196 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
  2. Dec 2019
  3. whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com
    1. It causes me sincere regret, sir,

      In LN, the framework is entirely different. It instead follows the narrator's deathbed confession to a Catholic priest, who dictates

      To read the LN framework, go to the blog post here.

    2. You told us last night, sir, that you were engaged to marry a young lady, whom you had only known for a fortnight; and I offended you by quoting the old proverb, “Marry in haste, and repent at leisure.” Now you know what I was thinking of!

      In LN: As in the beginning, the concluding text of the short story is radically different. In LN, the story concludes with the narrator stating he doesn't know if Priscilla is still alive and that though some may feel he ought to be hanged, he will die "a penitent sinner."

      To read the LN framework, go to the blog post here.

    3. THE END.

      In LN: text not present

    4. A LAST WORD.

      In LN: text not present

    5. In LN: another dash is added

    6. closing

      In LN: "last"

    7. (she wrote)

      In LN: text not present

    8. “The devil entered into me

      In LN: Priscilla's letter begins a new paragraph

    9. She died a miserable death, leaving a sealed letter for me. I burnt the letter, as I had burnt the inscription.

      In LN: In accordance with the altered framework, "The letter has been long since burnt. I wish I could have forgotten it as well. It sticks to my memory. If I die with my senses about me, Priscilla’s letter will be my last recollection on earth."

    10. some years

      In LN: "a few days"

    11. married

      In LN: a comma after "married"

    12. ;

      In LN: a dash

    13. Sir,

      In LN: "SIR"

    14. too

      In LN: "next"

    15. after she had snatched it out of the engraver’s hands and used by the thief to commit the murder.

      In LN: "supposing she was the person who had snatched it out of the engraver’s hands, and might have been afterward used by the thief to commit the murder."

    16. What little money I had about me I offered to the engraver.

      In LN: "I told him I was a policeman, and summoned him to assist me in the discovery of a crime. I even offered him money."

    17. Throughout this statement—excepting changes of names and places—I have told the truth. I still tell the truth, when

      In LN: text not present

    18. And, oh Lord,

      In LN: A sentence prior to this phrase: "'It all comes back to me, sir.'" Further changes include the absence of "'And, oh Lord,'" and instead states, "'A person in a state of frenzy'"

    19. cadaverous

      In LN: "dismal"

    20. animation

      In LN: "flash of life"

    21. I think I can tell you.

      In LN: text not present

    22. ,

      In LN: a semi-colon

    23. bad

      In LN: "'not so good as it was,’"

    24. and rest

      In LN: "and a little rest,"

    25. ,

      In LN: a dash

    26. I abstain from reading in the interests of my occupation?”

      In LN: "'I abstain from reading, in the interests of my occupation.’" Final question mark in The York Herald likely a mistake.

    27. ,

      In LN: comma not present

    28. ,

      In LN: comma not present

    29. dull

      In LN: text not present

    30. At the top of the house

      In LN: Prior to this paragraph are two others with the following text:

      "I put my lips to the old fellow’s ear-trumpet, and asked who Mr. Scorrier was.

      ‘Brother-in-law to Mr. Wycomb. Mr. Wycomb’s dead. If you want to buy the business apply to Mr. Scorrier.’"

      This sentence is further changed thus: "Receiving that reply, I went upstairs, and found Mr. Scorrier engaged in engraving a brass door-plate."

    31. said

      In LN: a colon after "said"

    32. For the first time it occurred to me, that in distributing our photographs of the knife, we had had none of us remembered that a certain proportion of cutlers might be placed, by circumstances, out of our reach

      In LN: "For the first time, it occurred to me that we had forgotten an obstacle in our way, when we distributed our photographs of the knife. We had none of us remembered that a certain proportion of cutlers might be placed, by circumstances, out of our reach"

    33.  JAMES WYCOMB, CUTLER &C.

      In LN: James Wycomb, Culter, etc.

    34. I telegraphed to Higham, asking Priscilla either to wait for me, or to leave me instructions for following her to the village, when I arrived by the next train.

      In LN: "I looked at the time-table."

    35. put

      In LN: "pour"

    36. Priscilla had been at work late in the night

      In LN: Included prior to this phrase is the following text: "Supporting herself by her needle, while she was still unprovided with a situation,"

    37. at Gravesend

      In LN: "at the big town of Waterbank." "Gravesend" is consistently replaced with "Waterbank."

    38. Higham

      In LN: "Higham" is consistently replaced with "Yateland"

    39. Kent

      In LN: text not present

    40. It was time stolen from my inquiries—but, as I thought, the occasion justified it.

      In LN: text not present

    41. night duty

      In LN: "night-duty"

    42. This encouraged her to look to the future almost as hopefully as I looked.

      In LN: text not present

    43. You will now perhaps understand why I devote some space in my narrative to a person who had only been a servant in a lodging-house. But for Priscilla, I should have never discovered who killed Zebedee.

      In LN: text not present

    44. but I steadily advanced towards the end I had in view.

      In LN: "but with Priscilla's help, I steadily advanced toward the end I had in view."

    45. I interrupted the rest,

      In LN: text not present

    46. This copy I made at Priscilla’s own request. It arose out of my telling her that I was resolved to devote every hour of my spare time to tracing the murderer. “It is my notion,” I said, “that the proceedings of the persons in Mrs. Crosscapel’s house have not been closely enough inquired into yet. I believe Mr. Deluc committed the murder; and I want to find out if any of the lodgers were in his confidence, or had any relations with him in past times.” She said, “I think your plan is a good one. If you begin by satisfying yourself about the servants, let me off you the means of looking into my past life.” With that, she placed the clergyman’s certificate in my hand. I thought she was joking. She was perfectly in earnest; and she made me copy the certificate. This naturally set me on speaking of the other servant. I asked her if she could tell me anything which associated the housemaid with Mr. Deluc. She was unwilling to answer. “I may be casting suspicion on an innocent person,” she said. “Besides, I was for so short a time the housemaid’s fellow-servant—”

      In LN: This section is quite different. The text is as follows:

      "After reading those words, I could safely ask Priscilla to help me in reopening the mysterious murder case to some good purpose.

      My notion was that the proceedings of the persons in Mrs. Crosscapel’s house, had not been closely enough inquired into yet. By way of continuing the investigation, I asked Priscilla if she could tell me anything which associated the housemaid with Mr. Deluc. She was unwilling to answer. ‘I may be casting suspicion on an innocent person,’ she said. ‘Besides, I was for so short a time the housemaid’s fellow servant——’"

    47. “HENRY DERRINGTON, Rector of Roth.”

      In LN: A paragraph break after "(Signed)"

    48. to

      In LN: "on"

    49. Priscilla Varley was just as willing, and far better able, to help me, on her side. As it happened, she was mistress of her own movements.

      In LN: This paragraph is replace with two. See text below:

      "With the best intentions, Miss Mybus found no opportunity of helping me. Of the two, Priscilla Thurlby seemed more likely to be of use.

      In the first place, she was sharp and active, and (not having succeeded in getting another situation as yet) was mistress of her own movements."

    50. Her fellow-servant, the housemaid, was London girl. After leaving Mrs. Crosscapel, she got another place in the district of Bloomsbury. Priscilla was not so successful. She had a natural aversion to lodging-houses, and she did not possess experience enough to take a cook’s place in the service of gentlefolks. Having a rather quick temper, she doubted her own endurance, if she accepted the only alternative, and served as kitchen-maid under the orders of a stranger. It ended, for the time being, in her hiring a room in a respectable house, and supporting herself by her needle. In this case good employment was easily obtained. Though she disliked the occupation, Priscilla was a good workwoman; and she had a written recommendation from the clergyman of the parish, which I copy here. It tells her simple story, before she came to London, in the plainest and fewest words.

      In LN: These paragraphs are rewritten, absent, or edited and place elsewhere in the text. In LN, the following text is present prior to the recommendation:

      "In the second place, she was a woman I could trust. Before she left home to try domestic service in London, the parson of her native parish gave her a written testimonial, of which I append a copy. Thus it ran:"

    51. There was an old woman’s skeleton found in the cellar of a house in Euston-square—and the wretch who hid her body there is still at large. Another murdered old woman was found, in another cellar, in Harley-street. And there, again, the guilty person has never been traced.

      In LN: Replaced with the following text: "'I can call to mind two cases of persons found murdered in London—and the assassins have never been traced.'"

    52. an old woman

      In LN: "'a person'"

    53. “Just look back, here in London, for a year or two only.

      In LN: "‘Just look back for a year or two.'"

    54. to me

      In LN: text not present

    55. old

      In LN: text not present

    56. Miss Mybus

      In LN: Prior to "Miss Mybus" the following text is present: "Mentioning the lady first,"

    57. written

      In LN: "told my story"

      This variant is in accordance with the changes in the narrative frame.

    58. police force

      In LN: "police-force"

    59. on the understanding that she was to appear again if called upon.

      In LN: "on entering into her own recognisance to appear again if called upon."

    60. and its interrupted inscription

      In LN: "and to explain its interrupted inscription"

    61. ,

      In LN: no comma present

    62. inspector

      In LN: "Inspector"

    63. will

      In LN: "may"

    64. In LN: dash not present

    65. Did she lock the door herself, before she fell asleep in her chair?

      In LN: "Did she afterward lock the door herself?"

    66. In LN: dash not present

    67. rev.

      In LN: "reverend"

    68. where she had been last in service

      In LN: commas around this phrase

    69. The police, again, knew nothing that supported her frantic accusation of herself.

      In LN: "The police made no discoveries that supported her first frantic accusation of herself."

    70. The unfortunate creature fainted at the bare remembrance of that dreadful sight—her husband stretched dead on the bed, with the knife in his heart.

      In LN: This sentence is absent and instead includes the following text: "She had seen the dead body of her husband, murdered while she was unconsciously at his side—and she fainted, poor creature, at the bare remembrance of it."

      The following sentence ("The proceedings...") occurs after a paragraph break.

    71. was dark

      In LN: "was pitch dark"

    72. fire-side

      In LN: "fireside"

    73. his wife

      In LN: "his own wife"

    74. , indeed,

      In LN: no commas present

    75. inclined

      In LN: a comma after "inclined"

    76. ,’ and

      In LN: no comma; a dash after the quotation mark

    77. In LN: dash not present

    78. hearts’

      In LN: "heart's"

    79. embarcation

      In LN: "embarkation"

    80. as

      In LN: "as a"

    81. lady’s maid

      In LN: "lady's-maid"

    82. ;

      In LN: a dash

    83. inspector

      In LN: "Inspector"

    84. and the key was left in my charge.

      In LN: "they keys in both cases being left in my charge."

    85. unfortunate

      In LN: "poor"

    86. city

      In LN: "City"

    87. The doctor called in, had found it left in the body

      In LN: "The Doctor had found it left in the body"

    88. guilty; and I

      In LN: "guilty" is the end of the sentence. And "and" is struck, thus making it: "she was guilty. I even said"

    89. He lay in bed on his back; the bedclothes being turned down to below his chest.

      In LN: "HE lay in bed on his back as the Doctor had described him."

    90. mind

      In LN: a comma after "mind"

    91. there! you heard what the doctor said, and know what we saw.

      In LN: "'don't ask me what we saw; the Doctor has told you about it already.'"

    92. these

      In LN: "those"

    93. Before we went in,

      In LN: text not present

    94. down stairs to her fellow servant

      In LN: "downstairs to her fellow-servant"

    95. ,

      In LN: no comma present

    96. !

      In LN: a period

    97. ; on

      In LN: a semicolon connects the sentences. "On" thus becomes "on"

    98. rolled up in

      In LN: "rolled up perpendicularly in the bed"

    99. ,

      In LN: a colon

    100. opened the door for him

      In LN: "joined us while we were talking."

    101. It

      In LN: "The staton"

    102. “The man is dead, and there is a knife wound through his heart.”

      In LN: "'I found the man lying on his back, in bed, dead—with the knife that had killed him left sticking in the wound.'"

    103. doctor

      LN: "Doctor"

    104. ,

      In LN: no comma present

    105. ,

      In LN: a dash

    106. ,

      In LN: a dash

    107. miss!

      In LN: "Miss"

    108. !

      In LN: a period

    109. Lefroy-street

      In LN: "Lehigh Street"

      All instances of Lefroy-street are changed to "Leigh Street" in LN.

    110. you

      In LN: "You"

    111. him that

      In LN: "him (as I supposed) that"

    112. Varley

      In LN: "Varley" is consistently changed to "Thurlby."

    113. ?

      In LN: an exclamation mark. Likely a mistake in The York Herald.

    114. ,

      LN: no comma

    115. see

      In LN: "see."[italicized]

    116. “Is this the station-house?”

      LN employs single quotation marks for dialogue. I will not annotate each instance; the variance is consistent throughout.

    117. When

      In LN: "WHEN"

    118. A FIRST WORD.

      In LN: A FIRST WORD FOR MYSELF.

    119. WHO KILLED ZEBEDEE?

      In the Chatto & Windus edition of Little Novels (1887), in which this story is included, the title is "Mr. Policeman and the Cook."

      All further textual annotations will abbreviate this edition to LN.

    120. Who Killed Zebedee?

      Now commonly published as “Who Killed Zebedee?” this short story is also reprinted and was published with syndication-upon-release as “Mr. Policeman and the Cook.”

  4. May 2019
    1. ? 4-viii-51

      Date added by Rossell in pencil in box where postage stamp would go. Context indicates that Schlauch must have sent this postcard before she sent the next letter, dated 4 August 1951.

  5. Apr 2019
    1. Our culture is defined by the music we listen to, and the way it is portrayed in the media. Every culture around the world has a different style of song or dance that represents their traditions. Culture can not only be changed through popular songs, but is best represented through music. One of the best ways to understand a foreign culture is by listening to the music that is favorable among the people whose culture you are trying to understand. Music is one of the most powerful forms of art between cultures.

      Music has the power to redefine cultures. We can see this through generational differences between song preferences. For example, American country music back in the late 1900s has a much different feel and style compared to country music now in 2019. While keeping within the same genre, this style of music touches upon different subjects, and uses different instruments, sounds and lyrics. Even early hip-hop has evolved from its beginnings. Hip-hop music is considered the most popular music as of right now, but it has not always been that way. Each generation favors different types of genres of music, and it is clear which backgrounds over the years have favored certain genres of music. As much as music can differentiate cultures, and generations, music can bring people of completely different background together by its artistic flavor and general popularity throughout the mainstream media.

  6. Jan 2019
    1. Generation of diagrams and flowcharts from text in a similar manner as markdown. PlantUML equivalent in Javascript

  7. Aug 2017
    1. Indigenous Elvis works security

      Given this and the follow-on line as well as the repetition throughout, it present the image of a native of the area who is perhaps the only security or part of a small security team. Always there, but doesn't necessarily have to be coincidence.

  8. May 2017
    1. (re)articulations

      Barad's use of parentheses reminds me of Gate's article on signifyin(g). While he used parentheses a lot at the end of the word "signifyin(g); he also used them throughout the article around the prefix "re-", denoting "again". I think Barad is suggesting that there are always new ways to articulate something, so it is not necessarily always "re-articulated," but rather is sometimes re-articulated and other times is said in a completely different manner.

  9. Apr 2017
    1. Although thc standard models of rhetorical situation can tell us much about the elements that are involved in a particular situation, these same models can also mask the fluidity of rhetoric.

      It seems like Edbauer is attempting to reverse what Quintillian did many years ago by compartmentalizing rhetoric, which in his mind would be a better way to understand it and practice it. However, rhetoricians have since argued that this has been problematic to the field, with which I think Edbauer would agree. In order to display a truer form of rhetoric, Edbauer wants to create a model that will showcase all of its aspects.

    1. V\Thatsortsofinteractionoccurbetweenspeaker,audience,subject,andoccasion?

      This would be different depending on what type of rhetoric one is examining, according to Gates. He argues that the speaker-audience relationship in white rhetoric is vastly different from the relationship in black rhetoric. In white rhetoric, the audience listens to the speaker; in black rhetoric, the audience listens and is actively involved in the rhetorical discourse through affirmations, comments of support, etc.

    1. my people, the Indians, did not split the artistic from the functional,

      Diverts from all Enlightenment rhetoric of the Anglo tradition, which valued efficiency and straightforwardness over artistic "fluff."

      Gates' idea of different cultural rhetorics can be also applied here.

    2. Repeated attacks on our native tongue diminish our sense of self.

      Again references the idea of language and identity, suggesting that one's language influences one's perception of who they are as individuals.

    3. Language is a male discourse.

      Similar to Woolf's idea that the sentence is a male construct of rhetoric, Anzaldua takes the argument a step further by suggesting that language itself is masculine. It takes us back to the question throughout history of "who can do rhetoric?"; the answer was primarily rich white males for thousands of years, which stifled the development of language. I think this is, in part, why Anzaldua argues that language is inherently male.

    1. But a distinct difference between black rhetoric and what we might call white rhetoric is the typical relationship between speaker and audience.

      For Make a Difference Day my sophomore year, part of our service brought us to a primarily African American church, I am not sure what denomination. I was struck by the communal aspect of rhetoric in the church. The audience was involved and invested in the rhetoric of the speaker and offered an openly supportive environment. Now that I am thinking back on this, the support and involvement of the audience completely changed my experience of the speaker's rhetoric and stressed the importance of community. As mentioned earlier, language and culture cannot be separated, and the rhetoric of African Americans reflects the value placed upon community and depending upon others as a result of the discrimination and challenges they have faced in a predominantly white culture.

  10. Mar 2017
    1. the stoic Cato's characteri-zation of the rhetorician as a good man skilled at speaking

      The idea that a good rhetorician is a good man (and is not an evil man). An evil man cannot be successful in engaging rhetoric. This has been mentioned before in our readings, specifically Lanham's The Q Question in reference to Quintilian's thoughts on rhetoric.

    1. The whole problem is reduced, as Hume said, to determining who are the quali-fied judges.

      Hume would say the qualified judges are those with good taste, who have experiences that have influenced them to have a refined sense about the world, and therefore are qualified with a better judgment of all things.

    1. Writing is undeniably a sign function

      I think Foucault would not be comfortable with the use of the word "undeniably." He says that language is a sign, but he also says it isn't because it depends on exactly what one means by "sign" (1448). I wonder how his theory of language would translate to writing?

    1. Two people may say the same thing at the same time, but since there are two people there will be two distinct enunciations.

      Reflects Locke's idea that language is not standard and cannot convey a universal meaning because individuals apply their own backgrounds and experiences to the meanings of words, so their perceptions and understandings of a statement will vary.

      This is the reason, I assume, that Nietzsche would give for why language is a lie.

    1. This theorem alleges that meanings, from the very beginning, have a primordial generality and abstractness;

      A more direct definition of "meaning," rather than the loosely applied, ambiguous idea that people apply to the word as referenced on page 1276.

    1. l\lere suddenly twofold in-Austen and Emily Bronte :ing than in their power to d solicitations and to hold rbed by scorn or censure. serene or a very powerful emptation to anger. The he assurance of inferiority which were lavished upon an art, provoked such reac-h. One sees the effect in ignation, in George Eliot's 1 again one finds it in the women writers-in their in their unnatural self-as-natural docility. Moreover, most unconsciously. They ence to authority. The vi-;;culine or it becomes too Jerf'ect integrity and, with quality as a work of art. tat has crept into women's :em, a change of attitude. 10 longer bitter. She is no no longer pleading and :s. We are approaching, if :d, the time when her writ-10 foreign influence to dis-le to concentrate upon her ~tion from outside. The :e within the reach of ge-only now coming within 1en. Therefore the average far more genuine and far than it was a hundred or that before a woman can wishes to write, she has :e. To begin with, there is ·-so simple, apparently; -that the very form of the r. It is a sentence made by heavy, too pompous for a 1 novel, which covers so 1d, an ordinary and usual to be found to carry the aturally from one end of And this a woman must make for herself, altering and adapting the cur-rent sentence until she writes one that takes the natural shape of her thought without crushing or distorting it.

      You can apply Burke's idea of breaking something down to its absolute basic level in order to fully understand it; once you understand it, only then you can recreate it to make it your own.

    2. No first-hand expe-rience of war or seafaring or politics or business was possible for them.

      There seems to be a correlation between Woolf's use of "experience" in Woman and Fiction and Professions of Women; in both instances, she states that it is impossible, or at the very least, extremely difficult, for women to gain experience professional experience due to the patriarchal structure of society and the limitations this structure placed on a woman in all aspects of her life.

    1. Traditional language philosophy treats language as an imperfect expression of logic.

      Interesting to note that in Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther, the protagonist Werther mentions multiple times that words/language could not accurately describe his feelings or the world around him; this takes the stance that not only does language not accurately convey logic, but also lacks the ability to explain one's emotions. It's similar to Locke's (and other Enlightenment thinkers') idea that language cannot allow us to express what we want to express because it does not accurately capture anything in the world around us, whether that be objects, emotions, other people, etc.

    2. he purpose of rhetoric, in other words, is lo convey knowledge clearly and efficiently.

      Reflects Astell's (and other Enlightenment thinkers) view that writing should be clear, concise, and without superfluity.

  11. Feb 2017
    1. There are thirty or forty passages in favor of woman's public work for Christ, and only two against it, and these not really so when rightly understood.

      Would these two passages against "woman's public work for Christ" possibly be against it if read literally? Her point is that reading the bible literally is the incorrect way to read the bible, and it sounds like she is inferring this here. Willard just said a few passages before this that if men are to read the passage literally, then they: "should remember that this literalness of rendering makes it his personal duty, day by day, actually to 'eat his bread in the sweat of his face.' The argument is a two-edged sword, and cuts both ways" (1130).

    2. We need women commentators lo bring out the women's side of the book; we need the stereoscopic view of truth in general, which can only be had when woman's eye and man's together shall discern the perspec-tive of the Bible's full-orbed revelation.

      Willard is saying that women are necessary to discover truth, and that a reason that truth has not been realized so far is because women have been excluded from interpreting the bible in their own way and instead are told what is said in the bible by men. Reflects her earlier statement, which states that men generally interpret the bible in their self-interest and to ensure they maintain power and minimize competition (1124).

    1. To obtain suitable exercises for practice in writing English, is a prime consideration with the teacher.

      Wouldn't this inverted sentence structure go against Spencer's principle of economy? The comma in between clauses really threw me off, personally.

    1. Once upon a time, in some out of the way comer of that universe which is dispersed into number-less twinkling solar systems, there was a star upon which clever beasts invented knowing.

      Nietzsche is a tremendous writer for a number of reasons, but his willingness to fully embrace rhetorical flourish in his works makes him a one-of-a-kind voice. Beyond simple style, though, this also puts his philosophy concerning meaning into action; this "creative use of language to make an effective social arrangement" that is identified in the introduction is happening right here.

    1. Spencer is not at all opposed to artful writing, to rhetorical nourish, or to poetry.

      Contrasts general enlightenment thought, but especially Astell:

      "But we shou'd fold up our Thoughts so closely and neatly, expressing them in such significant tho few words, as that the Readers Mind may easily open and enlarge them. And if this can be done with facility we are Perspicuous as well as Strong, if with difficulty or not at all, we're then perplext and Obscure Writers" (852).

    1. f such women as are here described have t-.... once existed, be no longer astonished then, my s brethren and friends, that God at this eventful pe-5~ riod should raise up your own females to strive, ~' by their example both in public and private, to · assist those who arc endeavoring stop the strong current of prejudice that flows so profusely against us at present. No longer ridicule their ef-forts, it will be counted for sin. For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes.

      Here, Stewart is arguing that in many past respected societies (Greek, Roman, Jewish), women were well-respected in a religious sense. As a reference to her earlier claim, that she was visited by the Holy Spirit and therefore had the temerity and the right to speak publicly on religious grounds. I do find it interesting that she said: "For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes." Her use of the word "feeble" is interesting, because it seems like she is ascribing to the expected gender roles/personalities, in that women are the "softer sex," and not perceived as strong or powerful.

  12. Nov 2016
    1. Chapter 20: The Sculptor's Art

      It is surprising that Wilde’s story concludes without seeking to incorporate some of the more flamboyant elements of Hawthorne’s novel, such as Donatello and Miriam’s disguised travels, or the carnival along the Corso. It may be that he had left behind his source material, although there is sufficient resonance in these last few chapters to suggest that he was referring to at least the earlier portions of Volume 2, although perhaps he was simply relying upon his own excellent memory.

    1. the Virgin looked over Saint James and Vicente Ferrer

      The Virgin de Pilar stands above the altar in the third chapel on the right, and it seems that this description by Wilde is substantially accurate, although it is not clear whether he recalled it from memory or from some written reference, either of his own or his friends’ account of their time in Rome.

    2. the Christ-Child equipped with an iron saw to use upon the mountains which he and the Virgin occupy as thrones

      The sculpture by Carlo Mondaldi puns on the name ‘Montserrat’, which means ‘saw mountain’.

    3. sad of mouth and eye

      This description of Kenyon’s travels resembles, particularly in this phrase, William Morris’ description of Launcelot’s quest to reach Guenevere in Glastonbury in King Arthur’s Tomb (1858). In his ‘Garden of Eros’ of 1881, Wilde paid tribute to Morris as a poet who “with soft and sylvan pipe has oft beguiled / The weary soul of man in troublous need”.

    1. Miriam and I

      Kenyon omits Hilda here. It may be that this is a deliberate choice on his part, or it may be that the omission is simply for the author’s benefit, keeping the sentence neater.

    2. medieval

      Wilde chooses a different spelling here, omitting the ligature ‘æ’ that figures in Donatello’s earlier description of the sculptures that he will encounter.

    1. “You say that it was done with your good will, Kenyon?”

      Donatello seeks here the approval of Kenyon, rather than of Miriam. The knowledge of the murder, if it is such, becomes momentarily a homosocial affair.

    2. “Do not scowl upon me so, Donatello,”

      A similar line is spoken by Hawthorne’s Miriam to the corpse. The continued blurring of her persecutor and her friend, begun with Hilda’s rendition of the Guido sketch, is an important facet of the remainder of Wilde’s novel.

    3. The Monk

      This is the third chapter title that refers to Miriam’s old acquaintance, after “The Model” and “The Demon”. This layers yet another parable of development upon Wilde’s novel, which like Hawthorne’s focuses on the development of Donatello and Hilda in particular, as the novel’s two figures of innocence transfigured by the real world.

    1. freely

      The repetition of “freely”, here and in the first paragraph, to describe somatic motion is suggestive of the bodily freedoms that might be derived through art and aestheticism.

    1. “It is strange that, with all her delicacy and fragility, Hilda makes the impression of being utterly sufficient in herself, and so I suppose has little care for seeking out the immortalisation of your art, Kenyon.”

      Wilde takes part of a line from Kenyon—lamenting that Hilda will never be his wife—and grants it here to Miriam instead, as a reflection on Hilda’s unavailability as a model. This condenses Miriam’s speech in Hawthorne about women who “have other objects in life” and so “are not apt to fall in love”. Love features nowhere in this chapter; rather, the feminine behaviour that Hilda and Miriam avoid is the “mere projection” of their beauty.

    2. I stole it from her in a sketch, there on the wall

      Wilde reduces the original Kenyon’s worship of Hilda’s hands at work into a practical exchange between friends. In turn, this also reduces Miriam’s condescension to her American friend as a “maiden”, elevating Hilda instead to a more mutual friendship.

    3. Tyrrell

      The person named in Hawthorne’s novel is Powers. This may be a tongue-in-cheek reference to Robert Yelverton Tyrrell, who when Wilde was at Trinity had just been made professor of Latin there, at the age of 25. It is as though Wilde imagines for Miriam a slightly different tour of classical Italy and Greece than the one that Mahaffy was leading him on.

    4. Between San Giacomo and Santa Maria

      Wilde’s additional detail situates Kenyon’s studio on Via Antonio Canova, a neoclassical artist famous for his marble sculptures, more implicitly than Hawthorne’s original novel, which highlights the presence of the marble tablet indicating the former occupation of Canova. This situates

    5. The Sculptor's

      In Hawthorne’s original (as the visualisations show), Kenyon is the least-referred to of the four friends, and is often referred to as “the sculptor” instead of by his Christian name. Wilde puts greater priority on Kenyon as a character than Hawthorne, but continues the habit of referring to the character more or less equally as “the sculptor” or “Kenyon”. This duality of cognomens allies Kenyon with “the model” and “the Faun”, Miriam’s other male attendants.

    1. my second volume

      Based on length, at 48,000 words or so, it is not clear whether Wilde’s novel strictly required a second volume. Hawthorne’s second volume exceeds by 30,000 Wilde’s entire piece. Still, the mimicry of Hawthorne’s structure seems to have provided Wilde with an imaginative construct in which to work, and the second volume deviates far more significantly from Hawthorne’s original than the first.

    1. or else the story would be all conversation

      There is an increase in the dialogic quality of the novel as Wilde retells it. This remark echoes one by him to Beatrice Allhusen that Dorian Gray was “like [his] own life—all conversation and no action” because he “can’t describe action”. Interestingly, however, many of the visualisations of Hawthorne’s novels and their treatment of the Christian names of the characters indicate a dialogic focus, with the names most often associated with speech tags or punctuation relating to direct address.

    2. Volume 1

      It is worth noting that Wilde’s first volume is rather significantly shorter than Hawthorne’s, but his completion of those eleven chapters while travelling is still something of an achievement.

    1. I know very well that you will say that for the sake of the story’s shape Kenyon must adore Hilda, but it is precisely to this ‘must’ that I object!

      Tafani never responds to this point, perhaps because of the overlapping correspondence that follows. The remark that he jotted onto this letter after he received it (recorded at the end of the paragraph) indicates he may have had something to say about Wilde’s caricaturing of him.

    2. Her name bears an ancient Germanic origin, but still seems to me like one of our century’s inventions; I should have changed it, had I been more bold at the beginning.

      Wilde hits upon the resurgence of the name ‘Hilda’, which had all but died out by the 14th century but was revived in the 19th.

    1. bring back your charming manuscripts and self with haste

      Tafani’s motivations are here unclear. Although a concern for Wilde’s academic progress is certainly plausible, Wilde’s subsequent double first suggests that the risk to his academic career was slight. The preceding paragraph speaks of Tafani’s jealousy at Wilde’s visit to Rome, and perhaps to the amusement that, implicitly, Wilde and his young friends were enjoying. The stricter tones of “My dear student” and this closing paragraph run counter to the unusual sign-off, “Tafi”, used but rarely elsewhere amongst Tafani’s correspondence, either by the man himself or by his correspondents.

    1. shade⁠

      Wilde changes Hawthorne’s “wretch” to “shade” here, emphasising the supernatural element of the guide’s story, as well as creating a starker contrast between the supposedly lost fellow and the sunshine that penetrates only the shallowest regions of the catacombs.

    2. The singular nature of Miriam’s model’s first appearance, and the way in which he had become one of Miriam’s train of followers, had little attracted Kenyon’s sympathies

      Wilde in this chapter bundles up two separate episodes of Hawthorne’s text. As the text proceeds, the direct structural linkages between Wilde’s novel and Hawthorne’s fall away, revealing a pattern entirely of Wilde’s own making. Here, his decision creates a greater link between Kenyon’s attitudes towards Miriam and her model, and the scene in the catacomb, than existed in Hawthorne’s work, strengthening the attachment between Miriam and Kenyon. The change also defers contemplation of Miriam’s “ambiguity” until after the events in the catacomb, increasing our sympathy with her.

    3. “Even from hour to hour, in canvas or in flesh” Miriam agreed.⁠

      There is a certain banal facticity about the changing appearance of painted figures as paints dry, both oil or watercolour. Miriam’s remark, Wilde’s addition, is suggestive of his only other novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, and the idea seems prioritised by Wilde’s decision to remove the remainder of Miriam’s remarks and attribute them to Hilda, leaving the comment as a conversational road not taken.

    4. I defy any painter to move and elevate me without my own consent and assistance

      There is a Paterian element to this assertion that, although echoing Hawthorne’s Kenyon, is suggestive of Wilde’s emerging theories of aestheticism, and the role of art and spectator.

    5. “Quite so!” Miriam parried at the branches of the thicket once more. “For instance, a painter never would have sent down yonder Faun out of his far antiquity, lonely and desolate, with no sympathetic offering to the need to keep his simple heart warm. Ah, that poor Faun! I have been looking at him too long.” In truth, her eyes had barely left the Faun, even as the group had moved towards the Dying Gladiator. With a little gesture of impatience, she added, “Now, instead of a beautiful statue, immortally young, I see only a corroded and discoloured stone. This change is very apt to occur in statues.”⁠

      In this passage, Wilde takes various sections of dialogue and transfers them from one character’s mouth to another’s. This begins a long chain of authorial decisions in which Hawthrone’s characters are blended and transfigured, culminating in a fascinating character-switch towards the end of the novel.

    1. Kenyon

      Wilde changes the addressee here from Hilda to Kenyon, again suggestive of the reorientation of relations to come.

    2. cat⁠

      Hawthorne writes “dog”. The change is insignificant and whimsical, but also suggestive of Wilde’s different attitude to his characters.

    3. His hand joined hers on the sculpture before carefully freeing them both from its attractive force.⁠

      This additional sentence is the first hint at the different relations that Wilde imagines for the four friends, which become clearer as his version of the novel progresses.

    4. the Antinous, the Lycian Apollo, the Juno and the Amazon

      Wilde’s rendition of the original opening paragraph here re-orders the sculptures that are available to the viewer, demoting the Amazon to the end of this list.

    1. objets⁠

      The French appears to be intended, rather than a typographical error within the letter.

    2. 24 April, 1877

      Wilde’s letter appears to have been rather hastily written, as the lack of any form of address suggests. The letter rollicks at times as a stream of consciousness, encapsulating Wilde’s enthusiasm for his new project notwithstanding his correspondent’s gentle disapproval. Wilde makes no mention of the thoughts of his fellow travelling companions on the project, which we can only assume did not go unnoticed, as the writing and rewriting of the first two chapters must surely have taken a good deal of time.

    1. sic

      Wilde here mistakes the accent, á, for the Italian à.

    2. relic

      The word “relic” retains an important significance in Oxford Aestheticism.

    3. Signore Tafanito

      It is difficult to know quite what to make of this correction by Wilde, or what it signifies regarding their relationship. Their prior correspondence, to which Wilde refers further on, may have shed light on this, but without that additional data, any interpretation would be only speculative.

    1. “I am quite serious, Donatello.”

      The chapter ends rather abruptly here. It is unclear quite whether Wilde intended this, or whether he simply forgot to return to the end of this chapter after an interruption while travelling.

    2. Kenyon

      The introduction of Kenyon into this scene presents Miriam and Kenyon as the worldly figures of Donatello’s initiation into adulthood, changing the dynamic quite significantly.

    3. preparing a canvas

      Wilde omits Hawthorne’s paean to the “feminine task” of needlework and places Miriam instead within the tradition of artists whose concern with their materials extends to all aspects of the artistic production.

    4. that sculptor

      Wilde places Kenyon in Donatello’s place here in this visit to Miriam’s studio. The painting of Donatello’s portrait—with Kenyon present—occupies a latter position in the chapter, but the interposition of Kenyon both of the shifting relationships between the characters in Wilde’s novel and of a long-standing fascination for Wilde in the moment of production of art.

    5. fragments of antique statues, headless and legless torsos, and busts, pieces of marble and granite that have invariably lost one or two or more of their constituent parts

      In this passage, Wilde removes some of Hawthorne’s more hyperbolic descriptions, such as of an Egyptian sarcophagus holding “the rubbish of the courtyard”. In doing so, he blurs the supposedly generic description of an archetypal Roman palazzo with an actual description of Miriam’s home.

    1. The interposition of Hilda between Miriam and Kenyon, and Kenyon between Miriam and Hilda,

      Wilde begins to develop here a different model of relations between Miriam, Hilda and Kenyon. There is something chaismic in the description of the triangular relationships, somehow aligning Miriam and Hilda with “improper Bohemian relations” and Miriam and Kenyon with “fervency of friendship”, when the reverse might be expected. This suggests Wilde thinking through the potential freedoms of creative relationships, and may be seen as prefiguring some of his interest in women’s position in aesthetic circles, such as expressed through his work on The Lady.

    2. drawn to join them

      It is odd that the almost perfect triangulation that Wilde describes in the previous sentence, holding the various friendships in a sort of necessary suspension, must immediately be supplemented by the addition of another.