19 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
    1. General Daniel E. Sickles, the commanding Union officer enforcing Reconstruction in South Carolina, ordered in January 1866 that “the constitutional rights of all loyal and well-disposed inhabitants to bear arms will not be infringed.” When South Carolinians ignored Sickles’s order and others like it, Congress passed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act of July 1866, which assured ex-slaves the “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings concerning personal liberty … including the constitutional right to bear arms.”
    2. After losing the Civil War, Southern states quickly adopted the Black Codes, laws designed to reestablish white supremacy by dictating what the freedmen could and couldn’t do. One common provision barred blacks from possessing firearms. To enforce the gun ban, white men riding in posses began terrorizing black communities. In January 1866, Harper’s Weekly reported that in Mississippi, such groups had “seized every gun and pistol found in the hands of the (so called) freedmen” in parts of the state. The most infamous of these disarmament posses, of course, was the Ku Klux Klan.
  2. Nov 2021
    1. https://danallosso.substack.com/p/help-me-find-world-history-textbooks

      Dan Allosso is curious to look at the history of how history is taught.

      The history of teaching history is a fascinating topic and is an interesting way for cultural anthropologists to look at how we look at ourselves as well as to reveal subtle ideas about who we want to become.

      This is particularly interesting with respect to teaching cultural identity and its relationship to nationalism.

      One could look at the history of Reconstruction after the U.S. Civil War to see how the South continued its cultural split from the North (or in more subtle subsections from Colin Woodard's American Nations thesis) to see how this has played out. This could also be compared to the current culture wars taking place with the rise of nationalism within the American political right and the Southern evangelicals which has come to a fervor with the rise of Donald J. Trump.

      Other examples are the major shifts in nationalism after the "long 19th century" which resulted in World War I and World War II and Germany's national identity post WWII.

  3. Oct 2021
    1. Vöhringer, H. S., Sanderson, T., Sinnott, M., De Maio, N., Nguyen, T., Goater, R., Schwach, F., Harrison, I., Hellewell, J., Ariani, C. V., Gonçalves, S., Jackson, D. K., Johnston, I., Jung, A. W., Saint, C., Sillitoe, J., Suciu, M., Goldman, N., Panovska-Griffiths, J., … Gerstung, M. (2021). Genomic reconstruction of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in England. Nature, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04069-y

  4. May 2021
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  10. Jan 2019
    1. Surface/Interior Depth-Cueing Depth cues can contribute to the three-dimensional quality of projection images by giving perspective to projected structures. The depth-cueing parameters determine whether projected points originating near the viewer appear brighter, while points further away are dimmed linearly with distance. The trade-off for this increased realism is that data points shown in a depth-cued image no longer possess accurate densitometric values. Two kinds of depth-cueing are available: Surface Depth-Cueing and Interior Depth-Cueing. Surface Depth-Cueing works only on nearest-point projections and the nearest-point component of other projections with opacity turned on. Interior Depth-Cueing works only on brightest-point projections. For both kinds, depth-cueing is turned off when set to zero (i.e.100% of intensity in back to 100% of intensity in front) and is on when set at 0 < n 100 (i.e.(100 − n)% of intensity in back to 100% intensity in front). Having independent depth-cueing for surface (nearest-point) and interior (brightest-point) allows for more visualization possibilities.
    2. Opacity Can be used to reveal hidden spatial relationships, especially on overlapping objects of different colors and dimensions. The (surface) Opacity parameter permits the display of weighted combinations of nearest-point projection with either of the other two methods, often giving the observer the ability to view inner structures through translucent outer surfaces. To enable this feature, set Opacity to a value greater than zero and select either Mean Value or Brightest Point projection.
    3. Interpolate Check Interpolate to generate a temporary z-scaled stack that is used to generate the projections. Z-scaling eliminates the gaps seen in projections of volumes with slice spacing greater than 1.0 pixels. This option is equivalent to using the Scale plugin from the TransformJ package to scale the stack in the z-dimension by the slice spacing (in pixels). This checkbox is ignored if the slice spacing is less than or equal to 1.0 pixels.
    4. Lower/Upper Transparency Bound Determine the transparency of structures in the volume. Projection calculations disregard points having values less than the lower threshold or greater than the upper threshold. Setting these thresholds permits making background points (those not belonging to any structure) invisible. By setting appropriate thresholds, you can strip away layers having reasonably uniform and unique intensity values and highlight (or make invisible) inner structures. Note that you can also use Image▷Adjust▷Threshold… [T]↑ to set the transparency bounds.
  11. Aug 2017
    1. Diverse growth trends and climate responses across Eurasia's boreal forest

      implies limitations of using macroscopic tree ring features for climate reconstructions, which are influenced by many different factors

  12. Sep 2015
    1. The era of Reconstruction that followed the Civil War was a time ofintense political and social conflict, in which the definition of freedomand the question of who was entitled to enjoy it played a central role.
    2. But thegenuine advances achieved during Reconstruction, such as improvedaccess to education, exercise of political rights, and the creation of newblack institutions like independent churches, produced a violent reactionby upholders of white supremacy. During the 1870s, the North retreatedfrom its commitment to equality. In 1877, Reconstruction came to an end.Many of the rights guaranteed to the former slaves were violated in theyears that followed.
    3. Although Reconstruction only lasted from 1865 to 1877, the issuesdebated then forecast many of the controversies that would envelopAmerican society in the decades that followed. The definition ofAmerican citizenship, the power of the federal government and itsrelationship to the states, the future of political democracy in a societymarked by increasing economic inequality—all these were Reconstructionissues, and all reverberated in the Gilded Age and Progressive era thatfollowed.
    4. But just as the American Revolution leftto nineteenth-century Americans the problem of slavery, the Civil Warand Reconstruction left to future generations the challenge of bringinggenuine freedom to the descendants of slavery.