7 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2020
  2. Feb 2020
    1. Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity, Use-Value and Value

      Marx's analysis of a capitalist system begins by postulating that it's fundamentally composed of units called commodities.

      In the capitalist system commodities have two features.

      1. They are produced

      2. They are produced by capitalists

      Capitalists produce commodities by employing workers to produce them.

      In this section, Marx begins his analysis of the first feature of the capitalist system (viz. that it is commodity producing). Workers and capitalists will not appear in Marx's analysis for several more chapters.

  3. Nov 2019
  4. Jun 2019
    1. Chapter 1 of the text described how Eurasian peoples who were descendants of Africans, expanded and spread throughout the world influenced by environmental climate cycles and natural resources. Chapter 2 is about these groups who are now culturally and genetically distinctive after twelve thousand years of separation coming back into contact with each other and some of the disastrous results as a result. Columbas’s fleet was not the first contact between Europeans and Native Americans; it is likely that the Vikings were. The Vikings established colonies and interacted with some of the indigenous tribes of Canida as early as 1000 CE, almost 2500 years before Columbus. However, these Viking colonies did not last. It is likely the environment was a key factor in their failure. Beginning the 14th century, there was a mini ice age which occurred and lasted for four hundred years. It appears that increased cold temperatures made resupply of these colonies impossible, and it is also likely that food production was negatively impacted

      When Columbas was approved by the Spanish crown to sail, Europe was thriving economically and its population was growing due to the large expansion and productivity of fishing. The text estimates that the global population was approximately 500 million “evenly split between Europe, Africa, and the Americas” While Columbus did not discover an empty continent, in a few hundred years, the virgin soil epidemics would make that a reality in some regions of the Americas.

      It was the environment that forced Columbus to dock (permanently) with America when the Santa Maria “ran aground” on Christmas Day December 25th in 1492. After meeting with the local tribe, Columbus returned with two ships and some natural resources, including gold, wildlife, and crops, and wrote “Letter on the First Voyage” exaggerating some of his findings so as to receive approval to make another trip. In addition, Columbus transported native plants and animals of Central America back to Europe.

      As travel to the Americas increased, Europeans brought over many plants and animals that affected the American environment. New crops and livestock were introduced, and horses were also brought over which greatly changed the culture of the Great Plains Indians. As previously stated, Europeans also brought over very significant trait: their germs. It is likely that up to 90% of the American Indian population in 250 years died as a result of these germs. The reason that the conquistadors were successful in conquering some of the American Indian Civilizations was that the disease had already decimated their civilizations and societies and prevented the indigenous populations from effectively fighting back. Europeans owed much of their inherited immunity from these viruses to their contact with their livestock, which was not present in the Native American tribes. Some large native cities experienced such large population die-offs, that new European cities were built right on top of the old ones (Mexico City) because very few inhabitants were left

      Chapter 2 provides more information about how the environment altered the course of history for indigenous Americans and the European explorers. It is clear that with every significant historical event or trend, the environment had a causal role- impacting the decisions and ultimately histories of those involved.

  5. Mar 2019
    1. In the first page, the blue introduce the income overview over past four decades. In addition, he talks about the relationship betweern technology change and income equality. I think the title of the third page needs to be revised. I feel very awkward when you put the Introduction title in this position. In my opinion, the introduction part of the entire group needs to be put together. Additional, you introduce two studies in the third page. In the fouth page, I think you can expand the content of the two studies.instead of repeating the same content.

  6. Nov 2017
    1. Early Intervention E. (2013). Basic Information on EI. Retrieved November 1, 2017, from https://eiplp.org/basic-information/

      If you think your child has a development issue, and the child is three or younger then Early Childhood Intervention is for you. If your family is eligible for services, the family will be assigned a provider who will work with the family and our early intervention team to develop and carry out an individualized service plan that addresses the child’s developmental needs and the family’s priorities. There are many certified community-based programs serving all cities and towns in the Commonwealth. “Each Early Intervention program is certified to provide services for a specified group of cities and towns, called a catchment area” (Early Intervention Parent Leadership Project , 2013).The cost is free to families! Early Intervention helps the child in the social emotional area too. The adults that work with the child create at bond with them. The children know they are safe and positive relationship with the adults. There are different activities the Early Intervention staff does with the children to help them with social emotional needs. For example, simply talking to the child and asking them how they are feeling. Even being silly and making the child laugh is making a positive and rewarding relationship. There are many team members that want the best for the child for example, physical and occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, social workers, psychologists, nurses and special needs educators. The provider will come see the child wherever the child and caregiver are comfortable whether it be the home, daycare facility or the park. A great perk of having Early Intervention for your child is if they are still having trouble after three which hope doesn’t happen however they will have better chance of getting into the public school for more support. Falmouth Service Center McLeod, C. (n.d.). Health Insurance . Retrieved October 23, 2017, from http://www.falmouthservicecenter.org/health-insurance.html Falmouth Service Center is a wonderful place. They help in all kinds of ways. They have free meals twice a month. The food pantry services the people of Falmouth. However, every town has a food pantry that people can go to for food help. The center also helps people with financial assistance by helping to pay bills such as heating or rent. Falmouth Service Center helps with health insurance too. They will help you choose the right plan for your family. “Children can get MassHealth even if their parents do not have social security numbers or a green card. Your premium costs are based on your income and the health plan you choose” (McLeod). Their mission is “to ease stress, reduce hunger and improve the quality of life for our neighbors in need” (McLeod). The address for the Falmouth Service Center is 611 Gifford Street, Falmouth, MA 02540. The telephone number is 508-548-2794. Developmental Milestones Developmental Milestones. (2016, August 18). Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html Developmental milestones happen as a child grows. Examples of developmental milestones are walking, talking and even smiling. The (Centers for Disease Control) has tools to help families know what to look for at each stage of life. The website also has categories for example, social and emotional, and language/communication and examples to know what to look for. If you are concerned about your child, the Center for Disease Control has a page of tips you can do to help your child, whether its asking for a referral or getting an evaluation. The website also has a way to help the caregiver know what to say when they are asking for help. For example, when you call your child’s doctor’s office, say, “I would like to make an appointment to see the doctor because I am concerned about my child’s development” (Developmental Milestones). Also, “be ready to share your specific concerns about your child when you call. If you wrote down notes about your concerns, keep them. Your notes will be helpful during your visit with the doctor” (Developmental Milestones).

      Positive Approach to Learning Gronlund, G. (2013). How to Support Children’s Approaches to Learning? Play with Them! Retrieved October 21, 2017, from https://families.naeyc.org/learning-and-development/child-development/how-support-children’s-approaches-learning-play-them Positive approaches to learning is part of successful learning experience. A lot of what teachers and educators do to help children grow and to be the best they can be. How can we as educators do this, is by play! Young children gain so much by playing. The children explore, learn and play with new things everyday when educators use positive approaches to learning. Simple things such as a toddler stacking rings on the post is problem solving. If educators have a positive approach to learning it will help the children in later years in school and life. Families can have a positive approach to learning at home too. They can play with their child, interact with your child, have a conversation, or reading books to their child helps in so many ways. Even cooking together is a positive approach to learning because it helps the child bond with an adult. The child has to use their hands for fine motor skills. It is so important for parents to interact with their child. The child needs to have that bond with a special adult to them.

      Promoting Positive Relationships Three, Z. T. (2010, February 21). Tips on Helping Your Child Build Relationships. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/227-tips-on-helping-your-child-build-relationships Positive relationships to be extremely important in a child’s life. Having a role model or someone you can look up to is a way to stay safe, the child has someone to talk to, and the best reason to do the right thing. Just like it said earlier in the book if the child has an interested and caring person by their side, that child will be resistant. There is a list of strategies to help a child build positive relationships. First, allow for unstructured, uninterrupted time with your child each day. Play with your child. Don’t have interruptions. Don’t multitask. Be engaging with them. Have your main focus be on the child. Next is, let your child know you're Interested in his activities. Say things like, “You are using so many beautiful colors to make that drawing” (Three, 2010). Then there is, respect your child's feelings. “Accepting her feelings, without minimizing them or making fun, also increases the chances that she will share more with you as she grows” (Three, 2010). After that is, provide opportunities for your child to develop relationships with peers. Children have to have a lot of practice to understand to take turns, share, problem solve, and feel the joy of friendship. Next is limit TV and other "Screen Time". This limits the bonding time with the caregiver and experiencing the world around them. If the child does have screen time, make it beneficial by asking questions about the show. For example, how it made them feel or what was your favorite part.

  7. Sep 2015