15 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. Ion-ion interactions fall off slower than ion-dipole. Tripling the distance between two ions reduces the energy by 1/3, while tripling the distance between the ion and a dipole reduces it by 1/9. That is, one is inversly proportional to the distance between them (1/r) and one is proportional to the inverse square of the distance (1/r2).
    2. The name "Ion dipole forces" describes what they are, which simply speaking, are the result of the Coulombic electrostatic interactions between an ion and the charged ends of a dipole.
  2. Apr 2021
    1. ' " " "  ."  "      - "& ,,    +  (  ,,-  9

      Conditions d'intervention des forces de l'ordre en EPLE

  3. Apr 2020
  4. Jan 2018
    1. es visto y sentido como espacio vivencial de lo sagrado y lo cotidiano, del conocimiento de las leyes propias, de la relación con otros seres, con los humanos y del manejo o relaciones que se tienen con ellos. Cada parte esta interrelacionada con lo otro [...] El territorio es visto de manera integral donde lo físico y lo espiritual se articulan, y donde todos los actores [humanos y no-humanos] tienen una relación y un lugar. El reconocimiento del territorio se realiza a través de la lectura de las marcas ancestrales inscritas en los sitios sagrados desde los orígenes y que señalan el accionar presente, y los lleva a proponer un manejo integral de todo el territorio, para asegurar su conservación ambiental y cultural (Ull
    2. el espacio vital que asegura la pervivencia como pueblo, como cultura en convivencia con la naturaleza y los espíritus. El territorio es nuestro verdadero libro histórico que mantiene viva la tradición de quienes habitamos en él. Representa y describe los principios y prácticas de nuestra cultura. Implica la posesión, control y dominio del espacio físico y espiritual. Como espacio colectivo de existencia, posibilita la convivencia armónica entre los pueblos. Fundamenta la cosmovisión indígena como razón de nuestra pervivencia”.

      De ahí la importancia de los hackerspaces como territorio: lugar de memoria y convivencia.

  5. Nov 2017
    1. Witnessing,hacking,andcommoningarethreedigitalactsthathavebecomepossibleoverthepastfewyearsandhavecreatedopeningsforbeingdigitalcitizensinorbymakingrightsclaims.Theresignificationofexistingortheintroductionofnewconventionsmadetheseactspossible:Bitcoin,copyleft,CreativeCommons,Digg,GitHub,GNN,GNU,WikiLeaks,andmanyothers.Nodoubtsomeoftheseconventionswillbereplacedordisplacedbyothers.Somewillbecomedefunct.Somewillperhapspersistasatestamenttothedigitalcommons.Therewillcertainlybenewconventions.Whatenduresistheperformativeforcethathasgoneintomakingtheseopeningspossible.IfweunderstandcyberspaceasaspaceofrelationsbetweenandamongbodiesactingthroughtheInternet,witnessing,hacking,andcommoningresignifyorinventconventionsandmakepossibletheemergenceofnewwaysofbeingcitizensubjectsincyberspace.

      [...] As we discussed earlier, just as many efforts are being expended on closings as these openings, cajoling and coercing them in various submissive ways and generally blocking possibilities. The digital commons is certainly a new frontier for struggles over commodification.[83] The main challenges to these creative forces emanate from state-security apparatuses and commerciallegal apparatuses. The main challenges to these creative forces emanate from state-security apparatuses and commerciallegal apparatuses. We have covered some of these closings, but here we want to restate the importance of open versus closed conventions of the Internet. Much has been said about Facebook, Flickr, Google, Tumblr, Twitter, and YouTube and their activities for tracking the conduct of people for advertising revenues and collecting big data. Let us emphasize that among one of the most important reasons that both state and corporate apparatuses are able to do this is because these are designed as proprietary and closed conventions. Unlike open conventions such as WordPress or Wikimedia, these conventions require submitting to end-user licences and user contracts that not only severely restrict actions but also appropriate their results as data. There is a massive difference between the digital commons created by open-source code and its increasing zoning, appropriation, sequestration, and enclosure through closed conventions. [...] Let us remember that cyberspace is a fragile if not a precarious space. This makes its protection as an open-source digital commons a political question—a question that those who are making digital rights claims are enacting with increasing effectiveness but also with urgency.

    2. Copyrightderivesitslegalforcefromlawsthatprotectexclusiverightstoandcontrolofintellectualproperty.EvenifitsoriginscanbetracedtoearlymodernEurope(sixteenthtoeighteenthcenturies),itismoderninthesensethattheformationofintellectualproperty—thatis,theconversionofcreativeproductssuchaswords,data,images,andsoundintopropertyforexchange—isaresultoftheaccumulationofcapitalinmodernsocieties.

      This is what Lyotard highlighted as the commodification of knowledge in what he then called computerized societies. The conversion of intellectual or, more broadly, cultural capital into economic capital is possible under the protection of copyright laws. This is the force of copyright law. Since it introduces a tension between creativity and calculability, it is doubtful that copyright law either protects or encourages creativity. Instead, creativity is commodified by copyright. The performative force of copyright is that both the creator and consumer must—knowingly and unknowingly—repeat and iterate it. The force of copyright law would be nothing if it were not performed. That is the reason why maintaining its imaginary force requires enormous energy: copyright mobilizes massive efforts to maintain its legal, performative, and imaginary force. If creativity were not commodified, copyright would not exist. Commodification transforms the use value of things into exchange value for being sold and bought.

  6. Oct 2017
    1. Whiletherecertainlyarebigdifferencesintherelationsofpowerbetweencitizensubjectsandplatformowners,actionscananddoexceedtheaffordancesoftheirconventions.Itisinrelationtothenormalizingtendenciesofcyberspace—fromthosethatformattheactionsthatmakeupparticipating,connecting,andsharingtothoseoffilteringandtracking—thattensionsariseandcitizensubjectsengageintheplayofobedience,submission,andsubversion.

      Las infraestructuras de bolsillo y comunitarias serían una forma de lidiar con los desbalances de poder de las plataformas digitales. Está sin embargo el tema de la sostenibilidad cuando no se comercializa la intimidad de los usuarios. Esto debería estar asociado a economías cooperativas y de bienes comunes. El bootstrapping de dicho modelo está aún por verse, pero podría ocurrir a partir de consultorías individuales que alienten y financien dichas plataformas.

    2. Ifwefocusoncallingsandtheactionstheymobilizeandhowtheymakeactspossible,wealsoshiftourfocusfromafreedomversuscontroldichotomytotheplayofobedience,submission,andsubversion.Thisisaplayconfiguredbytheforcesoflegality,performativity,andimaginarywhichcalluponsubjectstobeopenandresponsibleandthroughwhichmostlygovernmentalbutalsocommercialandnongovernmentalauthoritiestrytomaintaintheirgripontheconductofthosewhoaretheirsubjects.
    3. Theimportantthingistoseparateacts(locutionary,illocutionary

      The important thing is to separate acts (locutionary, illocutionary, perlocutionary), forces (legal, performative, imaginary), conventions, actions, bodies, and spaces that their relations produce.

  7. Sep 2017
    1. Ifindeedweunderstandthisdynamicoftakinguppositionsassubjectivation,wethenidentifythreeforcesthroughwhichcitizensubjectscomeintobeing:legality,performativity,andimaginary.Theseareneithersequentialnorparallelbutsimultaneousandintertwinedforcesofsubjectivation



  8. Feb 2014
    1. In addition to broad economic trends affecting domestic politics evenly, Fisher also notes the uneven distribution of effects stemming from intellectual property rights (1999, Sect. II. C.). The positive effects of intellectual property rights accrue strongl y to a small number of rights - holders (the paper assumes that there are no significant negative effects to rights - holders); for this reason, rights - holders have significant motive (and potentially greater means) to overcome the significant barriers to acti ve political lobbying.
    2. Fisher outlines three trends : (1) the increasing number of citizens owning , or employed by owners of , intellectual property; (2) the United States’ economic position as an increasingly net exporter of intellectual property; and (3) the increasing investment companies have made in intellectual property in terms of research, development, brand - establishment, etc. (1999, Sect. II. A.).
      • increasing number of owners of intellectual property

      • strong economic position including exports of intellectual property

      • increase in investments by companies in intellectual property