17 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2023
    1. Clearly this type of reasoning has an argumentation scheme. One premisedefines or describes a goal. The other premise describes a means of achieving thegoal. The conclusion directs the agent towards action to carry out the means.6But this type of reasoning is so common and distinctive, having manyvariants and subspecies of argumentation, that it is misleading to call it anargumentation scheme. Better to call it a type of reasoning that can be used inargumentation in different types of dialogue (as in Walton, What Reas., 1990).
      • Agential Network
      • Case and Inferential Qualifications
      • Conclusions and Goal Relations
      • Normative Framework
    2. A person who puts forward an argumentation anticipates criticism, and bychoosing a particular type of argumentation, using the one argumentationscheme rather than the other, he implies that he thinks he knows which routewill lead to the justification of his standpoint. At any rate, whether he reallythinks this or not, if he is to be taken seriously by the other party, he may beheld to be committed to deal with the critical questions which pertain to ajustification via the argumentation scheme that is inherent in his argumentation.In relying on a certain argumentation scheme, the arguer invokes a particular testing method in a dialectical procedure, in which certain criticalreactions are relevant, and others not. Each argumentation scheme calls, as itwere, for its own set of critical reactions. In conjunction with each other,these reactions constitute a well-rounded test for checking the soundness of anargumentation of the type concerned. (p. 98)This way of describing argumentation schemes suggests that they are normativelybinding, in the following sense. If the hearer accepts the premises of the speaker'sargument, and the argument is an instance of a genuine and appropriate argumentation scheme (for the type of dialogue they are engaged in), then the hearer mustor should (in some binding way) accept the conclusion. This does not appear to be"validity" in the same sense in which the word is familiarly used in deductive (orperhaps even inductive) logic. But it does appear to express a normative or broadlylogical sense of validity, bindingness, conditional acceptability, or whatever youwant to call it
      • Initial Speaker has goal in mind thus presents reasoning that invites particular types of attention
      • This includes Supportive and Critical attention
      • The reasoning is normative in that it conformism to the shared communicative standards. Not definitive logical ones.
    3. Instead, we hope to show, theseargumentation schemes can best be revealed as normatively binding kinds ofreasoning when seen as moves, or speech acts in the setting of dialogue. In thispragmatic framework, two participants are reasoning together in a goal-directed,interactive, conventionalized framework called a dialogue. An argument is evaluated as good (correct, reasonable) to the extent that it contributes to the goal of thedialogue. An argument is evaluated as bad (incorrect, fallacious) to the extent thatit blocks the goals of the dialogue.
      • Normative Reasoning Frameworks
      • Goal Directed Sequential Speech Acts.
      • Positive Argument = Speech act for Goal / Negative Argument vice versa
      • Document ~ Speech act
  2. Sep 2022
    1. As a reminder, the JSON Schema is not the source of truth for the Specification. In cases of conflicts between the Specification itself and the JSON Schema, the Specification wins. Also, some Specification constraints cannot be represented with the JSON Schema so it's highly recommended to employ other methods to ensure compliance.
  3. Nov 2021
    1. Land rezoning and infrastructure decisions, such as rezoning from industrial or farmland to residential land, or building a new transport hub, generate windfall gains to private owners. While some of this is captured in the form of development contributions, the private value capture is much greater than what it contributes back to public coffers.Rezoning of land and infrastructure investment decisions undertaken by government create enormous amounts of private value:Throughout Australia, when land is rezoned from industrial to high-rise residential, a charge is levied to help fund the required infrastructure. A well-situated industrial site in Sydney’s inner west was bought for $8.5 million, rezoned high density residential, then sold again for $48.5 million. The 470% windfall was the result of a government decision: rezoning.

      Rezoning is a key leakage of value from the commons to the private sector. This needs to be addressed in creative ways so that the commons can flourish. Rezoning can be viewed as a form of predatory capitalism, a form of theft from the commons by the private sector. Land owners who reap the benefits don't even think they are committing this theft because it is such normative behavior!

  4. Jul 2021
  5. Oct 2020
    1. Roles are element types and authors MUST NOT change role values over time or with user actions. Authors wishing to change a role MUST do so by deleting the associated element and its children and replacing it with a new element with the appropriate role.
  6. Sep 2020
  7. Aug 2020
  8. Jul 2020
  9. Jun 2020
  10. May 2020
  11. Jan 2019
    1. After that — well, of course, for him there just isn’t any After That....”

      In page 248 of Melford Spiro's book "Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and Its Burmese Vicissitudes", he writes: "In normative Buddhism there is no soul; hence, nothing survives death of the body."

  12. Sep 2016
    1. More specifically, Lcopold ( 1973) identified tlw ‘Citation Index game’ as onc of thc stratagems employcd by scientists to incrcasc thcir visibility among thcir pccrs. The ‘Game’ metaphor has usually been invoked to counter the ‘storybook’ idca of science as an idealised, dispassionate and selfless quest after truth and know- ledge, in which personal feelings and motivations are held in check by institutional imperatives.

      Citation "game" as contrasted with "storybook"