9 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2021
    1. will reduce overall natural-gas usage by about 70 percent in buildings that install them,

      Quebec's plan to encourage hybrid heating (electric + gas) will cause a dramatic increase in gas bills:

      Reducing the quantity of gas commodity consumed does not reduce the largely fixed costs of gas delivery. Thus, in order to ensure revenue neutrality and adequate utility cost recovery, a 70% reduction in the quantity of gas delivered will require a 333% increase in the per-unit cost of gas delivery. This increased cost will, of course, be offset by reduced expenditure on the gas commodity. However, If we make the reasonable assumption that today's costs are evenly split between commodity and delivery, a 70% reduction in gas consumption will require a new per-unit price of delivered gas which is at least 182% of the current price with a reduction to 8.25% of the commodity's share of costs. Gas consumers will be paying for pipes, not gas... (I'm not sure what todays cost split is in Quebec. If it's 60% delivery, the price will rise to 212% of today's cost. If it is only 40%, the price will rise to 151% of today's. )

      However, it is likely that if the per unit cost of gas increases by the amounts calculated above, a great many gas users will realize that the cost/kWh or BTU of heating with electric heat pumps is lower than that for gas. Thus, it is likely that gas abandonment will increase over the current rates. While environmentalists will welcome increased gas abandonment, it should be recognized that it will create additional pressure to increase the per-unit cost of gas delivery which will, of course, encourage even more abandonment. The result will be a gas death-spiral.

      The Quebec approach is unlikely to lead to good outcomes.

  2. May 2021
  3. Apr 2021
    1. Despite important agricultural advancements to feed the world in the last 60 years, a Cornell-led study shows that global farming productivity is 21% lower than it could have been without climate change. This is the equivalent of losing about seven years of farm productivity increases since the 1960s.
  4. Dec 2020
  5. gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu
    1. Since most of the power produced in the electrophoretic process is dissipated as heat the following detrimental effects can result: • an increased rate of diffusion of sample and buffer ions leading to broadening of the separated samples • the formation of convection currents, which leads to mixing of separated samples; • thermal instability of samples that are rather sensitive to heat (e.g. denaturation of DNA) • a decrease of buffer viscosity hence a reduction in the resistance of the medium
  6. Sep 2020
    1. 4. Coals<img class="lazy lazy-hidden tve_image wp-image-7531" alt="" width="500" height="375" title="" data-id="7531" src="//www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/plugins/a3-lazy-load/assets/images/lazy_placeholder.gif" data-lazy-type="image" data-src="https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals.jpg" style="width: 100%;" srcset="" data-srcset="https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals.jpg 500w, https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals-300x225.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 500px) 100vw, 500px" /><noscript><img class="tve_image wp-image-7531" alt="" width="500" height="375" title="" data-id="7531" src="https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals.jpg" style="width: 100%;" srcset="https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals.jpg 500w, https://www.dream-guides.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/coals-300x225.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 500px) 100vw, 500px" />Dig a fire trench for your camp fire. After you have quite a bit of coals, cover the pit with earth and put your tent on top. The coals will provide heat all night long as it rises up through the earth.

      Tutaj jest jeszcze to co mówiłem. Rozstawiasz namiot ale nie wbijasz śledziami i nie wkładasz nic do środka. Zbierasz drewno iglaste i liściaste. Rozpalasz ognisko iglastym w dołku gotując kolację. Podczas jedzenia kolacji wrzucasz liściaste. Jak masz już porządny żar zastosujesz dołek. Stawiasz na tym namiot. Jest profit. Trzeba to ofc przećwiczyć, ale chętnie to wypróbuję.

  7. May 2017
    1. heat trace (heating cable)
      Heat trace or heating cable is used to warm or heat underground structures, storage tanks, vessels, and instrumentation in order to maintain a specified temperature or eliminate the possibility of freezing. Heat trace or heating cable accomplish this task by adding the amount of heat energy to the process fluid that is lost from the process fluid. It is desirable to maintain a certain temperature since higher temperatures reduce viscosity, enhance combustion, and prevent freezing or crystallization of the fluid. Within the oil and gas industry, elevated temperatures are required to separate the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface and freeze protection is required to allow refining and distribution of the fluid (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). Heat trace or heating cable often utilizes resistance wire to provide a medium for voltage to pass through. Due to the resistance of the wire, the heat trace or heating cable becomes warmer and is able to use this heat to warm the underground structures that it surrounds. One material used in resistance wires is nickel-chromium (Peterjohn, Melillo, Bowles, & Steudler, 1993). Heat trace has been used since the early 1900s to ensure the proper flow of petroleum, tar, and wax through pipelines. Since then, certain products within the petroleum and chemical industries needed to be kept between specific temperatures to ensure their quality. Today, the most commonly used heat trace medium is steam (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). 


      Peterjohn, W. T., Melillo, J. M., Bowles, F. P., & Steudler, P. A. (1993). Soil Warming and Trace Gas Fluxes: Experimental Design and Preliminary Flux Results. Oecologia, 18-24.

      Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. . (n.d.). Heat Tracing Technologies. Retrieved from Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. : file:///H:/Users/rrs020.BUCKNELL.000/Downloads/thermon-sa_heat-trace-technologies_energy-savings.pdf