1. Last 7 days
    1. two problems that share the same objects and look very similar may actually be solved by entirely different approaches.

      this reminds me of the standards for mathematical practices

    2. significant learning takes major investments of time.

      Yes this is true, however sometimes you don't have time to take to teach it and have time for students to transfer their learning, especially depending on the group. Ideally yes, I would love more time to invest, but that's not always reality.

    3. Transfer is affected by the degree to which people learn with understanding rather than merely memorize sets of facts or follow a fixed set of procedures

      This is very important to learning. I feel like sometimes I teach it to memorize it (math) but I need to work on why it is important why we learn this.

    4. Processes of learning and the transfer of learning are central to understanding how people develop important competencies.

      Just like internship year!

    5. Instead, experts have acquired extensive knowledge that affects what they notice and how they organize, represent, and interpret information in their environment. This, in turn, affects their abilities to remember, reason, and solve problems.

      Make sense! I appreciate this definition

    6. The biggest problem I have with teaching by far is trying to get into the mind-set of a ninth grader…”

      I have this problem too. Sometimes I forget what life of a 4th grader would feel like. They always seem to be involved with thousands of other things that it is hard to prioritize. I also try to model a lot for them, hoping to organize their thinking more.

    7. feedback


    8. The norms established in the classroom have strong effects on students’ achievement.


    9. what competence or mastery looks like

      I need help with how to help students understand this in a way that isn't too leading. With young students, if I give an example, much of the class will do it exactly like my example. I intentionally steer away from this approach, but then how do I help the students recognize whether they have been successful or not?

    10. they want to look good rather than risk making mistakes while learning

      Love me some Dweck!! I try to hit this home with my first graders: a person's beliefs are KEY to his/her potential for learning and growth. She believed she could, so she did.

    11. an accelerated group because they came into the room and started something rather than just sitting down and socializing.

      I don't know if I would find this person to be an expert observer if this is their comment in all fairness. From my perspective, this is simply a good classroom routine that is running effectively. It looks like this with my standard level classes, special needs classes, and extended classes. If the students know the structure and expectation they will perform.

    12. a teacher constructs an instructional program

      teachers also have to consider their own strengths and style

    13. Measuring depth of understanding can pose challenges for objectivity.

      so...what's the next step? Or is there a happy medium?

    14. In order for learners to gain insight into their learning and their understanding, frequent feedback is critical: students need to monitor their learning and actively evaluate their strategies and their current levels of understanding.

      How do you make this happen without forcing it?

    15. the most effective transfer may come from a balance of specific examples and general principles, not from either one alone.

      Balance, balance, balance!

    16. revealed

      my first grader really thought the moon was made out of cheese :)

    17. A third contrast between schools and everyday environments is that abstract reasoning is often emphasized in school, whereas contextualized reasoning is often used in everyday settings

      Being able to reason both ways seems important. Where is the balance in schools and teaching?

    18. Without specific guidance from teachers, students may fail to connect everyday knowledge to subjects taught in school.

      Once again, application is key!

    19. A second major contrast between schools and everyday settings is the heavy use of tools to solve problems in everyday settings, compared with “mental work” in school settings

      Technology! I can only imagine where technology will be in five or ten years and know that for many students technology will be their main tool in the workplace. It is exciting to help them learn to better use this tool.

    20. conceptual framework

      How do you help build this framework for students?

    21. Sometimes, however, prompting is necessary. With prompting, transfer can improve quite dramatically

      In elementary, sometimes all it takes is to ask "Does this remind you of anything?" The difficult part can be for the teacher to recognize and prompt the transfers when the opportunity strikes; we have to realize that connections might not happen automatically without our guidance.

    22. One major contrast between everyday settings and school environments is that the latter place much more emphasis on individual work than most other environments (

      I feel students should be able to think for themselves and work independently, but that collaboration is equally important. In a school setting, what is the correct balance between the two? For example, should some tests be group tests instead of individual?

    23. In the mind of a child, all of these questions can become more of the focus than the subject of fractions that the teacher is attempting to teach.

      This is so important to remember when making references. When I teach fractions I always talk about pizza. Although I have never encountered a student who has not had pizza, I now I am thinking I should double check before I make that assumption.

    24. thinking visible

      I would love to know more about visible thinking!

    25. explain their blueprints to a group of outside experts who held them to very high standards

      Giving students an audience other than themselves or the teacher is a great motivator!

    26. connect everyday knowledge to subjects taught in school.

      I try to put some emphasis on this in my weekly parent newsletters. I try to point out simple ways to take what we are learning in the classroom and use them at home such as having students help cook when learning about fractions.

    27. self-assessment

      hmm...what does this look like in the primary grades?

    28. helping people take control of their own learning

      this needs to be explicitly taught

    29. The recapitulations highlight the generalizable features of the critical decisions and actions and focus on strategic levels rather than on the specific solutions

      I need to leave more time after lessons for reflecting and allowing students to "show off" what they have done and share their thinking.

    30. Although many people believe that “talent” plays a role in who becomes an expert in a particular area, even seemingly talented individuals require a great deal of practice in order to develop their expertise

      If you have not yet read the book "Outliers" by Malcolm Gladwell, it discusses this point in depth. Even famous inventors, athletes, and musicians are not just born with talent. (Think Steve Jobs or the Beatles.) He argues that they must have 10,000 hours to become an expert at their craft, and tells the stories behind these people we know to be "prodigies."

    31. The teacher also models these procedures. Thus, the program involves modeling, scaffolding, and taking turns which are designed to help students externalize mental events in a collaborative context.

      Modeling is so important!

    32. Some learners can transfer after receiving a general prompt such as “Can you think of something you did earlier that might be relevant?” Other learners need prompts that are much more specific.

      I want to start doing this! It is a general prompt, but provides students with something somewhat specific to think back to.

    33. It is important to be realistic about the amount of time it takes to learn complex subject matter.

      Again, this brings up the debate of depth over breadth.

    34. Studies show that abstracted representations do not remain as isolated instances of events but become components of larger, related events, schemata

      So these types of representations are easier to chunk?

    35. Research has indicated that transfer across contexts is especially difficult when a subject is taught only in a single context rather than in multiple contexts

      I found some great resources for reading passages that are cross-curricular. I use these in ELA during corresponding Math, Science and Social Studies units to help expand on a topic and present the material in a new way. Here is the link for 3rd grade, but they have other grades as well! http://www.k12reader.com/subject/reading-skills/reading-comprehension/3rd-grade-reading-comprehension-worksheets/

    36. For example, young learners are highly motivated to write stories and draw pictures that they can share with others.

      I saw this in action this year with my 3rd graders. They were asked to think of an issue in our school or in our community and write a letter to a leader who could make a change (principal, mayor, local PD). When I told them I was going to mail their letters, many were way more motivated to write and to write well! We even got a few response letters from a police department and a public works department!

    37. e.g., a person may be performance oriented in mathematics but learning oriented in science and social studies or vice versa

      This is important to keep in mind. You cannot label students!

    38. Challenges, however, must be at the proper level of difficulty in order to be and to remain motivating: tasks that are too easy become boring; tasks that are too difficult cause frustration.

      Zone of Proximal Development!

    39. Monitoring involves attempts to seek and use feedback about one’s progress. Feedback has long been identified as important for successful learning

      I try to provide both written and verbal feedback for my students often, but struggle with helping them monitor their progress on their own. How can I improve this?

    40. world they enter

      Has anyone read the book (seen the movie? Room? Really made me think about how you make sense of the world based on your environment.

    41. The implication is that learning cannot be rushed; the complex cognitive activity of information integration requires time.

      This supports the idea that concepts need to be explored more than once. We cannot expect our students to fully understand the lesson we taught the day before. We instead need to take the time to revisit and provide opportunities for students to have meaningful practice.

    42. Although many people believe that “talent” plays a role in who becomes an expert in a particular area, even seemingly talented individuals require a great deal of practice in order to develop their expertise

      I have heard this before from my students when talking about sports. "He was born athletic. I can't compete with him." Although that might be true that some of us are born with more "talent" no one can be successful without practicing and putting forth the effort.

    43. transfer (to other contexts)

      I think the ability to transfer/apply understanding is true learning.

    44. curricula have emphasized memory rather than under- Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel standing.

      and testing!! Standardized tests have a huge impact on American school systems...but what are we saying when we measure success in this way?

    45. Students who only memorize facts have little basis for approaching this kind of problem-solving task

      As a teacher, I want to help my students become problem solvers! Memorization is not going to be as helpful in the long run.

    46. People’s mental models of what it means to be an expert can affect the degree to which they learn throughout their lifetimes. A model that assumes that experts know all the answers is very different from a model of the accomplished novice, who is proud of his or her achievements and yet also realizes that there is much more to learn.

      Growth mindsets are so important!

    47. the meaning of “knowing” has shifted from being able to remember and repeat information to being able to find and use it

      this still makes a lot of people uncomfortable--including me at times!

    48. Accomplished novices are skilled in many areas and proud of their accomplishments, but they realize that what they know is minuscule compared to all that is potentially knowable. This model helps free people to continue to learn even though they may have spent 10 to 20 years as an “expert” in their field.

      I think this is a great mentality to help students reach. It is a growth mindset that would help them continue to learn and grow. The idea of being proud about what you know and what you have accomplished is sometimes hard to do when you know there is more work to be done.

    49. to train people to think and read critically, to express themselves clearly and persuasively, to solve complex problems in science and mathematics

      Yet many brilliant thinkers come from this era...I'm curious about their journey..

    50. Pedagogical content knowledge is an extremely important part of what teachers need to learn to be more effective.

      I remember my first year of teaching I followed the curriculum as close as I could because I didn't know any better. Now after completing year three a lot has changed because I have a better understanding of who my students are and what my students need to know.

    51. In each case, expertise in a domain helps people develop a sensitivity to patterns of meaningful information that are not available to novices. F

      This idea of looking for and understanding patterns is interesting. It makes sense in terms of chess and now I am trying to think of other subject areas and how patterns play a role.

    52. Steven then asked students to think about the circumstances that might drive them so mad that they would contemplate murdering another human being

      I think this goes along with accessing student background knowledge. Doing so can often make lessons more meaningful.

    53. cultural and social norms and expectations and that these settings influence learning and transfer in powerful ways

      can these be restrictive at times? cultural influences on education/learning are fascinating--I'd love to learn more about the impact.

    54. Learning to drive a car provides a good example of fluency and automaticity. When first learning, novices cannot drive and simultaneously carry on a conversation. With experience, it becomes easy to do so.

      This is a great way to explain this concept!

    55. The idea that experts recognize features and patterns that are not noticed by novices is potentially important for improving instruction. When viewing instructional texts, slides, and videotapes, for example, the information noticed by novices can be quite different from what is noticed by experts

      This supports the idea that different modalities for learning is so important!

    56. Similarly, students in a literature class might be asked to explain the meaning of familiar proverbs, such as “he who hesitates is lost” or “too many cooks spoil the broth.” The ability to explain the meaning of each proverb provides no guarantee that students will know the conditions under which either proverb is useful. Such knowledge is important because, when viewed solely as propositions, proverbs often contradict one another. To use them Page 44 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "2 How Experts Differ from Novices." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel effectively, people need to know when and why it is appropriate to apply the maxim “too many cooks spoil the broth” versus “many hands make light work” or “he who hesitates is lost” versus “haste makes waste”

      This is a great point. Often times the questions my students receive on tests do not put these types of phrases in context, but instead asks students to pick the best out of a multiple choice list. As teachers, we need to make sure our students have a deeper understanding.

    57. novices tend to Page 38 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "2 How Experts Differ from Novices." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel perceive problem solving in physics as memorizing, recalling, and manipulating equations to get answers.

      What do we do to change this? Is this a mindset students need to overcome or is it a case of making sure as teachers we present the information in ways that help them understand conceptually and not just memorize the information?

    58. It is left largely to students to generate the condition-action pairs required for solving novel problems.

      This is a large responsibility to place on students, especially at the elementary age.

    59. For example, young children often erroneously believe that they can remember information and hence fail to use effective strategies, such as rehearsal.

      Open to any and all suggestions on how to combat this belief! Students are quick to say they are ready for a project or presentation without having considered basic factors or rehearsing a word.

    60. Research on expertise suggests that a superficial coverage of many topics in the domain may be a poor way to help students develop the competencies that will prepare them for future learning and work


    61. Within this picture of expertise, “knowing more” means having more conceptual chunks in memory, more relations or features defining each chunk, more interrelations among the chunks, and efficient methods for retrieving related chunks and procedures for applying these informational units in problem-solving contexts

      This solidifies the reason we use "wait time" in the classroom. It takes longer for novices to search through their knowledge bank to find the information. As teachers and experts, taking this time can be difficult because we are able to find these chunks faster.

    62. Expert teachers know the kinds of difficulties that students are likely to face; they know how to tap into students’ existing knowledge in order to make new information meaningful;

      I find that the more years I teach, the better I am at anticipating common misunderstandings.

    63. One way to help students learn about conditions of applicability is to assign word problems that require students to use appropriate concepts and formulas (Lesgold, 1984, 1988; Simon, 1980). If well designed, these problems can help students learn when, where, and why to use the knowledge they are learning.

      Application is key!

    64. Often there is only superficial coverage of facts before moving on to the next topic; there is little time to develop important, organizing ideas.

      I complete agree. There seems to be an emphasis on breadth over depth, when it should be the other way around. If the curriculum allowed me to cover less material, my students would be able to form deeper, more meaningful understandings, rather than surface level facts.

    65. In mathematics, experts are more likely than novices to first try to understand problems, rather than simply attempt to plug numbers into formulas.

      I see this all the time in the elementary classroom. Expert math students will carefully read problems, attempt to understand them, and make a mental plan. Others will look for the first two numbers in the problem and arbitrarily choose to add or subtract them.

    66. 10- and 11-year-olds who are experienced in chess are able to remember more chess pieces than college students who are not chess players.

      The best chess player on my last schools chess team was a second grader. Note: The team didn't technically play against players younger than 5th grade! This student was beating students 3+ years older than him. Amazing!

    67. Specifically, masters were more likely to recognize meaningful chess configurations and realize the strategic implications of these situations; this recognition allowed them to consider sets of possible moves that were superior to others.

      I work within the IB framework and the highest levels of achievement (level 7-8) require being able to understand and work within an "unfamiliar context". This can only be achieved and understood with lots of practice with the familiar. This example is definitely relatable to my teaching context.

    68. Experts are able to flexibly retrieve important aspects of their knowledge with little attentional effort.

      This ability is critical if the teacher desires to be a learning facilitator in an inquiry based classroom. The ability to allow students to explore conjectures and open ended activities with intentional learning objectives still achieved takes good subject knowledge of what you are "teaching".

    69. The principles are relevant as well when we consider other groups, such as policy makers and the public, whose learning is also required for educational practice to change.

      The parent population is often the most difficult to convince. Even with all the new research, many parents still want rote memorization and high test scores, or as they call it: rigor.

    70. Superficial coverage of all topics in a subject area must be replaced with in-depth coverage of fewer topics that allows key concepts in that discipline to be understood. The goal of coverage need not be abandoned entirely, of course. But there must be a sufficient number of cases of in-depth study to allow students to grasp the defining concepts in specific domains within a discipline. Moreover, in-depth study in a domain often requires that ideas be carried beyond a single school year before students can make the transition from informal to formal ideas. This will require active coordination of the curriculum across school years.

      In most cases, the teacher does not dictate what standards to teach, but must follow a set curriculum. In this case, does the teacher take the liberty of choosing which standards to teach in-depth, and gloss over or skip others?

    71. The model of the child as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge provided by the teacher must be replaced. Instead, the teacher must actively inquire into students’ thinking, creating classroom tasks and conditions under which student thinking can be revealed. Students’ initial conceptions then provide the foundation on which the more formal understanding of the subject matter is built.

      I would love to see and learn more ways to pre-assess students' knowledge, especially from teachers who have found success with it in the classroom.

    72. A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.

      I use self-assessment regularly in the classroom. However, at the elementary level, students are not always honest, accurate, or specific. How can we strengthen young learners' ability to self-assess?

    73. A common misconception regarding “constructivist” theories of knowing (that existing knowledge is used to build new knowledge) is that teachers should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should always allow them to construct knowledge for themselves.

      I have worked for schools that uphold this misconception and believe that the teacher should never tell any information directly to the students. While inquiry-based or student-led learning have their value, I found the policy incredibly frustrating. The students often fell into the "Fish is Fish" problem with their own learning, and left the lesson or unit with incorrect understandings.

    74. For example, imagine being asked to design an artificial artery—would it have to be elastic? Why or why not?

      Noting how design plays a large role in understanding and application of knowledge.

    75. trial and error. Thorndike argued that rewards (e.g., food) increased the strength of connections between stimuli and responses.

      I have to echo the questions and comments from last year's students about intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and the value of positive reinforcement. I use positive reinforcement constantly in the classroom. However, the population of students I teach are constantly showered with affirmations, praise, awards, etc. I also wonder, as "megansessa" commented, if we may be creating an environment of entitled students who expect positive reinforcement at every turn.

    76. better at selecting talent than developing it

      This makes me think of the ongoing educational tracking debate. Do we select and separate students who are more talented than their peers? What are the pros and cons of "Honors English" or "Accelerated Math" courses? At what age do we begin to track?

    77. rather, the goal of education is better conceived as helping students develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge that allows people to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics, and the arts.

      This is evident in the switch to common core, with math in particular. There is less of a focus on memorizing facts and algorithms, and more on explaining, reasoning, and asking questions.

    78. Thoughtful participation in the democratic process has also become increasingly complicated as the locus of attention has shifted from local to national and global concerns.

      In international schools, this "global approach" is always a focus. It is meant to be the lens through which we teach. The rapid advancement of technology, even in the short amount of time that I have been a teacher, has opened students' learning network immensely, and provided more opportunities to embrace this global vision.

    79. Students’ theories of what it means to be intelligent can affect their performance. Research shows that students who think that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely to be performance oriented than learning oriented—they want to look good rather than risk making mistakes while learning. These students are especially likely to bail out when tasks become difficult. In contrast, students who think that intelligence is malleable are more willing to struggle with challenging tasks; they are more comfortable with risk

      By the time students reach high school, most already have an opinion about intelligence as well as where they fall on the intelligence "scale". It can definitely be a challenge to change students viewpoints about intelligence at this point.

    80. Moreover, in-depth study in a domain often requires that ideas be carried beyond a single school year before students can make the transition from informal to formal ideas. This will require active coordination of the curriculum across school years.

      This is what the Next Gen Science Standards do. All grades have the same core ideas that are carried through K-12, building up in complexity.

    81. feedback

      The feedback has to be meaningful and timely - something that I sometimes struggle with as a teacher.

    82. Further investigation of one college student who participated in the study revealed that she knew the relevant physical properties and formulas, yet, in the context of the game, she fell back on her untrained conception of how the physical world works

      Demonstrating mastery of an idea or concept should include some sort of application component - can students take what they've learned and apply it to a different situation?

    83. Since understanding is viewed as important, people must learn to recognize when they understand and when they need more information

      Teaching students how to self-asses can be a challenge.

    84. At the same time, students often have limited opportunities to understand or make sense of topics because many curricula have emphasized memory rather than under- Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel standing.

      New standards in science and world language are moving away from content memorization. Creating the assessment that actually assesses understanding can be a challenge.

    85. the goal of education is better conceived as helping students develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge that allows people to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics, and the arts.

      Students have the tools, but don't necessarily know how to properly use them. New state science standards promote this idea of focusing more on developing skills than memorizing content. This is a shift that will be beneficial across multiple disciplines.

    86. researchers are discovering ways to learn from the “wisdom of practice” that comes from successful teachers who can share their expertise.

      I'm glad to see that this is happening. It's important to observe and receive input from actual educators who are still in the classroom.

    87. Neuroscience is beginning to provide evidence for many principles of learning that have emerged from laboratory research, and it is showing how learning changes the physical structure of the brain and, with it, the functional organization of the brain.

      I remember learning about this in undergrad, but haven't looked into it since. I would be interested in seeing the reports on the research.

    1. Taking courses on a computer at home deprives students of a practical, social education that is necessary in most professions and not taught in high school.

      While this is true, some of those going to college are not as interested in that and would rathe rbe working a part time or full time job. Also some may be taking online classes in addition to classes in person.

    1. The agreement is now abandoned

      Not by everyone, is it?

    2. Predatory publishers are bringing down the scholarly publishing industry and taking science and peer review down with it.

      I don't think this follows from the arguments in this article. Confidence in peer review may have been affected by incidents involving "traditional" publishers, but no-one expects peer review from predatory publishers (except the few authors who thought a publisher was honest).

    3. dishonest researchers

      I find it hard to accept a premis of "dishonest researchers" who will never be caught.

    4. I think that, since the advent of predatory publishing, there have been tens of thousands of researchers who have earned Masters and Ph.D. degrees, been awarded other credentials and certifications, received tenure and promotion, and gotten employment – that they otherwise would not have been able to achieve – all because of the easy article acceptance that the pay-to-publish journals offer.

      I would like to know what this number is based on. Which institutions are not looking at quality of the work and only look at numbers?

    1. the whiplash is not from science: it is a product of the inappropriate presentation from the press.

      They say that if it isn't news about chocolate, wine, or sex, the Today show won't report on it

    1. Spiders appear to offload cognitive tasks to their webs, making them one of a number of species with a mind that isn’t fully confined within the head.

      So interesting!

    1. Incarceration is so prevalent for Black men that it has been conceptualized as a new stage in the life course of young, low-skill Black men

      the way they speak of this , makes it seem like its a norm for black men to be incarcerated

    2. Black is a “mob,” but protesting while White is “disruptive behavior.

      african american protesters are seen to be more reckless unlike the white men and women even though sometimes its viceversa

    3. due to racial profiling done by White officers in racially segregated communities.

      racial profiling creates a huge divide in the community and its something that shouldnt be there

    4. ontrolling for suspect demeanor, offense severity, presence of witnesses, evidence at the scene, prior record of the suspect, and other factors, the minority suspects had a 30% higher chance of being arrested than white suspects.

      we literally live in a black and white world where white means your in the clear almost

    5. greater the presence of racial minorities, the greater the state’s social control efforts, including law enforcement.

      i believe this actually works. it creates a sense of omnipresence and its great in a community. it helps the people living in that community open up to you and build a stronger relationship with you rather then someone that seems like a ghost to you

    6. police killing unarmed Black men, the Internet is abuzz over racial inequality in the criminal justice system.

      what happens when its viceversa though?

    7. health of Black Americans is hit particularly hard by disproportionate incarceration (for a review, see here).

      its because they are pretty much treated as if they are less then human sometimes

    8. criminal records hurt employment chances, but even Black and Latino applicants with clean records are less likely to receive a callback from an employer than White applicants with a criminal record

      we live in a black and white world and we'd rather live in a world that doesnt have someone "less then us" its something that represses the minorities ; the blacks and latinos espeically

    9. white counterparts, previously incarcerated Black workers experience 21% slower wage growth, regardless of their work history

      why does this seem like a shock to people? its something that happens so much to where its swept under the rug so frequently and its become to be considered a "norm"

    10. Black offenders wait longer for parole than white offenders, even when controlling for legal, individual, and community characteristics.

      the criminal justice system has a huge bias for the majority race because if they dont get them out, it looks bad on them. we live in a society where we care about our perception so much that race is something that we take into account when it shouldnt be that way

    11. Race matters for punishment outcomes.

      i dont think it should be like this at all. That says alot about our society

    1. LIGO consists of two facilities, separated by nearly nineteen hundred miles—about a three-and-a-half-hour flight on a passenger jet, but a journey of less than ten thousandths of a second for a gravitational wave.

      The author uses scientific lingo throughout this essay to keep it consistent with the information that is being discussed.

    2. Kalogera hadn’t even told her husband.

      It takes dedication and honor to be able to not share such incredible information with your spouse.

    3. The collaborators began the arduous process of double-, triple-, and quadruple-checking their data.

      The collaborators are very thorough when checking their data because they want to make sure that their findings are 100% accurate.

    4. This morning, in a press conference in Washington, D.C., the LIGO team announced that the signal constitutes the first direct observation of gravitational waves.

      It is really cool that Einstein predicted that there were gravitational waves 100 years ago with out all of the advanced technology we have today and in fact he was correct.

    5. A hundred years ago, Albert Einstein, one of the more advanced members of the species, predicted the waves’ existence, inspiring decades of speculation and fruitless searching

      When someone has a different idea or view of the world, most people tend to disagree with their opinion because it is too out there.

    1. הצבע

      איזה צבע?

    2. משגשגת

      1. היכן קיימים איזכורים לשיגשוג של הכלנית?
      2. האם הנתונים מעודכנית לשנת 2017?

    1. I try very hard to get my students to like reading.

      Very different problem than the above highlight.

    1. We thank Google and the many CC platforms, partners, institutions, and individuals from the broader open web community who contributed essential data and information for this report.

      I loved the added thank you at the bottom of the website. Giving recognition to Google and other contributors who have made this data possible. It was also a good resource to find future resources.

    1. Inflatable tanks, fake radio broadcasts, and actors impersonating generals were all part of an arsenal of brilliant tricks used by a top-secret WWII army unit called The Ghost Army.

      I love reading about this--so creative!

    1. Create an account using the sidebar on the right of the screen.


    1. Create a note by selecting some text and clicking the button

      This is a note

    1. This is a good workbench. It lets me access all of my links easity.

    2. Learning Design

      This is a link to the web site of m organizational unit.

    1. For instance, a set of stairs does not just afford climbing, but based on the angle of construction, may facilitate an easy climb, pose challenges to climbing, or be unclimbable entirely

      Ah so an object may have a property that gives clues to people to do something, but do it so poorly that it may appear that the object doesn't have the affordance

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : président René Coty, acteur secondaires : Armand Achille-Fould, ancien ministre de l’Agriculture, officiel

      Physique : Palais de l'Elysée

      Concept : récompense, Légion d'honneur

      Controverse :

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : Président René Coty ; acteurs secondaires : footballeurs, officiels

      Physique : stade

      Concept : évènement sportif, nationalisme

      Controverse :

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : Mme René Coty ; acteurs seondaires : enfant, officiels

      Physique : Palais de l'Elysée

      Concept : régionalisme, réception

      Controverse :

    1. Acteurs : Président Réné Coty et son épouse ; major général Iskander Mirza, premier président de la République islamique du Pakistan et son épouse

      Physique : Palais de l'Elysée

      Concept : réception diplomatique, honneur, couple présidentiel, première dame

      Controverse :

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : président René Coty ; acteurs secondaires : Directeur d'école, écolier

      Physique : Bureau présidentiel

      Concept : offrande, hommage, portrait

      Controverse :

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : Président Général De Gaulle ; acteurs secondaires : militaires, officiels

      Physique : ruines d'Oradour-sur-Glane

      Concept : village martyr, hommage

      Controverse :

    1. Acteurs : acteur principal : Président Général De Gaulle ; acteurs secondaires : officiels, cour présidentielle (au second plan), badauds (au balcon)

      Physique : parvis de la gare de Limoges

      Concept : salut militaire, drapeaux représentant la personne morale de la nation Française

      Controverse :

    1. Acteur : acteur principal : Président Général De Gaulle ; acteurs secondaires : officiels, cour présidentielle

      Physique : cimetière d'Oradour-sur-Glane

      Concept : hommage aux victimes, recueillement, prière

      Controverse :

    1. Concept : photographie de groupe

      Acteur : acteur principal : Président René Coty ; acteurs secondaires : Notabilités de l'Union Française

      Physique : Jardins de l'Elysée

      Controverse :

    1. called for ‘the Council’s agenda item 7 [to] be removed.’ ‘

      what the fuck the item 7 is ? pls refer this basic intro of UNHRC

    2. she said, the UN will need to improve the election process for Council membership, to prevent ‘the worst human rights abusers from obtaining seats on the Council.’ That would mean, in turn: an end to the practice whereby regional groups pre-cook ‘clean slate’ (i.e. non-competitive) elections so that, for example, 3 States ‘compete’ for 3 seats, (perhaps unsurprisingly, Ambassador Haley failed to mention that the US too has benefited from ‘clean slate’ polls); and the replacement of ‘secret ballots…with open voting.’

    3. she would need to see (and, more importantly, she would presumably need to ‘sell’ to the White House) ‘a couple of critically important’ reforms.

    1. It is a wandering and unpredictable piece, and the structure is hard to parse as well.

      I think that Baptiste had trouble transcribing a scale that included microtones he was not familiar with The scale is an eight-note scale, not including the octave, which is an unusual occurrence in both Western and African musics. Two of the notes are a semitone apart (adjacent keys on the keyboard), with one of the notes designated as the keynote, which makes for an even stranger structure. I'll just copy from the 1993 article. Sorry for the self-reference, but it addresses this directly:

      The first two sections of "Koromanti" use seven notes, the third, eight. The extra note in the third section was probably the result of an attempt by Baptiste to record microtones, which cannot be represented by stan- dard European notation. Many African (as well as other) musical traditions make use of microtones in their tunings. These are notes somewhere between the European semitones; on a piano, they would fall between the keys. An example familiar to Western audiences (albeit one of African ancestry) would be the bending of a string by a blues or rock guitar player to accent a note. Microtones are perceived by the Western ear, accultur- ated to tempered tuning, as being out of tune.

      The microtonal section of "Koromanti" has both G and Q, which is highly unlikely because the section uses G as its root note (the fourth mode of the tonality of D major, which the third section is in, begins on G). More likely, the fourth is raised, so that it lies somewhere between a European G and G#. Baptiste probably did not know how to deal with this and rendered some of the notes as G and others as G#. Correction would give a third heptatonic scale for the piece, as the eight notes would then become seven,kith the third and seventh notes partially flatted (Table II).

      The use of microtones is not common among the Akan, who show a preference for a heptatonic scale based on the natural overtone series that is equivalent to a nontempered version of a European major scale, where the seventh interval is flatted slightly. This type of scale would not have caused Baptiste any confusion. The Angola region, which is known for its employment of microtones, is not known for its use of heptatonic scales. Although "Koromanti" contains several traditional Akan melodic struc- tures. the musician used these features in unconventional ways."

      The upshot of all this is that it fits neatly in none of the boxes here: West African, Central African, European. Nonetheless, it is an immediately recognizable sound as the blues scale originating in African American music, with its microtonally flatted third and seventh (and sometimes fifth): aka the blue notes found in everything from blues and jazz to the horn sections in reggae. The scale in other words is no longer locateable in the traditions that make it up, but is creolized. To me, the fact that Baptiste had so much trouble with this points toward him not being a creole listener. Setting the microtones right yields a D Blues scale with seven notes. The piece then coheres much better. I can provide musical examples, though not as nice as the "Passages" recordings!

    2. elsewhere

      I am not familiar with any evidence that the box instrument is not of Jamaican origin. I would posit this instrument as more likely to have been played than a balafo, which Sloane does not mention at all, or a sansa, which Sloane may or may not have heard. I think it belongs with the Angola piece, despite its closer resemblance to West African harps. See that part of the site for why. He does identify one of the Strum Strums as being of Indian origin. I waver between this being the instrument of an indigenous American enslaved in Jamaica and that of a South Asian that Sloane collected for his cabinet of curiosities and placed for comparison.

      On the one hand, first generation White South Carolinians encouraged a slave trade with the Indians who came to be known as the Creeks in return for guns and other goods. Creeks pretty much depopulated all the way to northern Florida by the early eighteenth century. In turn, White settlers traded the Indigenous captives to Jamaica and other islands in return for preferred African Slaves (who were preferred in part because of being farther from home) roughly at a rate of two North Americans for one African.

      The North American origin story makes sense, but on the other hand, the instrument itself has features more associated with South Asian Indians. While negative arguments are not very strong, I have not seen much of a stringed instrument tradition in sixteenth through eighteenth century Southeastern North American sources. Refer to John Whites drawings and Theodor DeBry's engravings in particular (http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/introduction.html). In contrast, the instrument fairly closeley resembles versions of the stringed instruments in the sitar/tanpura family, minus the second resonator and the sympathetic strings, both of which may be modern additions anyway (not sure about that, but you can still obtain single resonator sitars with no sympathetic strings in Kolkata last time I checked in the mid 90s). The key here is an aesthetic one favoring a buzzing sound in many West and Central African as well as South Asian musics. It is demonstrated in the kalimba recordings on this site quite well, but has a correlate in Indian music called jivari. The lack of a bridge on the strum-strumps would create exactly this favored buzzing sound on either of the banjo-like instruments. So on alternate days, I lean toward the South Asian explanation. I spell this out in more detail in a forthcoming article edited by Mary Caton that I'd be happy to share if allowed !

      For the furtherance of knowledge, I offer my schoolboy Latin translation of SLoan'es description here. I place no authority on my translation whatsoever, so if anyone wants to improve upon it, please do.

      1&2. The small stringed instruments of the the Indians and the Negroes made from diverse gourds, hollowed out, with skins drawn over them, Strum Strumps.

      1. The small stringed instruments, from the the oblong of a hollow tree; finished on top with a skin.

      2. The stalks of a bushy climbing plant , serving as the strings of the musical instruments.

      5 the root of a bushy yellow licorice plant that serves the dark-skinned householders to cleanse their teeth.

    3. balafon, which is a type of xylophone common in parts of West Africa and among the African diaspora.

      While this is possible, Sloane gave no indication of seeing such an instrument in play, which would be odd, given the keenness of the observation elsewhere.. A balofon would be hard to miss, unlike a sansa (see Koromanti for that).

    4. The song “Angola” stages a lively conversation between the upper and lower registers in a call-and-response pattern.

      And indeed, the upper and lower registers are quite distinct in the scales they use as well. The words are not recognizable as any specific Central African language, and the evidence I have found for the words points more to a West African, probably Akan, origin for the lyrics on several grounds recapped in the 1993 article. Nor does the music of the upper register fall into a Central African pattern. It more closely resembles an Akan pattern. For one thing, the musical pattern of the upper registers follows the tonemic pattern of Akan languages like Fanti and Twi. Another is the seven note scale (the eighth being the octave), which is common in Akan music but less favored in the Angola region. In addition, one of the instruments pictured, which I think along with the description of the instrumentation must be taken closely into account, is an eight stringed harp, which is exactly the number of notes in the upper register of the piece. The transcribed notes are probably pitched to the harp, and the vocals an octave lower and matching. The proposed meanings of the lyrics from what I have been able to gather from canvassing language professors and native speakers of the various possible languages point away from Central Africa and toward West Africa. If the Alla, Alla refrain is indicative of Islam, It had reached West Africa by the end of the seventeenth century, but had not made it as far south as Central Africa (i.e., Angola).

      The bass does match Central African patterns better. The pentatonic scale in use is prevalent in Central Africa but missing in the Akan context, so I think this was an Angolan bass register accompanying on the banjo-like instrument. The pattern, if playing is limited to two strings of a stringed instrument as in the picture, can be played easily. Perhaps Baptiste, SLoane, or the overseer asked the lower register musician where the piece was from and got "Angola" as the answer.

      My thinking is that this combination of two distinct African patterns was a case of pidginization, of African American cultural formation in its nascent stages, where distinct traditions were getting mixed together in a manner perhaps not entirely stisfactory to anyone at the time, but negotiated ad hoc anyway.

    1. his expert group sends to companies are 'taken very seriously' by both States and businesses. As such they can be key channels for human rights defenders to leverage the UN experts to contribute to their protection, and help respond to situations where human rights defenders are stigmatised, criminalised, attacked or killed. 

    1. Please, do answer my Communications. Do answer my letters. Do engage with the mandate… and of course, respect and implement the standards that are already there’. 

    1. sent by UN independent experts to countries regarding allegations of human rights violations, and it exposes the fact that 42 countries have failed to reply to at least once such letter sent since the last session of the Human Rights Council.

    2. Of the many countries that have failed to react to a communication from a UN Special Procedure mandate holder, 17 are Human Rights Council Members. That’s more than a third of all Members.’ The statement listed these 17 countries – Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burundi, Brazil, China, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Kenya, Nigeria, the Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia and the US

    1. we welcome your emphasis on the importance of inclusion and civil society participation in efforts to inform your work and implement your recommendations on the ground.