1. Last 7 days
    1. It’snotabodythatcanberepairedbymedicine; rather, itslevelsoffluidarerebalancedbytheintroduction orextractionofsubstances.

      What if we thought about our architecture this way? I am intrigued by this idea of thinking of architecture (a body) as a system of fluids that can only be balanced by either more or less of such. It just made me think of people/users of buildings as the fluid that is spoken of. In a litteral sense, there are people with good intentions with architecture and then there are those with ill intentions. For example, there are those that improve the building by decorating or giving a space their own personal touch. On the opposite side, there are those that seek to destroy or "upset" space. If we go back to the analogy, when architecture (the body) is not in equilibrium, people are introduced in a specific way. If the architecture is depressed, you introduce perhaps a florist to bring in bright colored flowers. If a building is being attacked by someone, security is called and they escort the delinquent out. This is a rough analogy, but it gives an interesting perspective on the relation between architecture and the body.

    2. Theirpointisthat thedisabledbodyisnotsimplyaimiversalbodywithalackorimpairment, butratheramodeofembodimentthatrevealsadifferentyetcomplete experienceintheworld

      How can we design for the disabled body without thinking about it as a lack of impairment? Some bodies that we consider disabled actually have more ability than a typical disabled body. A blind person is certainly more prone to feeling with their hands, and perhaps interpret texture in a different way than non-blind individuals would feel things. When we walk on surfaces, its hard to think about what we're experiencing because the visual stimuli take over our senses. Someone who cannot see would feel the difference in the way their feet move and perhaps take more careful notice of the shifting of balance from lets say, walking on pavement then walking on a bed of rocks because they don't have the same visual stimuli as a distraction during this phenomenological perception.

    3. Phenomenologyorganizesatopologyofbodyandworld, ratherthanofmindandbody,givinguswhatHubert DreyfusandCharlesTaylor call “ouroriginalwayofbeingintheworld.

      The author explains there is a problem with this "original way of being in the world," because it leaves little room for historical change.

      Phenomenology does in fact create very personal experiences that could seem bias if using these experiences to create generalized notions about architecture and design.

      For example, if a deaf person designed music hall based on his own personal phenomenological experience with sound, the acoustic quality of the space could be awful for most people whose hearing is not impaired.

      But, if any designer (deaf or not) designed a music hall based on modern technology, knowledge, and scientific studies on sound, the music hall would be more successful and potentially be able to adapt with the times.

    4. itispreciselybecausethesequestionsofflow,balance,purging,feeding, andvomitarenotvisibleonthesurface

      sometimes what is more important or significant about the body is what is happening on the inside, which is not shown in the model of the Vitruvius Man

    5. ThemalebodyreflectedGod’sperfectdesign, andarchitecture thatimitatedthatbodywouldsimultaneouslydemonstrate celestialharmony

      Throughout the beginning of the reading, I questioned why understanding medicine was important to understanding architecture... this quote makes the reason more clear. Vitruvius seems obsessed with "the perfect male body"... if architecture can embody or mimic God's perfect creation, it is seen as a success..?

    6. whichintroducefoodintothebodythroughtheanus,andemetics,whichexpelwastefromthe bodythroughthemouth.


      In all honesty, why? Perhaps an idea so radical is needed to change how we think about the body and architecture. In the link above, I connect a seen in the office I had though about when this subject was brought up in class. In the video, the office is trying to slow down the course of a woman going into the labor by doing the opposite of activities that speed up labor. One suggestion in this clip is to "stick spicy foods up her butt" as a means of inverting the suggestion to eat spicy food. But how would this relate to architecture? Are we so wound up in our perceptions around what the human body is, that we need to twist, turn, and invert these perceptions to think with a clear mind?

    7. FrancesodiGiorgioMartini’schurchplans(circa1490),showthatforearlymodernarchitects,buildingscouldmimicthehumanbodyinaveryloosefit-muchlike howarobeorabathtubismadeexpresslyforbodiesbutisnotthereforeshapedlikeabody.


      This is such a strange way to look at architecture. I can understand that it tries to relate the body, but the plan does not really make sense in this translation. And for that matter, the translation seems too literal as well. Essentially, the plans break the church down to separating people into the head, legs, body, and arm. The head, seems to be a some-what resolved idea on this hierarchy, however the rest of the intention seems half though out. What does it mean to be in the arm of the church? What does it mean to be in the bowels of the church? It just seems strange to think that if someone were to walk down the plan of the church, they would start at the legs, motion up to the waist, through the torso, and end up at the head. It feels wrong and under-developed.

    8. A réévaluationofphenomenologywouldallowforreflectiononembodiedperception, bodilyexperience,andtheirrolesinunderstandingarchitecture.

      I would completely agree with this. The purpose of phenomenology is to feel connected with our surroundings, and perhaps, things that exist beyond our surroundings but are only experienced in being able to come into contact with something around us. Either way, if architecture were to hone in on the design of this spatial connection, the Vitruvius man needs to be update. In class, we had talked about the diagram not looking like any man, but an average depiction of man. This may have been fine to a hundred years ago, but our universal perceptions have changed. And thus, the universal base of design for phenomenology must change with it. Gender is more of a fluid subject, and is not defined/defining in how we operate. A reevaluation must include the groups left out by Vitruvius in order to seek this idea of the universal.

    9. UsingtheexampleofDS+R’sBrasserie restaurantinNewYork,LucasCrawfordeffectivelycutsthroughthelinkbetweenbodyandgenderbyshowinghowevensubtlechangesinarchitecturecanelicitmodesoftransembodimentthathave thecapacitytochangegender-basedarrangementsofbodiesandenvironments.


      In the DS + R project, the design takes the notion of the washroom as a means to distort our perceptions around comfort, hygiene, and privacy. The discussion of gender bathrooms, especially in recent years, revolve around the notion that some may feel uncomfortable with a person they would claim is a different gender using the same space as them. In the DS+R project, there is no distinction of gender in the bathrooms, nor is their "privacy" in the bathrooms. The wall journey the two bathroom are opaque, stall have peeking holes, etc. all to give the user a sense of being uncomfortable. Though it is not actively charged with advocating for a side on this argument, the project does open the perceptions around this "comfortability" in washrooms. Why do we have? Why do we have a need to preserve it around the scope of being comfortable around our gender? Wouldn't someone just be as uncomfortable if a person of the same gender played a closer role in these "private" times in the washroom.

    10. Yetwithattentiontothespecificitiesofhistorical bodies suchasJones’s,theVitruvianManmaybegintoappearassomethingotherthanananatomyofmusclesandgeometry

      The concept of flipping the Vitruvian Man upside down doesn't seem to mean that Jones is literally suggesting we eat with our butt, but rather using an analogy to say that something we think is just natural, or our day to day way of life could be completely rediscovered when looked at with a new perspective.

    11. wetoowhen btdldingshouldplacethemostimportantandprestigiouspartsinfìlliviewandthelessbeautifulinlocationsconcealedas farfromoureyesaspossible.


      I wonder what would happen if Palladio and Foster sat in a room together? Palladio seems to admire the objective sense to architecture, that when we look at it, we can appreciate the beauty by what is seen on the skin of a building's body. However, if we look at the Pompidou, this building speaks to more of the truth behind the building. It is the complete opposite of Palladio's intention to conceal the "less prestigious". For Foster, the Pompidou reveals the veins of the building's body. It shows the HVAC, mechanical systems, etc. to expose the life of buildings. I feel as though these two would have a debate on what is shown. Do we a.) push forth for the objective beauty of a building, or b.) show the beauty in a truth revealed?

    12. Palladiopresumedthatbuildingsoughttomimicourintuitivenotionsaboutbodies inwapthathavetodowiththeexperienceofhavingaparticularbody

      Does this mean that we should reflect our human natures onto the buildings we design? Should we make buildings that breathe and see? Or does this cross the line into territory that is uncomfortable for us?

    1. Examining children’s conceptual understanding of food across time will help obtain information about their food knowledge acquisition, a concept missing in the research studies mentioned above.

      this is what we are trying tp do!

    1. Or, as computer scientist Donald Knuth puts it, “AI has by now succeeded in doing essentially everything that requires ‘thinking’ but has failed to do most of what people and animals do ‘without thinking.’”

      Nice quote

    2. You know the whole creepy thing that goes on when you search for a product on Amazon and then you see that as a “recommended for you” product on a different site, or when Facebook somehow knows whom it makes sense for you to add as a friend? T

      People tend to use the word 'digital' or 'technology' for these things, not AI.

    3. “immortality”


      An interesting BBC radio doc about the morality involved in AI. Worth a listen.

    4. There are three major AI caliber categories:

      1) Artificial narrow intelligence (ANI) 2) Artificial general intelligence (AGI) 3) Artificial superintelligence (ASI)

    5. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/b0bgrw3k

      An interesting BBC radio doc about the morality involved in AI. Worth a listen.

    6. Someone thinking about the future today might examine the last few years to gauge the current rate of advancement

      the idea of thinking "everything has been done. What else can there be?" rings true with me sometimes

    7. stop thinking of robots. A robot is a container for AI

      note to self!

    8. much more should change in the coming decades than we intuitively expect.

      Where do global warming and the predicted ecological disasters that we face sit in this prediction?

    9. exponential growth isn’t totally smooth and uniform

      "In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth." Kurzweil

    10. moving increasingly quickly

      at an exponential rate?

    11. law of accelerating returns
    12. we may be as blown away by 2030 as our 1750 guy was by 2015

      Do we experience this DPU effect if we are experiencing the change within our lifetime or is it so gradual, it in turn becomes natural and normalized technological progression?

  2. engl10600connorwhitley.wordpress.com engl10600connorwhitley.wordpress.com
    1. It's really hard to keep politics out of things sometimes especially if there's times no matter what you do it's a losing choice.

  3. kendallchaseenglish106.wordpress.com kendallchaseenglish106.wordpress.com
    1. People don't always realize that creativity helps build problem solving skills. Not the kind you do one tests where you have to get to one right answer, but the kind of intelligence that actually builds creative ability to see problems differently.

    1. might feel better about his own side effects if he learns that anacquaintance suffered worse side effects from the same treatment.

      I often complain about certain situations, but when I realize someone else has been through something worse i tend to let it go. Cause my situation could be theirs.

    2. Ifwe observe or even anticipate that aspecific person is doing better than us atsome ability then we may be motivated toboost our performance level.

      I personally like to take the success of some, and use it as my personal motivation. They dont have to be anybody famous, I usually use my two older cousins who are very successful as my motivation for getting through college.

    3. At the core of his theory is the idea that people come to know aboutthemselves—their own abilities, successes, and personality—by comparing themselves withothers.

      Some of us are definitely guilty of this, we usually take people who are higher up than us, and try to build ourselves off of them. With the looks, jobs, cars,etc. We take their image and try to make it ours.

    4. a country wherethe culture is drastically different from his own.

      Varying cultures encompass different values and knowing how to adjust can be difficult. For example, when considering differences in how death and dying is treated between cultures, a western American will say wear black at a funeral, while in Asian american cultures many would say wear white. So if looking for advice on something make sure your source is relevant to your specific situation.

    5. Climbing into hisC-Class, Mr. Jones suddenly feels disappointed with his purchase and even feels envious ofMr. Smith.

      This disappointment seems to be a recurring cycle when considering keeping up with the trends. Things change so fast sometimes, by the time you get something that is considered socially cool, something new is out. It can be exhausting, especially for middle/high school kids. And don't forget the parents who usually buy the stuff.

    1. L'administration de la preuve concerne les types de preuves qui peuvent être acceptés devant un tribunal.

      L'administration de la preuve désigne la manière dont les preuves peuvent être apportées devant un tribunal.

    1. He found that obedience rates decreased when the learner was in the same room as the experimenter and declined even further when the teacher had to physically touch the learner to administer the punishment.

      sort of related to the events in face-to-face interactions vs non-face-to-face interactions?

    2. excessive alcohol consumption

      ...which may lead to problems later in life involving substance abuse? I recently learned that this is an effect of a current issue of conformity--in e-cigarette (such as juul) use in teens.

    3. We don’t want to look out of step or become the target of criticism just because we like different kinds of music or dress differently than everyone else. F

      people crave acceptance

    4. mimic

      basic type of learning, even utilized by infants

    5. But our views on political issues, religious questions, and lifestyles also reflect to some degree the attitudes of the people we interact with.

      ex: most people who live nearby me hold the same political view/inclination, and our area is known to lean towards that particular view.

    6. Obeying orders from an authority figure can sometimes lead to disturbing behavior.

      milgram experiement

    1. Book Reviews

      We need to make a global decision about the excerpts for both the Book and Exhibition Reviews. After I went through and made suggestions regarding the excerpts in this issue, I moved onto my next issue and realized that in this issue the excerpts consist of text from the review itself, in the next issue it contains bibliographic information. We should be consistent across issues.

    1. To write is to sell a ticket to escape, not from the truth but into it. My job is to make something happen in a space barely larger than the span of your hand, behind your eyes, distilled out of all that I have carried, from friends, teachers, people met on planes, people I have seen only in my mind, all my mother and father ever did, every favorite book, until it meets and distills from you, the reader, something out of the everything it finds in you. All of this meets along the edge of a sentence like this one, as if the sentence is a fence, with you on one side and me on the other.

      This is the Chee line I highlighted in the Windling piece but it is in a source by him so it would be better to use

    1. Disadvantage of Using Free Knowledge Base Software for Your Startup

      knowledge base software startup disadvantages

    1. Roberta K. Tarbell

      The tags for Tarbell and for Ciregna are blank. The tag for Wingate takes us to her essay on Sculpture and Lived Space.

    2. Megan Holloway Fort, Independent Art Historian

      Please remove the author's bio from the excerpt. The excerpt should read: "Through extensive primary source research, I was able to uncover evidence that strongly supports the attribution of a portrait of the eighteenth-century religious leader the Reverend Samuel Finley to John Hesselius ..."

    3. James Glisson, The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Garden

      Please remove the author's bio from the excerpt. The excerpt should read: "Trying to square oddball works against thoroughly convincing interpretations of the rest of the oeuvre can be a fruitless exercise ..."

    4. Steven Lubar, Department of American Studies, Brown University

      Please remove the author's bio from the excerpt. Also, can we use this for the excerpt? "Benjamin Ives Gilman invented the skiascope to ensure that museum visitors saw art as he thought best—without distraction. As far as I was able to determine, no skiascope survives. And so I built one …"

    5. ...

      Please remove the ellipses at the end of this excerpt. The ellipses at the end of the Stott and Kaplan essays can be removed as well.

    6. Paul H. D. Kaplan, Professor of Art History, State University of New York, Purch

      Please remove the author's bio from the excerpt.

    7. The Thiele Family Monument: Vision of a Heavenly Future

      Please change the crop for the image for the Thiele Family Monument by cropping out more of the bottom so that the heads of the sculpture don't get cut off.

    8. Annette Stott, Professor, School of Art and Art History, University of Denver

      Please remove the author's bio from the excerpt. It should start with this: For over one hundred years...

    1. (re) played

      ie. is it a good edition?

    2. it does not require excessive foresight to maintain that digital facsimiles offer a remarkable new handle to give to the notion of originality what is required by the new time. Since all originals have to be reproduced anyway, simply to survive, it is crucial to be able to discriminate between good and bad reproductions.

      The digital offers accurate replication that adheres to the properties of the original in mechanical reproduction = so to use the digital does not replace but offers a good progeny in the lineage of the work. So, Overall this piece is good and offers supports for the idea that a digital reproduction of a cultural artefact can be argued for without undermining the terms of the ‘original’.

    3. Surely the issue is about accuracy, understanding, and respect-the absence of which results in “slavish” replication

      The issues here have been highlighted by copyright law, a photograph of a painting that maintains ‘accuracy, understanding and respect’ cannot claim to be an original. Yet, If I paint an almost perfect copy of painting it can be an original.

    4. If there is one aspect of reproduction that digital techniques have entirely modified, it is certainly the ability to register the most minute three-dimensional aspect of a work without putting the work at risk.

      Again , the affordances of the digital. The 3-D rendering of an object without interference. The damage to sculpture using moulding is a good case in point. There are many examples of this, the multiple relocations of Donatello’s bronze Judith and Holofernes has altered its meaning to the extent that its originality has become diluted. But, it is still accessible as an object.

    5. The same is certainly true of availability.

      Facsimiles enabling visibility and interaction away from the original site. Implications here for the digitization of heritage sites that can be transported digitally to any space.

    6. We should not, however, wax too mystical about the notion of an “original location” in the case of the Veronese, since the very refectory in which the facsimile has been housed is itself a reconstruction.

      Undermining place as a component in the trajectory, likewise the site of The Last Supper is a reconstruction, in addition does a change in the function of the site also interfere in the construction of originality?

    7. by bringing the new version back to the original location.

      Again place and object are complicit in creating originality.

    8. What is so extraordinary in comparing the fate of the Ambassadors with that of the Nozze di Cana is not that both rely on reproduction-this is a necessity of existence-but that the first relies on a notion of reproduction that makes the original disappear forever while the second adds originality without jeopardizing the earlier version-without ever even touching it, thanks to the delicate processes used to record it.

      ¶ 22 – The Ambassadors is added to in order to maintain it while it really disappears but Cana is doubles its originality while maintain it as persistence.

    9. not so much how to differentiate the original from the facsimiles as how to tell the good reproductions from the bad.

      The photograph is the most barren?! But then the photograph acts as model a simulacrum for the ‘original’.

    10. a painting has always to be reproduced, that is, it is always a re-production of itself, even when it appears to stay exactly the same in the same place.

      A painting can only persist through alteration, look again to The Last Supper.

    11. but is it possible to imagine the migration of the aura in the reproduction or reinterpretation of, say, a painting? After all, it is the contrast between the Nozze and the Ambassadors that triggered our inquiry, which would have proceeded very differently had it been limited to the performing arts.

      – Still the problem of closeness of ‘aura’, object and place persists in painting.

    12. once there is no huge gap in the process of production between version n and version n + i, the clear-cut distinction between the original and its reproduction becomes less crucial-and the aura begins to hesitate and is uncertain where it should land.

      ¶ 18 – extension of ¶ 17. The gap between the original and the copy closes again in the digital age, the ‘aura’ is confused.

    13. Before printing, the marginal cost of producing one more copy was identical to that of producing the penultimate one

      The portability of the ‘aura’ prior to print as ‘copies’ were made. There was no remoteness even if there could be distance. Two manuscripts made by two monks in Ireland endeavouring to produce identical forms did not diverge from their ‘auratic’ substance even if one moved to Rome. Or maybe they did? The author’s point is that this distance from the ‘original’ increases with the advent of movable type. And further with the coming of the digital age.

    14. The situation appears to be entirely different when considering, for instance, a painting. Because it remains in the same frame, encoded in the same pigments, entrusted to the same institution, one cannot resist the impression that a reproduction is much easier to make and thus there can be no comparison, in terms of quality, between the various segments of its trajectory.

      ¶ 15 & 16 – It is the technique that they say matters. The indexical nature of the photograph cannot compete with the materiality of the painting. Again, only if the aura is inherent in the painting and not in the construction of an aura around a painting.

    15. The trajectory of a performance, then, is composed of segments that are made, more or less, of the same stuff or require a similar mobilization of resources.

      ¶ 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 – Yes, performance art survives in the interpretations and reinventions that take place in the works career. If not the works remain static as texts, and even they are the subject of editions and versions.

    16. Is this segment in the trajectory of the work of art barren or fertile?

      The sterility and barrenness of the original without the progeny. Good point and leading well to the argument conclusion. If I have never seen the Mona Lisa do I feel lessened, do I revere it more? Or, is it given substance only via the vicarious encounter through the ‘copy’. The Mona Lisa might just as well be a fiction in itself if not a reproduction of an actual living entity – a memetic construction.

    17. It is because-and not in spite-of the thousands and thousands of repetitions and variations of the songs that, when considering any copy of the Iliad, we are moved so much by the unlimited fecundity of the original
      • Good. The Iliad offers a nice example of the text being the thing. My reading of the text does not lessen my reading of the Iliad if my text is a €5 version bought in a local newsagent’s.
    18. A work of art-no matter the material of which it is made-has a trajectory or, to use another expression popularized by anthropologists, a career

      The Trajectory of a work of art. Its career. Like the Feast at Cana, I am thinking of Da Vinci’s Last Supper. We all know the work but of the ‘original’ how much of it remains and are we sure that the ‘aura’ we attach to a copy can be replicated by an encounter with the original. The original will most likely cease to exist soon enough.

    19. the obsession of the age is with the original.

      Perhaps this is all about ‘othering’ – the original can only identify itself in relation to the copy? Also, is it not worth considering the falsity of the ‘aura’ created in the age of technological reproduction? The touch of the artist rather than the object of the painting? Is The Ambassadors gifted an aura rather than possessing one? Would it have an ‘aura’ to a citizen of Mali, devoid of access to the fetishes of Western cultures?

    20. If no copies of the Mona Lisa existed, would we pursue it with such energy? Would we devise so many conspiracy theories concerned with whether or not the version held under glass and protected by sophisticated alarms is the actual surface painted by Leonardo’s hand?

      The Trajectory of a work of art. Its career. Like the Feast at Cana, I am thinking of Da Vinci’s Last Supper. We all know the work but of the ‘original’ how much of it remains and are we sure that the ‘aura’ we attach to a copy can be replicated by an encounter with the original. The original will most likely cease to exist soon enough.

    21. But it’s just a facsimile!

      Perhaps this is all about ‘othering’ – the original can only identify itself in relation to the copy? Also, is it not worth considering the falsity of the ‘aura’ created in the age of technological reproduction? The touch of the artist rather than the object of the painting? Is The Ambassadors gifted an aura rather than possessing one? Would it have an ‘aura’ to a citizen of Mali, devoid of access to the fetishes of Western cultures?

    22. Without question, for her, the aura of the original had migrated from Paris to Venice: the best proof was that you had to come to the original and see it.

      Where is the ‘aura’? Is the ‘aura’ fixed to location or to the work? Benjamin was not just talking about the work of art, he was also talking about any natural [real] object. The ‘aura’ was really a perceptual hangup from the era of cultic. ‘Reproduction emancipates the work of art from its parasitical dependence on ritual.’ Adorno would say that a work of art is more than what it is. Te aura for him is the trace of human labour in an appearance.

    23. Why this air-conditioned room with its dung brown polished plaster walls? In Venice, there was no air conditioning; the painting was allowed to breathe as if Veronese had just left it to dry. Anyway, here she cannot move around the painting to ponder those questions without bumping into others momentarily glued to the Joconde, their backs turned to the Veronese.

      Does meaning attach itself to the painting only in its intended original location? After all most paintings in galleries and museums were not commissioned for gallery display. Is the Uffizi a depository for copies? If so are the originals extinct?

    24. Something even stranger happens to her, some time later, in the Salle de la Joconde in the Louvre. To get to this cult icon of the Da Vinci code, hundreds of thousands of visitors enter through two doors that are separated by a huge framed painting, Veronese’s Nozze di Cana, a dark giant of a piece that directly faces the tiny Mona Lisa, barely visible through her thick antifanatic glass. Now the visitor is really stunned. In the Hollywood machinery of the miraculous wedding, she no longer recognizes the facsimile that she had the good fortune of seeing at the end of 2007 when she was invited by the Fondazione Cini to the island of San Giorgio, in Venice. There it was, she remembers vividly, a painting on canvas, so thick and deep that you could still see the brush marks of Veronese and feel the cuts that Napoleon’s orderlies had to make in order to tear the painting from the wall, strip by strip, before rolling it like a carpet and sending it as a war booty to Paris in 1797-a cultural rape very much in the mind of all Venetians, up to this day. But there, in Palladio’s refectory, the painting (yes, it was a painting, albeit produced through the intermediary of digital techniques) had an altogether different meaning: it was mounted at a different height, one that makes sense in a dining room; it was delicately lit by the natural light of huge east and west windows so that at about 5 p.m. on a summer afternoon the light in the room exactly coincides with the light in the painting; it had, of course, no frame; and, more importantly, Palladio’s architecture merged with admirable continuity within Veronese’s painted architecture, giving this refectory of the Benedictine monks such a trompe l’oeil depth of vision that you could not stop yourself from walking slowly back and forth and up and down the room to enter deeper and deeper into the mystery of the miracle.

      – Feast at Cana. The original has been displaced and reconstructed. Is meaning lost outside of its original location? Does the facsimile supplant the original if it occupies the originals location?

    25. Unfortunately, she knows enough about the strange customs of restorers and curators to bow to the fact that this is, indeed, the origi nal, although only in name, that the real original has been irreversibly lost, replaced by what most people like in a copy: bright colors, a shining surface, and above all a perfect resemblance to the slides sold at the bookshop, the slices shown in art classes all over the world by art teachers most often interested only in the shape and theme of a painting, not in any other marks registered in the thick surface of a work. She leaves the room suppressing a tear: the original has been turned into a copy of itself that looks like a cheap copy, and no one seems to complain, or even to notice, the substitution. They seem happy to have visited in London the original poster of Holbein’s Ambassadors!

      How do we tell the difference between the original and a copy? When does an original cease to be an original as it is restored and restored and relocated and relocated? At what point does annihilation take place?

    1. This is, we think, the unavoidable consequence of that supremacy which the Constitution has declared.

      The ruling of this case ultimately expanded federal power, giving power to congress over the constitution because of the Elastic Clause, correct?

    2. excludes incidental or implied powers

      I wonder how it is determine that a power is "implied", when it is not specifically stated in the Constitution?

    3. We are unanimously of opinion that the law passed by the Legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Bank of the United States is unconstitutional and void....

      If I am correct, the Supreme Court basically says that Congress has implied powers and the “Necessary and Proper” Clause grants the power to congress to establish a national bank?

    4. If we apply the principle for which the State of Maryland contends, to the Constitution generally, we shall find it capable of changing totally the character of that instrument

      I feel like this hurts the Justice's case. If I am not mistake, this appears to be a reference to the ability to ratify the Constitution? If I am incorrect, please give clarification.

    5. Why, then, should we suppose that the people of any one State should be willing to trust those of another with a power to control the operations of a Government to which they have confided their most important and most valuable interests?

      Devil's Advocate: why the hell should they trust a federal government that professes itself to possess "the supreme law of the land"?

    6. It acts upon the measures of a Government created by others as well as themselves, for the benefit of others in common with themselves.

      I wonder if a close reading the second half of this decision would prompt a conservative person to think about giving democratic socialism a try. If the federal government could create a bank to benefit the country, then what would REALLY dissuade them from allowing some form of universal health care? Is Congress really so buddy-buddy with the insurance companies that they would accept $$$ and reelection over what the people of the USA REALLY need? If so, that's f***ing awful and we need term limits right now.

    7. This, then, is not a case of confidence, and we must consider it is as it really is.

      Confidence in what? In the federal government's morality? Like having faith that it won't "carry [taxation and its other powers] to the excess of destruction"?

      If so, I really appreciate Marshall's idealism. What a cool guy!

    1. The kids who have grown up consuming and enjoying Pokemon across media are going to expect this same kind of experience from The West Wing as they get older.

      Or the role of digital in fostering the obsessive fan in the era of binge viewing. It might be fun to visit the podcast http://thewestwingweekly.com/ occasionaily but who wants to tune in every week?

    2. Everything about the structure of the modern entertainment industry was designed with this single idea in mind-the construction and enhancement of entertainment franchises.

      Again, ehancing what, the brand? What about the quality of the prequel, sequel, spin-off. Is there possibly a different definition of multi-platform?

    3. multiplatform, or enhanced storytelling represents the future of entertainment.

      On one hand multimedia storytelling seems to be an exciting concept offering endless scope for creative ways to tell stories.

      A good story engages people, regardless of platform, Is this media interest more in brand building, creating fans that consume more stuff?

    4. But Twain understood what modern storytellers seem to have forgotten-a compelling sequel offers consumers a new perspective on the characters, rather than just more of the same.

      In terms of polar opposites think Star Wars and some (not all) of its sequels and spin offs. Many prefer "Empire Strikes Back" to "A New Hope" few would admit to liking the prequels ("Phantom Menace" et al). Sadly there are too many examples of bad sequels. For this author, each installment of "The Matrix" progressively disappointed, so much so that I couldn't bother with the games, graphic novels or animated series.

    5. current licensing system typically generates works that are redundant (allowing no new character background or plot development),

      I agree. Licensing can be very restrictive. It would seem that a collaborative creativity involving mutually beneficial remediation of various creations could be a good way forward. Although Jenkins isn't referring explicitly to phenomena like "fan fiction" or its game/film alternative, it does seem that an iterative approach could benefit all. The fan or alternate media producer would feel validated and invested. The studio/production house benefits from a greater pool of imagination. In many cases fans of media are far more invested, know more, and are in a better position to contribute than the original creators. A network of loosely connected, differently wired creative brains could be a powerful force.

    6. computer owners consume on average significantly more television, movies, CDs, and related media than the general population.

      Would be nice to see the sources/reference for this information. From a logical viewpoint, it makes sense, computer users have a device in front of them which makes it a task of milliseconds to find all the information, linkages and layers of a game, film, book, album, piece of theatre or performance. I would extrapolate this even more to mobile device users. In a sense, finding this information on a mobile device, to me at least, feels more like flow, than doing the same thing on a desktop machine. But perhaps Jenkins was referring to all users of digital devices, regardless of screen size.

    1. Sarah Beetham “Activism in the Classroom: Wikipedia and American Art” Susan Greenberg Fisher “Notes from New York: Names, Networks and Connectors in Art History” Jessica Marten “At the Margins: The Art of Josephine Tota” M. Melissa Wolfe “Integrating Disruption: Acquiring the Philip J. and Suzanne Schiller Collection of American Social Commentary Art 1930-1970”

      These four links are going to the old journal pages rather than the new ones.

    1. Roberta K. Tarbell, “Fifty Years of the History of American Sculpture” Elise Madeleine Ciregna, “Cemeteries and Ideal Sculpture” Jennifer Wingate, “Sculpture and Lived Space”

      The links for these three articles are going to the old website instead of the new one. The links on the landing page are correct.

    2. Image: S.J. Addis, Carving Gouge, n.d. (nineteenth century), steel and oak, Yale University Art Gallery, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Link

      We should include the entire image here, with the caption below it. On the landing page, the image is cropped to fit into a square and in the banner above, it is cropped into a panorama format. We need to see the image as a whole, with no cropping.

    1. A Portrait of Samuel Finley Attributed to John HesseliusLooking through the Skiascope: Benjamin Gilman and the Invention of the Modern Museum Gallery“It’s in My Mind”: William Merritt Chase and the Imagination

      The Research Notes are also listed in the TOC in the wrong order. The correct listing is Skiascope, Chase, and Hesselius

    2. Marmorean Ballplayer: Sheriff John McNamee of Brooklyn and His Sculptural Career in FlorenceThe Thiele Family Monument: Vision of a Heavenly Future

      The TOC is listing the Baseball essay before the Thiele Family essay. They should be reversed so that they appear in the same order as they do on the landing page.

    1. Shewanella oneidensis is a bacterium notable for its ability to reduce metal ions and live in environments with or without oxygen. This proteobacterium was first isolated from Lake Oneida, NY in 1988, whence its name.[1]


    1. Local community based organizations that have been talking about how these social determinants of health affect health outcomes for several years would like to see a broad-based collaborative strategy launched, but are worried that the health department will “just want to take over and not build a partnership in a meaningful way.

      Ejemplo de anotación en el que se menciona una genuina preocupación sobre el rol del Departamento de Salud ante posibles acciones sobre cómo trabajar con diferentes determinantes de la salud.

    1. geographically, intellectu-ally, and in terms of values, interests, families, and jobs

      And in terms of language, time/flexibility of scheduling, skill with/access to technology... can anyone think of others?

    2. ely primarily on users’ intrinsic motivations

      I would be curious to know what some of these intrinsic motivations are. If we knew, scientists could probably do a better job of making sure these projects are actually rewarding to the citizens who participate.

    3. Second, the concept of PUS can be defined and meas-ured in so many ways that a beleaguered project leader is hard-pressed to know where to start.

      Third, is it possible that the "beleaguered project leader" just doesn't care? Maybe I'm just being cynical but can we really assume that every researcher engaged in citizen science cares deeply about the personal development of each participant?

    4. because significant funding for citizen science originates from the Advancement in Informal STEM Learning (AISL) program of the US National Science Foundation (NSF), science education is an important or primary goal for many projects

      Does this statement make anyone else a little sad? On the one hand, I think it's great that there's funding in place to promote science education through research. On the other, it would be so nice if we didn't have to incentivize it monetarily.

    1. Perhaps part of the confusion - and you say this in a different way in your little memo - is that the C/C++ folks see OO as a liberation from a world that has nothing resembling a first-class functions, while Lisp folks see OO as a prison since it limits their use of functions/objects to the style of (9.). In that case, the only way OO can be defended is in the same manner as any other game or discipline -- by arguing that by giving something up (e.g. the freedom to throw eggs at your neighbor's house) you gain something that you want (assurance that your neighbor won't put you in jail).

      [9] "Sum-of-product-of-function pattern - objects are (in effect) restricted to be functions that take as first argument a distinguished method key argument that is drawn from a finite set of simple names."

    2. Sum-of-product-of-function pattern - objects are (in effect) restricted to be functions that take as first argument a distinguished method key argument that is drawn from a finite set of simple names.

      fwiu: the "finte set of simple names" are all the objects defined in the codebase e.g. in java there are no functions as such just methods attached to classes i.e. "their key argument"

    3. All you can do is send a message (AYCDISAM) = Actors model - there is no direct manipulation of objects, only communication with (or invocation of) them. The presence of fields in Java violates this.

      from what I understand in Java... there are some variables on classes (class instances) that are only acessible through methods and for those the "only send message" paradigm holds but there are also fields which are like attributes in python which you can change directly

    4. Parametric polymorphism - functions and data structures that parameterize over arbitrary values (e.g. list of anything). ML and Lisp both have this. Java doesn't quite because of its non-Object types.

      generics so you've got a "template" collection e.g. Collectoin<animal> and you parametrise it with the Animal type in this example how is that broken by "non-Object types" in java</animal>

    5. Ad hoc polymorphism - functions and data structures with parameters that can take on values of many different types.

      does he mean that list in python is polymorphic because it can be list of integers or string or ... ?

    6. Encapsulation - the ability to syntactically hide the implementation of a type. E.g. in C or Pascal you always know whether something is a struct or an array, but in CLU and Java you can hide the difference.

      is this because:

      • interfaces--contextually identical (because satisfy common set of behaviours)?
      • or being wrapped in objects (thus blurring the difference)?
    1. The relative prestige of academic anthropology and the intense competition involved in reaching the higher echelons of the profession mean that too much valuable research is published in highbrow journals that are read only by a small elite, written in overly complicated jargon that renders it out of reach for practitioners and the general public.

      totally agree.

    1. Following Christopher Strachey,[2] parametric polymorphism may be contrasted with ad hoc polymorphism, in which a single polymorphic function can have a number of distinct and potentially heterogeneous implementations depending on the type of argument(s) to which it is applied. Thus, ad hoc polymorphism can generally only support a limited number of such distinct types, since a separate implementation has to be provided for each type.

      kind of like clojure multimethods but those can dispatch on arbitary function hence arbitrary "property"

    2. In programming languages and type theory, parametric polymorphism is a way to make a language more expressive, while still maintaining full static type-safety. Using parametric polymorphism, a function or a data type can be written generically so that it can handle values identically without depending on their type.[1] Such functions and data types are called generic functions and generic datatypes respectively and form the basis of generic programming.

      so essentially this is just a way to escape the contrains of types--overspecifying the type of argument for e.g. append function

      I guess the behaviour implement cannot really implement on the type of value

    1. Power of the test

      Can you give an example or illustration of "rejecting a null hypothesis when power is too small" and "with larger effect size or significance level, and with smaller test power, the required sample size decreases"?

    1. Misterie

      "an action or practice about which there is or is reputed to be some secrecy; esp. a highly skillful or technical operation in a trade or art. " (OED)

    1. The link for open proposal provided in the poster referee to the preprint submitted to the EC during the evaluation. The peer-review version and the DoW included in the grant agreement is available through ZENODI. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1466869

  4. yiddishkop.github.io yiddishkop.github.io
    1. 李宏毅 linear algebra lec6: Having solution or Not?

      Textbook: chapter 1.6


      能否找到一个 x 使得 \(Ax=b\) 成立.

      • Linear combination
      • span

      有没有解这个问题非常重要:假设 Linear system 是一个电路,现在老板告诉你这个电路要输出 b 这么大的电流,你能不能找到合适的电压源or电流源,还是根本就找不到?



      A system of linear equations is called consistent if it has one or more solutions。

      只要有解就叫做 consistent.


      A system of linear equations is called inconsistent if its solution set is empty(no solution)

      没有解就叫做 inconsistent.


      Naive 方法:线的交点

      把 system of linear equations 的方程都画成直线,如果他们有交点,那么就是有解,否则无解

      General 方法

      定义引入:Linear Combination

      Given a vector set \(\{u_1,u_2,...,u_k\}\)

      The linear combination of the vectors in the set: \(v=c_1u_1+c_2u_2+...+c_ku_k,\ c_1,c_2,...,c_k\ are\ scalars\ coefficients\ of\ linear\ combination\)

      linear combination is a vector.

      有了 Linear combination 的定义之后,我们再回一下 lec5 篇末讲解的关于 使用 column view of product of matrix and vector 所以我们可以得到的结论是:

      \(Ax\) 其本质就是一个 linear combination, 他是

      • 以 \(x\) 的每一位为 scalar coefficient of linear combination,
      • 以 columns of \(A\) as vectors 作为 vector set engaged in linear combination, 的一个 linear combination


      对于 \(Ax=b\) 是否有解(x是变量)这件事,实际就是在问:b 是否是columns of A的所有可能的线性组合中的一种。





      引入 independent 向量


      引入 反之不反

      非零非平行 ===> 有解;有解 ==X==> 非零非平行。

      引入 span

      vector set 的所有可能的 linear combination (另一个vector set)就是这组 vector set 的 span。

      \(v = c_1u_1+c_2u_2+...+c_ku_k\)

      \(v\) 毫无疑问是一个向量。

      如果我们穷举所有可能的\(c_1,c_2,...,c_k\),他们所得到的向量的集合(vector set \(V\))就是\(x_1,x_2,...,x_k\)的span,同时,\(x_1,x_2,...,x_k\) 叫做 vector set \(V\) 的 generating set.

      引入 generating set

      \(if\ Vector\ set\ V=Span(S),\ then\ V\ is\ Span\ of\ S, also\ S\ is\ a\ generating\ set\ for\ V,\ or\ S\ generates\ V\)

      \(S\) 可以作为一种描述 \(V\) 特性的方法。为什么我们需要这种描述方法呢?因为 \(V\) 作为一个 span,他通常都非常非常的大(一般都是无穷多个),如果我们想要描述这种无穷大(“无穷”都意味着抽象)的向量的集合,最好的方法就是找到一个更具体(“有限”意味着具体)的可联想的“指标” --- generating set --- 这个向量集合是由什么样的向量集合生成的

      相同的向量集(span)可能由不同的向量集(generating set)产生:

      \(S_1=\begin{vmatrix} 1 \\ -1\end{vmatrix}\)



      引入 span of standard vector

      standard vector 其实就是 one-hot encoding vector. 可以见下:

      \(e_1=\begin{vmatrix}1\\0\\0\end{vmatrix}, e_1=\begin{vmatrix}0\\1\\0\end{vmatrix}, e_1=\begin{vmatrix}0\\0\\1\end{vmatrix}\)

      \(span(e_1)=one\ R^1\ in\ R^3\), one axis in 3D-space \(span(e_1,e_2)=one\ R^2\ in\ R^3\), one 2D-space in 3D-space \(span(e_1,e_2,e_3)=R^3\), whole 3D-space.


      • \(Ax=b\) has solution or not?


      • is \(b\) the linear combination of columns of \(A\)?


      • is \(b\) in the \(span\) of the columns of \(A\)?
    2. 李宏毅 linear algebra lec7

      Textbook: chapter 1.7


      有没有解 ---> 是不是线性组合 ---> 在不在span中。


    3. 李宏毅 linear algebra lec7

      Textbook: chapter 1.7


      有没有解 ---> 是不是线性组合 ---> 在不在span中。


    4. 李宏毅 linear algebra lec 5



      1. '->' 以下表示线性系统

      2. 符合加法性:x->y ==> x1+x2->y1+y2

      3. 符合乘法(scalar)性:x->y ==> x1k->yk


      再结合一个超级牛逼的观点广义向量 --- 函数也是一种向量。我们就把线性系统是一条直线的观点边界向外扩展了一些:




      1. 加法性:fn->fc ===> fn1 + fn2-> fc1+fc2

      2. 乘法性:fn->fc ===> fn1k->fc1k




      \(vector\ \Rightarrow LinearSystem\ \Rightarrow vector\)

      \(domain\ \Rightarrow LinearSystem\ \Rightarrow co-domain\)


      可以证明的是(in lec3)任何线性系统都可以表示为联立线性等式,也就是说联立等式与线性系统是等价的

      Linear system is equal to System of linear equations.


      1. 矩阵 符合加法/乘法性 所以其为一个线性系统
      2. 联立方程式 符合加法/乘法性 所以其为一个线性系统






      lec5: 两种方式理解 matrix-vector product

      • 可以按看待matrix,正常看法;
      • 可以按看待matrix,把整个matrix看成一个row向量;

      联立方程式 ---> 按列看待matrix的 product of matrix and vector ---> 联立方程式可以写成 Product of matrix and vector. 因为之前说过任何一个线性系统都可以写成联立方程式,那么矩阵就是一个线性系统。

      \(Ax=b\) 中的 \(A\) 就是一个线性系统

    1. GPS wouldn’t work inside the building

      GPS wouldn't work. Lead on roof perhaps?

    2. Spanish moss

      Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is an epiphytic flowering plant that often grows upon larger trees in tropical and subtropical climates. (Well, that's what it says on Wikipedia anyway.)

    3. As Natalie started up the stairs to her apartment she heard a distinctive trilling siren, then saw a red shimmer spilling down onto the landing ahead.

      This is my first annotation.... This is Paul S on the MA DaH.

    1. I think that this shows how his thought process reveals a lot about his character.

    2. confess, my son, that I have always looked forward to your marriage with your cousin as the tie of our domestic comfort, and the stay of my declining years. You were attached to each other from your earliest infancy; you studied together, and appeared, in dispositions and tastes, entirely suited to one another

      Why does victor's father want victor and Elizabeth to be together so bad?

    1. imprison'd in the viewlesse windes

      So Dante imagined the 2nd circle of purgatory where the lustful souls are tried.

    2. prenzie

      Nickname for precisian (puritan) or maybe presbyterian?

    3. Bring them to heare me speak

      switch "them" and "me"

    4. For all th' accommodations that thou bearst, 1218Are nurst by basenesse

      Everything you acquire—clothing wealth, shelter, food—comes by base activities like labor and trade or even stealing.

      Accommodation : " 2. Provision of what is suitable, necessary, or convenient." (OED

    1. tudents can only achieve learning goals if they understand those goals, assume someownership of them, and can assess progres

      True. But how does this align to the prior section where they are encouraged to set their own goals? Are we suggesting that even when setting their own goals, they might not understand what they are?

    2. personal interpretation of the meaning

      I assume this means 'personal meaning'. Helpful in creating a sense of motivation and self responsibility

    3. motivational beliefs

      Seems to be a really important factor for self regulated learning, and one that is largely innate. How might we instill motivation where it otherwise does not exist?

    1. I called myself the murderer of William, of Justine, and of Clerval.

      Victor feels guilty for knowing that the monster killed William, Justine, and know Clerval.

    1. this problem

      This will link to CEStoicism's Ecology page or a subpage within.

    1. I sat one evening in my laboratory; the sun had set, and the moon was just rising from the sea; I had not sufficient light for my employment, and I remained idle, in a pause of consideration of whether I should leave my labour for the night, or hasten its conclusion by an unremitting attention to it.

      These sentences are giving us setting.

    1. In the mean time I worked on, and my labour was already considerably advanced. I looked towards its completion with a tremulous and eager hope, which I dared not trust myself to question, but which was intermixed with obscure forebodings of evil, that made my heart sicken in my bosom.

      Is victor talking about the Female monster? I'm confused.

    1. Create a consistent brand experience Consistency is the key to establishing brand identity and to turning your company’s purpose and mission into a human story. When your customers see and hear a consistent message from your brand, it reinforces your identity and unique selling proposition and eventually, often subconsciously, assigns higher value and trust in your credit union. Think bigger than business cards and letterheads. True brand consistency extends from the branch culture and how you interact with current and potential members to subtle colors and particular language you use in your marketing.
    1. Defining the persona of your credit union, and its relationship to the community, is vital to connecting with potential members
    1. In Teaching to Transgress she tells of how being a black child in a mixed-race classroom was disempowering, as white teachers and students constantly reproduced racism and encouraged obedience to an alien culture, whereas previously, she had been educated by black teachers who engaged black children in a collective struggle. The

      Developing critical consciousness necessitates that one is able to develop an opinion as a result of analysis of oppressive conditions with interests that develop an awareness of both social and political factors that create oppression, with a mission to strengthen relationships and cross cultural conditions. Scholarly author Hooks says that “I have not forgotten the day a student came to class and told me: "We take your class. We learn to look at the world from a critical standpoint, one that considers race, sex, and class. And we can't enjoy life anymore." Without question, Hooks is doing something right by giving her students a lens in which to critically view class, race, sex, and social class through challenging students to look at the world in a different way through reflection upon what is considered unthinkable. She discusses the discomfort involved in giving up old routines and ways of thinking in an effort to analyze how one’s old world of looking is not working. Specifically, she discusses views of how class, race, sexual preference and ethnicity are constructed in western ideologies and she questions systematic pedagogies of oppression challenging thinking in order to establish multiple vantage points that can be considered. In essence she broadly states that: Students are eager to break through barriers to knowing. They are willing to surrender to the wonder of re-learning and learning ways of knowing that go against the grain. When we, as educators, allow pedagogy to be radically changed by our recognition of a multicultural world, we can give students the education the desire and deserve. We can teach in ways that transform consciousness, creating a climate of free expression that is the essence of a truly liberatory liberal arts education. (44) Without question the discomfort and tension in her analysis of systematic pedagogies allow for the emergence of a rite of passage into adulthood in which students are able to develop critical perspectives, and a lens to more meaningful perspectives.


      Hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.


    1. How is scaffolding presumptive?

      Scaffolding as an instructional and learning strategy has been a topic that many experts in the field of education have researched within a span of several decades. This has resulted in an abundance of scaffolding research across many academic disciplines, using many different contextual supports such as brainstorming, vocabulary, annotation, and group work. Remarkably, although scaffolding is an important and frequently studied concept, much discussion exists with regard to its effectiveness and as Morris in Critical Instructional Design and Acts of Resistance presumes will develop learning outcomes. However, research findings from theoretical notes, artifacts, and observation that I have completed in my own research, support the effectiveness of scaffolding in the classroom to enhance learning English curriculum, for general education, special education, and English language learners.<br> Through the use of Scaffolding a support is given during the learning process, which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals. Beishuizen, Van De Pol and Volman (2010) suggest that there is academic evidence that scaffolding is associated with existing literature of the findings from the sociocultural theory of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky said that the way in which children, or students acquire new knowledge, is dependent on instruction, previous understandings, and classroom activities.<br> Borrowed, from the field of construction, where a scaffold is a temporary structure, on the outside of a building, often made of wooden planks and metal poles used by workers while building, repairing, cleaning, or remodeling a building. The use of scaffolding as a metaphor applied across all disciplines of learning refers to the temporary support provided for the completion of task, learners might not be able to complete. This support can be provided using an array of instructional literacy strategies that draw on prior knowledge, metacognition, attitudes, observations, interests, and collaboration. Other scholarly experts, Clark and Graves (2005) suggested that there is academic evidence that scaffolding provides students’ comprehension of text, founded on Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Particular research they have done on reading comprehension, in which students internalize responsibility, have high expectations for engaging in their own learning of reading and writing tasks in English that enhance understandings, motivations, problem solving, and work quality, showed improvements of student achievement.


      Clark, K. F., & Graves, M. F. (2005). Scaffolding students' comprehension of text. Reading Teacher, 58(6), 570-580.

      Van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in Teacher-Student Interaction: A Decade of Research. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 271-296.

    1. Channels by default are blocking on sending and receiving values, so they will be waited on


    1. Pingback: Gyuri Lajos – jrnl Frode Hegland says: October 8, 2018 at 9:29 am Your quote about understanding and being understood is beautiful. Reply Pingback: Why work on Improving our Tools for Thought? – liquid thoughts

      understand understood Frode pingback

    1. You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.

      The author is using foreshadowing in this portion of the letter.

    1. Authorship has received a great deal of attention in AUGMENT's evolution, as one of the central human activities to be augmented.

      authorship central human activity to be augmented

    2. AUGMENT was designed for augmenting human intellectual capabilities. It was targeted particularly toward the core work of professionals engaged in "tough knowledge work"

      augment tough knowledge work

    3. Authorship Provisions in Augment

      Authorship Augment

    1. Variable overrides within the same Sass file can come before or after the default variables. However, when overriding across Sass files, your overrides must come before you import Bootstrap’s Sass files.

      so import your custom stuff first, then bootstrap. this is how !default works (probably at sass level). this is demonstrated in the lines below this one... . And the reason is how !default is working, which is sass feature, so the default values come/included AFTER you've set your default values.

    1. "Every person is born with an implicit short position on a stream of food and shelter for the length of their life."

      ?? we're making promises conditional on that supply?

    1. Best practices will not automatically spare you from development pain. A unique product will have unique problems, and best practices are not a substitute for careful thought.

      but you can do "contextual/local best practices" e.g. don't use abrreviations in function names other than: <team-wide-whitelist-of-abbr></team-wide-whitelist-of-abbr>

    1. One is the linked list of lines you mention. I believe this is intended to solve a display problem that TECO (the original language in which Emacs was implemented) had solved differently using the "gap" data structure. The fundamental issue was that if you have a buffer represented as a single block of contiguous text, then insertion on a character-by-character basis can be O(n2), each time you insert a character, you have to copy the entire subsequent buffer over one space.

      implementation, performence of text entry

    2. Lisp macros were also useful for the definition of new control structures, as well as new data structures. In ZWEI, we created a new iterative control structure called charmap, which iterates over characters in an interval. Intervals are stored as doubly-linked lists of arrays, and the starting point might be in the middle of one array and the ending point might be in the middle of another array. The code to perform this iteration was not trivial, and someone reading it might easily not understand the function it was performing, even though that function was the conceptually simple one of iterating over characters. So we created a macro called charmap that expands into the double-loop code to iterate over the characters. It is simple and obvious, and is used in many places, greatly reducing the size of the code and making the functionality obvious at a glance.

      use of macros implementing data structures making things more readable!

    3. It became policy to avoid abbreviations in most cases. In ZWEI, we made a list of several words that were used extremely often, and established 'official' abbreviations for them, and always used only those abbreviations. ... Words not on this list were always spelled out in full.

      abbreviations whitelist - good programming practice!

    4. The use of the mouse is still considered experimental. We know of several editors which depend highly on the use of a mouse for input, but we are not convinced that it is better than a keyboard; after more people start using ZWEI, it will be interesting to see how many of them make heavy use of the mouse and how many hardly use it at all.

      mouse considered experimental mouse better than keyboard?

    5. Since ZWEI is written in Lisp and lives in the Lisp environment of the Lisp machine, it is in a very good position to interface closely with other elements of that environment.

      living system interacting with a running lisp machine

    6. ZWEI is display-oriented: the text the user is editing is actually displayed (this is relevant because many editors of the time often showed out-of-date text due to efficiency and bandwidth restrictions, putting the burden on the user to imagine what their text looks like currently).

      bandwith restrictions -> out of date text -> user has to imagine what it currently looks like

    7. Some paragraphs are devoted to what must have been a novel concept at the time for such a system: that the Lisp Machine was a personal system, not time-shared, and this gave rise to features not viable on time-sharing systems, due to the fact that the user was not contending with other users for resources.

      personal computers as novel concept (vs time sharing) and what it enables

    1. what is the value of number the second time Python executes the loop

      I find that this actually should be 1, because Python doesn't care what the object in the list is whether integer or string. It keeps looping until all objects in the list have been iterated. So the value of the 2nd number based on the fact that it is a list, shouldn't it be 1 since Python begins with 0 for a numbering system?

    1. We are 95 per cent confident that average candy colourfulness decreases by 0.19 to 0.46 for each additional unit of sweetness in the population.

      I can't refer these figures to the spss output. which figures should we interpret to get these results?

    1. s/he may be more likely to give resources to the group that more closely represents his in-group

      goes back to that part within us telling us to do what we can to up our survival rates and hereditary line... we want to improve our own groups so we can live the best lives possible.

    2. the classes will come to dislike each other not because of any real

      belief that they deserve it

    3. may result in unconsciously acting distant and indifferent, which can have devastating effects on the hopeful interviewee’s ability to perform well

      Stereotype threat!!

    4. real in their consequences

      just as consequential in effects on people.

    5. wanting to maintain group values in the face of differing opinions

      = less open to hearing others opinions - see's them as "wrong" instead of just "different"from their own.

    6. inferior

      It's like if you don't fit in with the already dominant group you're less.... because you're different. It seems to have nothing to do with who they actually are just the fact that they're not to "certain group" that holds highest power.

    7. politically conservative

      that's interesting. I wonder what other stereotype/prejudice factors play into political statistics.

    8. while unduly favoring one’s own group (in-group)

      I think it's pretty natural to want to favor your own group. Everybody wants to believe they're good, and that they're the best. I think a lot of that has to do with the fact that social standings, etc. really do effect our lives and some people might even have the mentality that if they put others down, they will raise up (plays into stereotype threat). (even if done unconsciously. It's almost like a mentality for survival/optimal living).

    9. You would be hard pressed to find someone today who openly admits they don’t believe in equality.

      I think that it isn't that hard to someone who will openly put down a group of people, but they won't openly see it as "wrong" in their mind.

    10. when it became less socially acceptable to exhibit bias

      people follow social norms on the outside, but on the inside people really aren't always who them seem to be (going back to the first unit with inner and outer selves).

  5. www.folgerdigitaltexts.org www.folgerdigitaltexts.org
    1.  The hearing of my wife with your approach.

      He will go and see wife to convey the good news.

    1. la Bible dépasse en ancienneté les anciens textes fondateurs.

      les philosophes ne sont pas les seuls lecteurs ; et de quels philosophes s'agit-il ?

    2. la vérité qui dérange

      "la vérité" : on va vite en besogne

    3. Puis il signale que le Livre de Josué précise qu'une trentaine de cités ont été détruites

      le cours parle de décadence ; pas de traces de combat

    4. Ce dieu est ethnique, national, identitaire.


    5. Troisième idée reçue

      surprenant et sans arguments

    6. Le monothéisme juif est une construction qui date du Ve siècle avant l'ère commune.

      à préciser

    7. voilà pourquoi l'université, qui manque de ces talents-là, ne le reconnaît pas

      posture de l'auteur non consensuelle

    1. Texts

      What are some examples of texts that have rhetorical features?

    2. “New Rhetoric”

      What exactly is "new rhetoric?"

    3. As digital technologies have continued to develop (at an amazingly brisk pace), the possibilities of constructing hypertext work that includes a variety of media—video, audio, animation, interactive processes—has further marked the departure from our traditional notions of print documents while simultaneously retaining print-based forms within these hypermedia compositions.

      Why is it that the discourse community prefers to use texts digitally rather than the traditional print?

    4. approach to “text” as a “communicative event” (1) that meets seven specific criteria of textuality: cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informality, situationality, and intertextuality.

      Multiple definitions and approaches to the term, "text" as a "communicative event."

    5. digital rhetoric as similar to visual rhetoric

      What is the relationship between digital rhetoric and visual rhetoric? How are they similar? How are they different?

    6. power of rhetoric

      What is the power of rhetoric and how can it be defined in a contemporary approach?

    1. Federal prosecutors on Friday alleged that a Russian woman is the chief accountant of Project Lakhta, a sprawling Kremlin campaign to influence politics in the U.S. and European Union. It’s an operation that the FBI, in a criminal complaint, says is ongoing.

      The complaint accuses the woman, Elena Alekseevna Khusyaynova, of keeping detailed records of payouts to a social-media campaign of which the St. Petersberg-based troll farm, the Internet Research Agency, is just one component. Its chief financing, the FBI complaint continues, comes from Concord Management and Consulting, run by the oligarch Yevgeniy Prigozhin, sometimes called “Putin’s Chef.”

    1. comming
      1. intransitive. slang. To experience sexual orgasm; (of a man) to ejaculate. Cf. to come off 10 at Phrasal verbs 1. Now frequently in form cum.
    1. Arma virumque canō, Trōiae quī prīmus ab ōrīs Ītaliam, fātō profugus, Lāvīniaque vēnit lītora, multum ille et terrīs iactātus et altō vī superum saevae memorem Iūnōnis ob īram; multa quoque et bellō passūs, dum conderet urbem inferretque deōs Latiō, genus unde Latīnum,

      Albānīque patrēs, atque altae moenia Rōmae. Mūsa, mihī causās memorā, quō nūmine laesō, quidve dolēns, rēgīna deum tot volvere cāsūs īnsīgnem pietāte virum, tot adīre labōrēs impulerit. Tantaene animīs caelestibus īrae?