significance?

    3. He came alive to me, delivered suddenly from the womb of his purposeless splendor.

      Close read this line--discuss purpose, significance and effect.

    4. A week after I left Santa Barbara Tom ran into a wagon on the Ven-tura road one night, and ripped a front wheel offhis car. The girl who was with him got into the papers, too, because her arm was broken-she was one of the chambermaids in the Santa Barbara Hotel.

      This is at least the third mention of car accidents and it is clearly a motif. How have car accidents been used thus far?

    5. tragic nose

      Nick mentions Wolfsheim's nose multiple times and here, calls it "tragic." Why does he call it "tragic" now and what does he mean? How does this characterize him?

    6. "The old Metropole," brooded Mr. Wolfsheim gloomily. "Filled with faces dead and gone. Filled with friends gone now forever. I can't forget so long as I live the night they shot Rosy Rosenthal there. It was six of us at the table, and Rosy had eat and drunk a lot all evening. When it was almost morning the waiter came up to him with a funny look and says somebody wants to speak to him outside. 'All right,' says Rosy, and begins to get up, and I pulled him down in his chair.

      What is the purpose, significance and effect of this memory of Wolfsheim's? Read the original story (https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/100-years-after-a-murder-questions-about-a-police-officers-guilt/). What does knowing the whole story add to your understanding of Wolfsheim's function in the novel?

    7. the tragic eyes and short upper lips of southeastern Europe, and I was glad that the sight of Gatsby's splendid car was included in their somber holiday. As we crossed Blackwell's Island a limousine passed us, driven by a white chauffeur, in which sat three modish negroes, two bucks and a girl. I laughed aloud as the yolks of their eyeballs rolled toward us in haughty rivalry.

      What is the purpose, significance and effect of this set of descriptions? Why does Fitzgerald include it?

    8. It was a photograph of half a dozen young men in blazers loafing in an archway through which were visible a host of spires. There was Gatsby, looking a little, not much, younger-with a cricket bat in his hand. Then it was all true

      Why is this the moment at which everything that seemed so false is suddenly converted, in Nick's mind, into vivid truth? How does it characterize him? How does it characterize Gatsby?

    9. Little Montenegro! He lifted up the words and nodded at them-with his smile. The smile comprehended Montene-gro's troubled history and sympathized with the brave strug-gles of the Montenegrin people. It appreciated fully the chain of national circumstances which had elicited this trib-ute from Montenegro's warm little heart. My incredulity was submerged in fascination now; it was like skimming hastily through a dozen magazine

      What is the tone with which this passage is said? Try to be precise and feel free to assemble as many adjectives as you need to capture it. How is the tone created?

    10. I'd seen it. Everybody had seen it. It was a rich cream color, bright with nickel, swollen here and there in its monstrous length with triumphant hat-boxes and supper-boxes and tool-boxes, and terraced with a labyrinth of wind-shields that mirrored a dozen suns. Sitting down behind many layers of glass in a sort of green leather conservatory, we started to town

      Close read Nick's description of Gatsby's car. What is the purpose, significance and effect?

    11. He saw me looking with admiration at his1car

      Examine this portrait from the same time period. (https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2746) What similarities do you see and what thoughts to do you have on the male gaze when makes another male its focus?

    12. He was balancing himself on the dashboard of his car with that re~ourcefulness of movement that is so peculiarly American~that comes, 1 suppose, with the absence of lift-ing work or rigid sitting in youth and, even more, with the formless grace of our nervous, sporadic games. This quality was continually breaking through his punctilious manner in the shape of restlessness. He was never quite still; there was· always a tapping foot somewhere or the impatient opening and closing of a hand

      What is the purpose, significance and effect of this description?

    13. From West Egg came the Poles and the Mulreadys and Cecil Roebuck and Cecil Schoen and Gulick the State sena-tor and Newton Orchid, who controlled Films Par Excellence, and Eckhaust and Clyde Cohen and Qon S. Schwartze (the son) and Arthur McCarty, all connected with the movies in one way or another. And the Catlips and the Bembergs and G. Earl Muldoon, brother to that Muldoon who afterward strangled his wife. Da Fontano the promoter came there, and Ed Legros and James B. ("Rot-Gut") Ferret and the De Jongs and Ernest Lilly-they came to gamble, and when Fer-ret wandered into the garden it meant he was cleaned out and Associated Traction would have to fluctuate profitably next day.

      List out what you can observe as difference between the East Egg and West Egg crowds based on Nick's description

    14. All these people came to Gatsby's house in the summer.

      How does the fact that Nick even made this list characterize him?

    1. doing encapsulation right is a commitment not just to abstraction of state, but to eliminate state oriented metaphors from programming.

      Interestingly this idea is in sharp contrast to what has become mainstream OO programming.

    1. is chapter, we look at how to present your research effectively.

      maybe discuss this chapter in the beginning of the semester would be helpful for the lab

    1. Etats statistiques : quel type d’abonné emprunte quel type de livre ?

      Et par extension, quels sont les types de livres les plus empruntés? Possibilité d'utilisation des BD dans les programmes d'optimisation, l'un des grands problèmes de beaucoup de bibliothèques étant des stocks excessifs comparés aux nombres de prêts annuels de certains ouvrages.

    2. pas de critères objectifs pour l’évaluer

      N'y a-t-il pas des catégories objectives qui reviennent de façon générale? Et partir desquelles on pourrait donc établir des règles? Par exemple, dans les relations, on peut distinguer les relations d'indépendance, d'interdépendance et de codépendance, etc.

    3. attribut supplémentaire artificiel

      Tous les attributs appartiennent réellement à l'entité sauf l'identifiant numérique donné aux infirmières par exemple. Le fait de plaquer un numéro sur une personne qui n'a aucun aspect identitaire en commun avec ce chiffre peut être perçu comme une violence: question sous-jacente de l'éthique...

    4. association

      Quelle différence entre relation et association? On peut supposer la chose suivante:

      • relation: processus d'échange entre plusieurs entités
      • association: phénomène de contiguïté, logique ou réelle, entre plusieurs entités

    5. Niveau physique (fichiers, index) [peu abordé ici]

      On observe une boucle monde réel - abstraction - monde physique. Mais ce n'est pas réellement une boucle au sens où le monde physique final appartient encore à une autre réalité que le monde réel initial.

    6. Par exemple, pour une bibliothèque

      On voit ici comment différents usages impliquent différentes "vues" du livre: 1) le livre comme objet à lire pour le lecteur, 2) le livre comme objet à prêter pour le bibliothécaire, 3) le livre comme objet à classer pour le magasinier.

    7. Du monde aux BD

      Plusieurs étapes sont susceptibles d'altérer la réalité de base: l'étape Transformation, puis la conversion en 2 langages (LDD et LMD); les différentes vues. Cela questionne l'objectivité et l'exactitude de la représentation de la réalité donnée par la BD.

    8. individus

      Les individus en tant que variations particulières au sein d'un même moule, donc? Cela irait dans le sens de: former des moules = catégoriser, énoncé par anoliboi.

    9. moules

      Catégoriser ou formater, ce qui est sensiblement différent: dans un cas, on classe dans diverses grandes catégories des modèles qui peuvent légèrement varier entre eux; dans l'autre, on gomme les variations pour établir un modèle unique pour chaque moule.

    10. Cohérent

      Réalisme et cohérence peuvent parfois être contradictoires... Que doit-on réellement privilégier?

    11. Opérationnel

      C'est précisément ici que la notion de résultat peut apparaître, au sens: résultat d'une opération. Dans la mesure où une base de données décrit une réalité à un instant T et non de façon évolutive, les résultats seront réalistes par rapport à cet instant, contrairement à un modèle économique où les processus menant aux résultats varient en fonction de différents facteurs: ici, tous les paramètres du modèle peuvent être contrôlés.

    12. Réaliste

      Comme il s'agit de représenter par la modélisation un "petit monde", j'imagine que le terme de "réaliste" signifie ici que la modélisation doit donner une représentation la plus proche possible de la réalité qu'elle décrit. Pour ce qui est des résultats à proprement parler, je pense que plus une modélisation représente fidèlement la réalité, plus les résultats seront effectivement "réalistes", en tout cas dans le cadre d'une BD. Pour ce qui est de l'économie, je ne sais pas, ne sachant pas comment Hayek construit ses modèles.

    13. abstraction

      Dans quelle mesure cette abstraction peut-elle imiter des modèles concrets? Par exemple, dans une base de données, on modélise des collections qui suivent le même modèle que des classeurs ou des archives.

    1. Aquatic exercise is a misrepresented sporting activity that should be examined for its rehabilitative and muscular benefits. Biomechanics can be applied to analyzing an array of movements to provide insight of the quality of underwater exercise.

    1. Pagination

      Interesting exercise. Would be nice if there was a test case to thoroughly test the solution. Or is it outside the scope?

    1. companName

      typo

    2. Note

      Would a side note about Hoogle be useful here?

    3. Tip

      Rename Tip -> Learning goal ?

    4. pattern-matching

      Normally we don't put a hyphen in here.

    5. type-polymorphism

      Why 'type polymorphism' as opposed to just 'polymorphism'?

    1. Incidentally, every one of the 265 members who voted for the measure in March were Republicans

      weird

    2. Advocates believe a law will make net neutrality more durable. But ISPs are betting they’ll be able to write the bill — because they’ve paid for the opportunity.

      yup

    1. a real term

      The real term is 'tail recursion', no?

    2. insert indentation rules here

      Need to talk about auto-formatting/ auto-indentation by VSCode and Spacemacs.

    3. read

      read about?

    1. Sei nun eine beliebige Lösung der homogenen Differentialgleichung . Wir definieren die Funktion und berechnen für alle . Daher ist für eine Konstante und somit

      Ich verstehe hier nicht, weshalb man durch die Definition dieser Funktion und dem Ableiten daraus schliessen kann, dass dieses A eindeutig ist.

    1. In later chapters we go back to the problems of earlier chapters and try solving them with the new techniques just introduced.

      Ah, interesting. This should be fun! :-)

    2. Btw, this is done brilliantly by SICP, but unforunately, it uses Scheme, which is not typed and is mutable.

      This may be unsolicited feedback, but I enjoy rewriting sentences some times :-) I'd write it as: SICP does this brilliantly, however it uses Scheme which is dynamically typed and mutable

    3. ,

      Remove the comma

    4. Tweet

      Saurabh - you mean we can publish links to this book publicly? I thought you wanted to keep this link secret to withhold public criticism for a while?

    5. existing blog posts

      Their content might need to be cached in case of linkrot.

    6. How is this different?

      There are 4 distinct observations in this section. For easy reading they should be bulleted from 1 to 4.

    7. design of Haskell programs

      An example of this, perhaps somewhere further inside the book, (with a reference to it in the preface here) would be appreciated.

    8. launching into a tangent

      The idiom you are looking for is going on a tangent

    9. Another observation

      I don't particular understand this sentence. Research-y ideas - I get, but how does this apply to gotchas and pitfalls?

    10. common tasks

      An example here (briefly mentioned within parentheses) would be useful.

    1. so that early adopters could figure out which elements on the page were important

      Or maybe so folks just knew what was clickable?

    1. never losing sight their primary goal.

      typo? should be "never losing sight of their primary goal"

    1. there was nothing wrong with the way things worked here, but before I arrived, everyone was used to working with older methods” (Observer Controller Article).

      explain passage.

    1. structure would be to put it in place.

      Or do a dry run with a smaller amount of clubs?

    2. One option

      Can you use bullets to summarize before you explain in full?

    3. While guidelines and budgets can be passed and adopted, previous guidelines “prove to be unrealistic, unworkable and unenforceable” (1981 report).

      explicate quote.

    4. vs

      spell out.

    1. (arguably)

      not really

    2. adding that the mission will do more than just leave “a flag and footprints on the Moon,” hinting at a possible base and potential mining activities.

      oh dear

    3. National Space Council National

      wat

    1. Teens’ struggles to make sense of the networked publics they inhabit—and the ways in which their practices reveal cultural fractures—high-light some of the challenges society faces as technology gets integrated into daily life.

      I think almost every teen at one point or another really struggles with these new networked publics and it is something that needs to be taught and emphasized from an early age.

    2. Whenever Manu posted something on Facebook, he felt that he was forcing everyone he’d ever met to consume it, whereas on Twitter, people opted in when they felt that what he was sharing was interest-ing. As he explained, “I guess Facebook is like yelling it out to a crowd, and then Twitter is just like talking in a room.”

      Interesting thought process, never thought of things this way and the differences kids have when it comes to different social networking sites.

    3. When teens turn to networked publics, they do so to hang out with friends and be recognized by peers. They share in order to see and be seen. They want to look respectable and interesting, while simultane-ously warding off unwanted attention.

      Yes, but it is also forced by the fact that they do not have that place where they can go 24/7 to socialize.

    4. Laws that define when, where, and how they can gather shape teens’ activities and mobility. In the same vein, teens’ worldviews are influenced by cultural dynamics that underpin American society more generally.

      So true. Laws and rules defining how kids can gather have really shaped the way they socialize now.

    5. Rather than fighting to reclaim the places and spaces that earlier cohorts had occupied, many teens have taken a different approach: they’ve created their own publics

      This was definitely something that happened with me. My friend group never tried to do what the older kids were doing because we often times were unwelcomed, therefore we had to create our own spaces to do things

    6. Unlike Emily, I was often forbidden from going to Park City. When I was in high school, the local business community had teamed up with the school district to create an alternative high school for students who were not succeeding in traditional schools. They decided to place this experimental school at Park City because that’s where so many of the students they were seeking to attract were hanging out. Those kids—and, by extension, the mall—had a bad reputation for violence, truancy, and delinquency more generally.

      It is unbelievable how quickly perceptions of areas and geographic locations can change in such a short amount of time.

    7. I find it very interesting and actually understand now the process behind people wanting to go to events. I was always one of those people that would go to the event for the event but I realized there is a lot more social interaction that is there than one may even realize.

    1. Closely related is another issue with the reimbursement process is whether or not your request would even be accepted

      A little wordy. Can you state this more clearly?

    2. Reimbursement

      separate pages. Also, include more images to break the page up. Even splash images on the top for the smaller pages will be helpful.

    1. Reimbursement

      Should each of these be their own page? Then you can unpack some of the terms and use evidence to support your claims/reasons.

    2. ven with a budget, U.S.G. still takes time to review your purchase request to check for validity.

      Why is this an issue? How does it relate to the problem. This is something you need to explain throughout your pages.

    3. To determine your budget, there are funding guidelines posted to help estimate the costs for events as well as restrictions to your funds

      Describe them and refer to relevant ones (or problematic ones). ANALYZE YOUR EVIDENCE.

    4. OrgSync.

      Explain what this is (especially because you refer to it so often). Maybe show the site and how it works (in a few screenshots).

    5. ote (William Interview).

      Refer to specific parts and set up that this information came from this interview.

    6. Mass Fu

      Check your capitalization throughout. You often capitalize words that do not need to be.

    7. [Mass Funding Guidelines]

      Show and analyze relevant parts. Then put the entire document on a separate page that you can either hyperllink or path

    1. Men who were poor and African American, without resources and with few alternatives, they believed they had found hope when they were offered free medical care by the United States Public Health Service. They were betrayed.

      The reality hurts. However, it is the truth and it tells the history of America. Many people with low socioeconomic status and of undeserved communities are taken advantage of for their lack of understanding and education. It is good to see how much psychological experiments have grown in being more ethical!

    1. This changes from year to year and is approximately $182 for the fall semester and $188 for the spring semester

      Explain this change. You need to do more explanation throughout--imagine that your audience does not know any of these factors. Especially not the problems within them.

    2. (USG Website)

      This is not a citation. And why a link?

    3. put emphasi

      emphasize

    1. tuition based

      Can you make a chart or graphic that shows how these 2 types stack up?

    2. One is tuition-funded and the other is donation funded. 

      Explain the difference here. And how can they be used to discuss your problem. This is why it is so important that the parameters of your problem are clearly stated--so you can refer back to them as you fill in the narrative with details (like specifics from these spreadsheets and minutes).

    1. struggles

      Show these parts.

    2. ontinuing through the balance sheets, we can see that essentially everything has been cut by a percentage.

      show with evidence. Or, you can screenshot an example and refer to it in your analysis here. In general, you need more graphics and images. Take advantage of the medium.

    3. Will link to this

      For what? Fine. But make sure to analyze them here. Show specific parts from the balance sheets and explain how they were relevant in the 1980's and how they are relevant to the problem now.

    4. A lot cam be learned

      Such as? State it.

    1. human natur

      This is not a viable rationale for your argument. You use it a few times in the book--cut and restate.

    2. This is why U.S.G. needs to rework their funding system

      Don't jump the gun here. Make sure to explain your problem in a systematic way (you haven't yet). THEN briefly posit your solutions--solutions you will get at more clearly in the second part. Also, use this introduction to explain the parts of your book a little bit (and why they are present--what will x do).

    3. or USG for short

      (USG). Also, choose a format and stick with it. You move from USG to U.S.G. throughout. Choose one and use it.

    4. (https://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/twice-the-college-advice/2011/09/13/5-reasons-for-getting-involved-in-college-and-how-to-go-about-it)

      Why is this here? Discuss the article and quote from it. Then have an external hyperlink to this article.

      Throughout, you need to make better use of your sources, especially interviews. Don't just plop them into the page--integrate them and analyze them as you would in any sort of argumentative paper. If you find that you are being too verbose in a section, then cut some of the longer talk and put it on a new page.

    5. This

      Name it. Here, and throughout, you often use pronouns (like "this") to replace vital information. Please correct this instance and all others.

    6. multiple sources of funding

      Sketch this out for your reader.

    7. Clubs are also important for Case Western Reserve University

      Why?

    8. clubs at college i

      Can you use an external source to place the rile of clubs at other schools? Or as a presence in higher education?

    1. Methodology

      These interviews need to be integrated into your introduction. Also, this page needs an introduction. And no matter where these end up, these interviews need to be analyzed and discussed like the texts that they are. If they are evidence, they need to be explained.

    1. Alternate

      These titles need to be more descriptive. Also, these pages need images and design elements added to them.