185 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
  2. Nov 2020
    1. In Rust, we use the "No New Rationale" rule, which says that the decision to merge (or not merge) an RFC is based only on rationale that was presented and debated in public. This avoids accidents where the community feels blindsided by a decision.
    2. I'd like to go with an RFC-based governance model (similar to Rust, Ember or Swift) that looks something like this: new features go through a public RFC that describes the motivation for the change, a detailed implementation description, a description on how to document or teach the change (for kpm, that would roughly be focused around how it affected the usual workflows), any drawbacks or alternatives, and any open questions that should be addressed before merging. the change is discussed until all of the relevant arguments have been debated and the arguments are starting to become repetitive (they "reach a steady state") the RFC goes into "final comment period", allowing people who weren't paying close attention to every proposal to have a chance to weigh in with new arguments. assuming no new arguments are presented, the RFC is merged by consensus of the core team and the feature is implemented. All changes, regardless of their source, go through this process, giving active community members who aren't on the core team an opportunity to participate directly in the future direction of the project. (both because of proposals they submit and ones from the core team that they contribute to)
  3. Oct 2020
    1. I use a mutator and use it's changeValue function to 'change' the value of the relevant field (I supply the same value). This in turn notifies all relevant parties of the change to the form's state, and a validation is triggered.

      Nearly duplicate annotation here: https://hyp.is/I2t56hjLEeuPXIsZG-jYog/xtzmf.csb.app/

    2. Some user experience issue with the proposed solution: This won't show up the inline field error message if you just hit on submit and other fields already contained errors since the code on the onSubmit won't be hit
    3. This is for a time picker. If you're picking times for today, you may pick a time that is 15 minutes from now. It's valid now because it's currently in the future. If you don't touch the form for the next 20 minutes then click submit, the submission should be prevented because your selected time is now 5 minutes in the past.
  4. Sep 2020
    1. I love how they have this example with plain JS to show how slim and simple it can be even when not using react and react-final-form. It demystifies things so you can see how it works and how it would be if not using React (which in turn helps you appreciate what react/react-final-form do for you).

  5. Aug 2020
    1. Allows batch updates by silencing notifications while the fn is running. Example: form.batch(() => { form.change('firstName', 'Erik') // listeners not notified form.change('lastName', 'Rasmussen') // listeners not notified }) // NOW all listeners notified
  6. Dec 2019
    1. The payoff from staying Silent (cooperating) in each period is: −2×(1+g+g2+g3+...)−2×(1+g+g2+g3+...)-2 \times (1 + g + g^2 + g^3 + ... ) Here I get -2 in each period, starting today. Discounting this, we add up -2 (today), −2g−2g-2g (next period), −2g2−2g2-2g^2 (the period after next), etc, as represented above. The payoff from Confessing right away (after which both players Confess always) is: −1−3×(g+g2+g3+...)−1−3×(g+g2+g3+...) -1 -3 \times (g + g^2 + g^3 + ... ) Formula for a geometric series (where 0<g<10<g<10<g<1): g+g2+g3+g4...=g/(1−g)g+g2+g3+g4...=g/(1−g)g + g^2 + g^3 + g^4 ... = g/(1-g) Note on Maths: The standard derivation of this, which is pretty neat, is in the text. This formula is an important one in economics (and beyond), particularly for discounting a constant stream of payoffs, e.g., stock dividends Thus cooperation in a single period is ‘weakly preferred’ (at least as good) if (−2)×(1+g+g2+g3+...)≥(−1)+−3×(g+g2+g3+...)(−2)×(1+g+g2+g3+...)≥(−1)+−3×(g+g2+g3+...)(-2) \times (1 + g + g^2 + g^3 + ... ) \geq (-1) + -3 \times (g + g^2 + g^3 + ...) g+g2+g3+...≥1g+g2+g3+...≥1g + g^2 + g^3 + ... \geq 1 Note on the intuition for the second formula: the left side is loss of future payoffs (-3 vs -2 forever from next period, so a loss of 1 per period starting tomorrow). The right side is gain in ‘the present’ period (getting -1 rather than -2), so it is un-discounted. g/(1−g)≥1g/(1−g)≥1g/(1-g) \geq 1 g≥12

      2019-20: you will not be asked to do this computation on the final exam, but you should understand the general idea

  7. Oct 2019
    1. Unfortunately, numerous widely-used tagless-final interfaces (like Sync, Async, LiftIO, Concurrent, Effect, and ConcurrentEffect) encourage you to code to an implementation.

      How?

  8. Sep 2019
    1. types.refinement might be what you're looking for, you could combine that with for example react-final-form. it is not depending on redux anymore. a form component of react-final-form wrapped by an @observer and using an action within onSubmit callback of it to actually persist the state has worked out well for me recently.
  9. Aug 2019
  10. Oct 2018
  11. Jul 2018
    1. ÄÉ=íÜçëÉ=íÜ~í=ÅçãÄáåÉ=íÜÉçêóI=ãçÇÉäáåÖI=éê~ÅíáÅÉI=ÑÉÉÇÄ~ÅâI=~åÇ=Åç~ÅÜáåÖ=íç=~ééäáÅ~íáçåK

      Most effective programs include each of these components.

    2. låÅÉ=~=êÉä~íáîÉäó=ÜáÖÜ=äÉîÉä=çÑ=ëâáää=Ü~ë=ÄÉÉå=~ÅÜáÉîÉÇI=~= ëáòÉ~ÄäÉ=éÉêÅÉåí~ÖÉ=çÑ=íÉ~ÅÜÉêë=ïáää=ÄÉÖáå=íç=íê~åëÑÉê=íÜÉ=ëâáää=áåíç=íÜÉáê=áåëíêìÅíáçå~ä=ëáíì~íáçåëI=Äìí=íÜáë=ïáää=åçí=ÄÉ=íêìÉ=çÑ=~ää=éÉêëçåë=Äó=~åó=ãÉ~åëI=~åÇ=áí=áë=éêçÄ~ÄäÉ=íÜ~í=íÜÉ=ãçêÉ=ÅçãéäÉñ=~åÇ=ìåÑ~ãáäá~ê=íÜÉ=ëâáää=çê=ëíê~íÉÖóI=íÜÉ=äçïÉê=ïáää=ÄÉ=íÜÉ=äÉîÉä=çÑ=íê~åëÑÉêK

      Teaching in small chunks and then partnering with a coach to synthesize a new methods may be more beneficial when you cannot me daily.

    3. É~ÅÜÉêë=äÉ~êå=íÜÉ=âåçïäÉÇÖÉ=~åÇ=ÅçåÅÉéíë=íÜÉó=~êÉ=í~ìÖÜí=~åÇ=Å~å=ÖÉåÉê~ääó=ÇÉãçåëíê~íÉ=åÉï=ëâáääë=~åÇ=ëíê~íÉÖáÉë=áÑ=éêçîáÇÉÇ=çééçêíìåáíáÉë=Ñçê=~åó=ÅçãÄáå~íáçå=çÑ=ãçÇÉä=áåÖI=éê~ÅíáÅÉI=çê=ÑÉÉÇÄ~ÅâK

      Learning the skill is simple. Feedback and followup translate the skill into inclusion in practice.

    4. çåÇáíáçåë=íÜ~í=~êÉ=åçí=Åçããçå=áå=ãçëí=áåëÉêîáÅÉ=ëÉííáåÖë=ÉîÉå=ïÜÉå=íÉ~ÅÜÉêë=é~êíáÅáé~íÉ=áå=íÜÉ=ÖçîÉêå~åÅÉ=çÑ=íÜçëÉ=ëÉííáåÖëK

      PD is often done to teachers rather than for teachers. Consider how this is done by the technical trainer described by Hargreaves & Dawe.

    1. Col-laborativeculturesmayneedadministrativesupportandleadershipto helpthemgrowandto facilitatetheirdevelopment,buttheirevolu-tion~dependingasit doesonvulnerablehumanqualitiesliketrustandsharing-willinevitablybeslow

      See Taylor chapter.

    2. Smyth& Garman(1989)desoribeevariouswaysin whicha veneerof voluntarismoftendisguiseswhatamountstoclandestinecompulsionthroughcareerbribery,impliedsupervisorypressure,threatsofevaluation,andthelike.

      How do we effectively communicate the rationale for coaching programs so that people can freely volunteer without thinking about "the man" watching?

    3. "Eyenpeercoaching.. ." -theveryphrasesuggestsa qualityof innoCiUOU1;nC:l15andbenevo-lencein peercoachingwhichis so self-evidentthatresistanceto it couldnotpossiblybeinter-pretedasanythingotherthanevidenceofper-sonalweaknessandvulnerabilityamongindi-vidualteachers.

      There are often deeper issues to resistance than what appears on the surface. We have to be introspective about our practice with teachers to get to the root of some of these problems.

    4. In thisview,technicalcoachingandsimilarpro-fessionaldevelopmentstrategiesreducedques-tionsaboutends,goals,andvaluesin teachingtoquestionsof means,techniques,andproced-ures

      Teachers end up copying what they see rather than reflecting on the practice at a deeper level as applied in their classroom. This is on the coaches to communicate.

    5. Evenso,it seemsto us thatthetimeimplicationsof implementingpeercoachingarebeingtreateda littledisrnis-sivelyhere.

      Communicating the time commitment realistically helps remove the facade of "just work harder to improve" that can come from admins pushing a new program.

    6. Itschiefpurposeisto helpteacherstransferspecifickindsof train-ingto theirclassroompractice,whilealsode-velopingmechanismsforprofessionaldialogueandcollegialrelationshipsin theirschools.

      I wonder if keeping the old PD model as a part of coaching helps the transition through seeing the same people in multiple contexts.

    7. Coachingis,therefore,a viralpartof inser-vicetrainingthatenablesteachersto makesub-stantialchangesintheirpractice

      Initial instruction isn't enough. There has to be long term, longitudinal support. See Taylor.

    8. Garmston(1987)hashelpfullyidentifiedanddefinedthreedifferentforms:technicalcoaching,collegialcoaching,andchal-lengecoaching.

      Coaching models

    9. It hasassociatedcollaborativeprofessionalde-velopmentnotwiththeuncriticaladoptionof"proven"technicalproceduresofeffectiveteachingintroducedfromelsewhere,butwithapracticallyguidedyetthoughtfulprocessof im-provementamongcommunitiesof professionalcolleagues

      Suggestions on improvement are based on experience with evidence, not on theory alone.

    10. Theylendsupportfora shiftawayfromuniversity-orcollege-basedcoursestargettedattheindividualteacher,andintendedto raisehisor herlevelofintellectualawarenessandabilityto reflect,tomoreschool-centredformsofprofessionaldevelopmentwhichrecognize,bringtogether,andbuildupontheskills,experience,andin-sightsthatteachersalreadyhave.

      Stop putting professors in front of teachers. Get teachers together, in a room, to talk about practice as a form of development. Build a culture of collegiality within the school as a way to shift practice.

    11. esearchershavefounda consistencyandcoherencein teachers'knowledgewhichis wellsuitedtoprovidinggroundsforwiseactioninthebusy,rapidlychangingenvironmentof theclassroom

      Instructional knowledge cannot be defined only by theory. It is the task of school leaders to identify teacher leaders in context.

    12. It helpsexplainwhymostadministrativelysup-portedinitiativesincollaborativeteacherde-velopmenttaketheformnQ.t of extendedcriti-calreflectionor of actionresearch,forinstance,butof collectiveexposureto ant:;(Cternallyde-signedprocessof instructionaltrainingin pur-portedlynewteachingstrategies

      Rather than collaborating to define and solve problems, it's collaborating on how to implement the program they're being told to implement.

    13. It helpsexplainthepecu-liarparadoxthatteachersareapparentlybeingurgedto collaboratemore,justat themomentwhenthereis lessforthemto collaborateabout.

      Kicking back against top down reform.

    14. Class-roomisdlationhasbeenheldresponsibleforteachers'anxietyabouttheireffectiveness,theirfearfulnessof externalevaluationandtheirirn-mersionintheimmediacyoftheirownclass-rooms.

      Not talking to other people can make us inflate perceived problems through our own lenses without checks.

    1. In fact, Bourdieu argues that the school reenforces the dominant culture in society, that is, the culture of the dominant—economic—class. This puts students from the dominant class in an advantageous position. By virtue of the acquired cultural capital in the family, the embodied cultural capital, these students possess the capital that makes them more likely to succeed in their academic career

      Well off students are supported at the family and academic level while students who are not supported are hit double with schools reinforcing the home situation inadvertantly.

    1. Table 2. Statements per cluster at the level of seven core clusters.

      Coded statements for collaborative learning online.

    2. In other words, we need to bridge the gap between networked learning and the recognition, valuation and rewarding of it by managers of learners, for instance teachers (in the case of students) or line managers (in the case of organizational learning).

      Making the connection with meaning is the bigger challenge. We can recognize learning, but how to formalize it remains elusive.

    3. Four main types of activities are distinguished to describe how we learn at the workplace (Eraut, 2004): (1) participation in group activities, (2) working alongside others, (3) tackling challenging tasks, and (4) working with clients.

      Learning is social! The internet can help us formalize informal work without taking over the process.

    4. Nevertheless, unlike formal learning, informal learning is not rewarded nor recognised, mainly due to lacking information about how individuals learn through their network (networked learning)

      Giving credit for informal learning will add value to that time for those who struggle to make the time.

    1. Further, conditions are created (in consultation with the principal) to support professional development (for example, teachers are given enough time to participate in the training activities). Support for this point is also found by Borman et al. (2000). They stated that ‘successful schools are provided sufficient resources to implement reforms and to provide quality learning environments’ (p. 67).

      Time to make it work.

    2. Both cyclic processes can influence and even steer each other. For example, after the facilitator has observed all the teachers, he or she can plan an evaluation and monitoring conference in which the results of the observations are discussed with the team.

      Provides flexibility in the system to respond to needs.

    3. presentation of theory, demonstration of skills, practice in a secure environment, pre-conference, observation and post-conference

      New model, combining approaches.

    4. Glickman (1990) distinguishes three coaching strategies: directive, collaborative and non-directive.

      Coaching strategies.

    5. The facilitators have to ask a lot of questions during the conferences in order to stimulate reflective teaching.

      Listening is critical. Allow the teachers to talk their learning out.

    6. These models are strongly focused on the individual teacher, and neither teaching teams nor the school context are taken into account.

      How do programs abstract to the bigger picture?

    7. Secondly, a stronger emphasis is needed on monitoring the results of the staff development process.

      How is learning implemented?

    8. two distinct classes: those that focus on teaching techniques and those that take a developmental-reflective approach.

      teacher centered vs student centered

    9. Despite this success, no results were found on student level, due to the fact that the goals of the professional development of the teacher’s were open to individual choice and mostly not explicitly linked to goals on student level.

      Show the connections, unified goals

    10. The teacher is the key figure when it comes to influencing student performance and therefore teacher professional development programmes should focus on improving teaching quality.

      If this isn't the goal, PD is missing the point,

    1. A clear link between self-regulated learning behaviours and learning success in online environments is established focusing on self-efficacy, interactions with others, and strategies for regulation

      Encouraging teachers to work effectively, but also to interact in legitimate and candid ways with other people. As designers, we have to encourage those interactions and promote that culture in asynchronous arenas.

    2. Professional expertise has four basic components (Tynjälä & Gijbels, 2012): factual knowledge which is based around conceptual or theoretical knowledge often codified in books, reports and other media sources; experiential knowledge which is difficult to codify and is often acquired through professional practice; self-regulative knowledge, focused on metacognition and ‘knowing oneself’; and sociocultural knowledge, which is embedded in the social practices of groups and communities, providing a framework for interactions

      How can PD capture each of these components? How can we develop them concurrently and encourage teachers to link each with the other for holistic growth?

    3. Learning for work often blends deliberate, formalised learning with reactive, non-formal learning

      Teaching is constantly changing via policy, technology, or curriculum. Teachers need to stay on top of changes in the workplace.

    4. Conventional forms of professional training are losing currency, particularly where they do not address critical dimensions of professional learning important for the contemporary workplace

      PD outside the scope of context of teaching is useless. See also Hawley & Valli

    5. allowing each individual to tailor specific learning needs to their work demands.

      If courses are generalized, teachers can self-select what they want to learn when they want to learn it.

      Builds a case for modular learning opportunities.

    1. Analysis of the data found that teachers rely toa greater degree on interactive rather than independent informal learning activities.

      Working with people is preferable to working alone. Perhaps because it includes feedback in the moment?

    2. a lack of time(M¼3:2, SD¼0:67) and a lack of proximity to colleagues’ work areas

      How do we expand time available and decrease the physical separation barrier without a complete redesign? Can online spaces help accomplish this task?

    3. These enhancedunderstandings can be used to reconsider the design of work environments so that theyare more conducive to informal learning as well as to rethink the design of professionaldevelopment programs so that they further develop the ability of professionals to solveproblems and learn independently

      PD has to change in response to environmental stimuli.

    4. Empirical studies have been conducted to examine some aspects of these models.For example, Kwakman (2003) investigated factors affecting engagement in informallearning activities in a survey of 542 secondary teachers in The Netherlands. Surveyfindings revealed that four personal characteristics (professional attitudes, appraisalsof feasibility of learning activities, appraisals of the meaningfulness of learningactivities, loss of personal accomplishment), two task factors (work pressure and jobvariety) and two work environment factors (collegial support and intentional learningsupport) influenced participation in workplace learning activities, with the personalcharacteristics appearing to influence participation more substantially than either thetask or work environment factors.

      It's a combination of factors, personal, cultural, and external, that influence participation in growth activities.

    5. Informal learning refers to activities initiated by people in work settings that result inthe development of their professional knowledge and skills (

      The program can be formalized, but access is personal, so it counts as informal?

    1. Further, teachers with high work engagement—but not teachers with service or management responsibilities—used more informal learning opportunities.

      High engagement means they want to improve, but because of life situations, informal work meets their schedules better.

    2. The finding that teachers collaborate more at the beginning of their career than in the middle or at the end may be attributable to younger teachers still being more eager to learn from and draw on the professional expertise of more experienced teachers

      Is there a perception that older teachers don't have anything else to learn about teaching? It would help explain the increase in content development people do.

    3. In other words, teacher collaboration follows a linear pattern, with older teachers collaborating less frequently than younger teachers

      Can flattening this trend increase retention and build collegiality in schools with wide ranges of age?

    4. More specifically, teachers aged 27 participated on average in 2.89 in-service courses in the 2-year period surveyed. The average participation rate increased to 3.72 courses at age 42 before decreasing again to 1.58 courses at age 65

      Seems to match our 1/year course structure.

    5. In terms of content, this group of teachers participated most intensively in activities relating to their teaching subject, content and performance standards and teaching methods.

      Bringing in other areas of interest to engage all levels of instructor is critical for developing a strong program.

    6. The fourth phase covers years 19 and 30 of the career and again has two possible orientations: (1) “serenity” or (2) “conservatism”. Serene teachers experience a loss of engagement, a decline in career ambitions, but also greater sense of self-acceptance, whereas conservative teachers are sceptical towards educational innovations and critical of educational policy

      This is Elkhart.

    7. (1) “experimentation and activism” or (2) “reassessment and self-doubts”.

      How do schools support both aspects of phase 3? Is PD out of touch with the majority of the district staff?

    8. In other words, many beginning teachers participated in informal activities while continuing their formal training. In terms of the content of the activities pursued, beginning teachers attended more activities targeting classroom management and student discipline than did experienced teachers (more than 3 years of experience). Beginning teachers thus chose to attend activities dealing with topics that are particularly challenging for those new to the profession

      Focus on what you need to do now, survival skills.

      School response is cohort based.

    9. Rather, they organise the learning process and determine their learning goals and strategies independently

      Can we formalize this process into a hybrid?

    10. They include individual activities such as reading books and classroom observations as well as collaborative activities such as conversations with colleagues and parents, mentoring activities, teacher networks and study groups

      Compare these activities to the PLC leadership roles coaches and teacher leaders can have.

    11. The training model assumes that teachers update their knowledge and skills by means of workshops and courses.

      Limiting these trainings leaves a big gap in implementation and followup. Hopefully, the results show the need for sustained, middle-initiated and supported PD.

    12. We define professional development as uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities that deepen and extend teachers’ professional competence, including knowledge, beliefs, motivation and self-regulatory skills

      This is a good definition of PD. Active, related to practice, observable somewhere.

    13. Although the empirical basis is rather weak, findings indicate that beginning teachers tend to use observations and informal discussions with colleagues to improve their practice, whereas more experienced teachers are more inclined to use formal meetings for their professional learning

      Why the difference?

      I suppose that's why I'm reading this article. Jeez.

    14. “strong professional development opportunities must be embedded in the very fabric of public education” (p. 129)

      Broad charter for PD within NCLB.

    1. In this leading from the middle approach, districts don't just mediate and manage other people's reforms individually; they become the collective drivers of change and improvement together.

      Take the best ideas, learn from others, build a program that suits your locality.

    2. In an age of innovation and diversity, top-down strategies are inappropriate, while bottom-up strategies seem unable to achieve improvement on any significant scale.

      Need middlemen (coaches) to make sure implementation is sound but that results are tangible.

    3. Their focus on micromanaging two or three measurable priorities only works for systems pursuing traditional and comparatively narrow achievement goals. A digital age of complex skills, cultural diversity, and high-speed change calls for more challenging educational goals and more sophisticated and flexible change strategies.

      Designed-for-all PD has its place, but in the scheme of changing practice, is not effective.

  12. Apr 2017
    1. He assured the company that it was a fact, handed down from his ancestor, the historian, that the Kaatskill mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. That it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson, the first discoverer of the river and country, kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years, with his crew of the Half-moon; being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise, and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. That his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in the hollow of the mountain; and that he himself had heard, one summer afternoon, the sound of their balls, like distant peals of thunder.

      This solidifies the fact that these ghosts are “real” (at least in the world of the narrative) since they have been noted by other people then just Rip, and have similar stories of interactions/observations between the Dutch ghosts and members of the town.

    2. He doubted his own identity, and whether he was himself or another man.

      This moment provides an example of an existentialist dilemma in the form of dissociative dread toward his understanding of self. Rip’s confusion is so strong that it causes him to doubt the nature of his own being.

    3. stared at him with such a fixed statue-like gaze, and such strange uncouth, lack-lustre countenances, that his heart turned within him, and his knees smote together.

      This is a moment defining real fear towards his current predicament.

    4. On nearer approach, he was still more surprised at the singularity of the stranger’s appearance. He was a short, square-built old fellow, with thick bushy hair, and a grizzled beard. His dress was of the antique Dutch fashion—a cloth jerkin strapped round the waist—several pairs of breeches, the outer one of ample volume, decorated with rows of buttons down the sides, and bunches at the knees. He bore on his shoulders a stout keg, that seemed full of liquor, and made signs for Rip to approach and assist him with the load. Though rather shy and distrustful of this new acquaintance, Rip complied with his usual alacrity;

      These Dutch ghosts are part of the history of the area but are also tangible forces that drive the plot. Rip can physically interact with these ghosts as if they were normal people, the only thing that proves odd is that they do not speak. Regardless, they are ghosts that are more like echoes of a time past that can be encountered, rather than being antagonistic like the ambiguous forces that Poe presents in his works.

    5. As he was about to descend, he heard a voice from a distance hallooing: “Rip Van Winkle! Rip Van Winkle!” He looked around, but could see nothing but a crow winging its solitary flight across the mountain. He thought his fancy must have deceived him, and turned again to descend, when he heard the same cry ring through the still evening air, “Rip Van Winkle! Rip Van Winkle!”—at the same time Wolf bristled up his back, and giving a low growl, skulked to his master’s side, looking fearfully down into the glen. Rip now felt a vague apprehension stealing over him; he looked anxiously in the same direction, and perceived a strange figure slowly toiling up the rocks, and bending under the weight of something he carried on his back. He was surprised to see any human being in this lonely and unfrequented place, but supposing it to be some one of the neighborhood in need of his assistance, he hastened down to yield it.

      This build up provides a sense of apprehension, with Wolf detecting some sort of danger and the odd way that Rip’s name was being called through echo. This does not stop him from proceeding onward to make his chance meeting with the company of Dutch ghosts. 

    6. “Oh! that flagon! that wicked flagon!”

      A loose connection to Poe within the realm of alcahol playing a part in altered mind states.

    7. His mind now misgave him; he began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.

      The assumption that one has come under a spell or some other form of witchcraft would be a real fear for people of the time. Many believed the early superstitions, and while they acted as explanations for things they could not explain, they acted as warnings and preventive measures for certain behavior. Stories of ghosts and witches could be used to keep people away from dangerous territories, or provide lessons about needing to be more attentive to the possible dangers found outside of the safety of civilization. Irvings other works (like Legend of Sleepy Hallow) highlight the impact that fear can has on the mind.

    8. The moment Wolf entered the house, his crest fell, his tail drooped to the ground, or curled between his legs, he sneaked about with a gallows air, casting many a sidelong glance at Dame Van Winkle, and at the least flourish of a broomstick or ladle, he would fly to the door with yelping precipitation.

      This is a light bit of foreshadowing, noting that the dog has a sense for danger. It comes up again when Rip is about to encounter the Dutch ghosts.