125 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. lying in state, and in its black shroud

      GANGNES: To "lie in state" is "the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects" (Wikipedia). The "black shroud" here refers metaphorically to a burial shroud or a shroud worn by mourners. Here, then, Wells compares the entire city of London and its inhabitants as corpses, and the black smoke (and resulting black dust) as its burial covering.

    2. thought of the poisons in the chemists’ shops, of the liquors the wine merchants stored

      GANGNES: These are potential ways to kill oneself and join the rest of London, the narrator considers.

    3. two sodden creatures of despair

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 223: "The drunken man who is black as a sweep and the dead woman with the magnum of champagne. Wells added the statement that she is dead in revising the serial and evidently forgot to drop the mention of her here."

    4. overwhelmed in its overthrow

      GANGNES: Lost its balance or similar and fell.

    5. enhaloed

      From DANAHAY 182: "the birds form circular patterns like a halo"

    6. It speaks eloquently for the lesson that humanity had learned that no attack was made on our stricken Empire during the months of reconstruction

      GANGNES: Which is to say, in spite of the weakened state of Britain during the Martian invasion and the rebuilding period, no other country took advantage of this weakness and attacked Britain or its colonies. The narrator takes heart about the human spirit from this, despite the fact that in the same paragraph he mentions cannibalism, and we must remember what he, himself, did to the curate.

    7. Nom de Dieu!

      GANGNES: French, "Name of God!"

    8. Vive l’Angleterre!

      GANGNES: French, "Long live England!"

    9. kindly insipidity

      GANGNES: In this case insipidity would be defined as "want of taste or judgement; weakness, folly" (Oxford English Dictionary). The narrator is not altogether pleased with the French operator's comments; France cheers on England's "triumph" over the Martians, after having offered no aid during the crisis. Essentially, his "tousand congratulation' are in poor taste considering the circumstances.

    10. special constable

      GANGNES: "Special constables" in the Victorian period were private citizens who were appointed or volunteered to help the official police keep the peace in times of crisis. The "white badge" (below) likely refers to the white armbands issued to special constables in the nineteenth century. "Staff" may indicate their truncheons, or the narrator was given another kind of wooden weapon.

      More information:

    11. The door had been forced

      GANGNES: Someone had broken in while the narrator was gone.

    12. That they did not bury any of their dead, and the reckless slaughter they perpetrated, point also to an entire ignorance of the putrefactive process.

      GANGNES: The hypothesis here is that the Martians do not bury their dead because the dead do not decompose on their planet, or at least do not decompose in a way that risks making others ill.

    13. in conjunction

      From MCCONNELL 298: "At conjunction, the Earth and Mars are on opposite sides of the Sun."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: "Mars and Earth are in (superior) conjunction, and farthest from each other, when they are lined up with the sun between them; they are in opposition, and closest to each other, when they are lined up with Earth between Mars and the sun."

      From DANAHAY 189: "It is far away from earth, but will be 'in opposition' again."

    14. sinuous marking

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: "These sinuous markings are evidently signals. The first occurs on Venus and signals Mars that the Martian invasion of Venus is under way, and the response, occurring on Mars, appears immediately after ('dark' presumably because the signal makes a dark mark on a photographic plate)."

    15. corresponding column of Nature

      GANGNES: This is a reference to the real article in Nature that was mentioned in Installment 1 ("A Strange Light on Mars").

    1. these wretched creatures

      GANGNES: Which is to say, the human being captured by the Martians.

    2. tenth Cylinder

      From STOVER 188: re cutting this section, "Wells may have considered the fact that the narrator's reference to a 'tenth cylinder' is three too many. On the other hand, his miscounting of the seven actual landings would be consistent with his unreliability on so many other points."

    3. sex

      GANGNES: In this case, the word refers to an organism's sex based on chromosomes (which most Victorians would conflate with gender). The "budding off" makes it clear that Martians do not have sexual intercourse, so any differences in chromosomes (if any) are inconsequential. The Martians have achieved a kind of asexual utopia, where their energies and emotions are not "wasted" on finding a mate. Human beings with our base instincts and inefficient digestive systems don't stand a chance against advanced beings who quickly process sustenance, never sleep, and don't have to bother with courtship and breeding.

    4. I found it broadcast

      GANGNES: The narrator heard about the Red Weed spreading across England through its waterways.

    5. other artificial additions to their bodily resources

      GANGNES: The Fighting Machines, Handling Machines, Heat Ray, and other Martian technologies that are useful rather than for ornamentation or protection from the elements.

    6. I thought at once that it would tell of my presence from the mark of the blow I had given him.

      GANGNES: The narrator thinks that the Martians are smart enough to tell by looking at the curate's head injury that there must be some other human inside the house who had attacked the curate.

    7. Apparently the Martian had taken it all on the previous day.

      GANGNES: This is a truly terrifying moment if we remember that the Martians do not digest food. They did not take the supplies in the pantry because they wanted them; they took the supplies because they suspected that a human being was in the house, and by taking the provisions they can starve him out.

    8. My mind ran on eating.

      GANGNES: Which is to say, all the narrator can think about is eating food.

    9. without a solitary terrestrial growth to dispute their footing

      GANGNES: There are no Earth plants around to compete with the Red Weed for space; the red Martian plants are taking over Earth's green vegetation.

    10. both hurried away from the advances I made them

      GANGNES: Presumably the narrator is hoping to eat one of the dogs, as he planned to with the dog that came near the ruined house.

    11. I found the crushed and scattered bones of several cats and rabbits, and the skull of a sheep

      GANGNES: It is not clear whether the Martians ate these animals, humans ate them, or other animals ate them. The text suggests that the Martians prefer to eat human beings.

    12. as black as a sweep

      GANGNES: Which is to say, like a chimney sweep covered in coal dust from cleaning a chimney.

    13. the City

      From MCCONNELL 283: "the area [of London] north of the Thames, from the Tower of London on the East to St. Paul's Cathedral on the west, enclosed within the original walls of London"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 223 and 228: "On Sundays stores and businesses in the City of London are closed, and as the area is largely nonresidential, few people are to be seen." The City is "London's commercial and financial center, north of the Thames between the Temple (on the west) and Aldgate Pump (on the east). The Bank of England and the Royal Exchange are situated in The City."

      From DANAHAY 177: "the central part of London that contains many important financial and governmental buildings that would normally be closed on a Sunday"

    1. New River

      GANGNES: The New River is actually an aqueduct created in the 1600s, hence the fact that is a source of drinking water here. See "The New River" on the History of London website.

    2. used in automatic mines across the Midland counties

      From MCCONNELL 226: "'Automatic mines' are mines set to detonate on contact with any moving object; they are so called to distinguish them from mines exploded by electric current from shore. ... The mines are set to block the expected advance of the Martians into the counties (Leicester, Warwick, Nottinghamshire, etc.) in the middle of England."

    3. thirty-six pounds

      From MCCONNELL 228: at the time, ~$180

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: at least 10x the usual amount

    1. smoke out a wasp’s nest

      GANGNES: Smoke suffocates wasps; this practice is still done today, often with smoke-like products that can be purchased for this purpose.

    2. crushing the driver against his furnace

      GANGNES: which is to say, cause the engine driver harm or even death by pushing him into the coal furnace that fuels the steam for the engine

    3. the sack of a cycle shop

      From DANAHAY 116: "sack"=looting

      GANGNES: The narrator's brother is one of the first to arrive during the process of looting a bicycle shop, which allows him to steal a bicycle before they are all taken.

  2. Apr 2019
    1. sovereigns

      From MCCONNELL 220: gold coins worth two pounds, eighteen shillings (each)

      From DANAHAY 124: gold coins worth two pounds each ("the man has a lot of heavy money in his bag")

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL's and DANAHAY's respective accounts of a sovereign's worth are not the same as one another or as HUGHES AND GEDULD's (and STOVER's) below.

    2. gold

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD: "refers to sovereigns: gold coins worth one English pound each."

      GANGNES: Note that HUGHES AND GEDULD's account of a sovereign's worth is not the same as MCCONNELL's or DANAHAY's above. STOVER (157) agrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD.

    3. ramifications

      From MCCONNELL 224: extensions

      From DANAHAY 127: new branches of "black smoke"

    4. cut every telegraph

      GANGNES: which is to say, cut the telegraph wires to make distance communication impossible

    1. unnaturally early hours

      From MCCONNELL 195: "That is, the authorities are blocking off the area from which the Martian invasion comes."

    2. between the South-Eastern and the South-Western stations

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "Adjoining the Waterloo Station terminus of the South-Western Railway was another station belonging to the South-Eastern Railway (a separate company providing service to locations in the direction of Margate, Dover, Folkstone, and Hastings), whose terminus was Charing Cross. Normally there were barriers preventing passengers from moving directly from one railroad to another. These barriers had been lifted because of the emergency situation."

    3. curious brown scum

      From STOVER 137: residue from the Black Smoke upstream

    4. He had to give threepence for a copy of that paper.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "Threepence a copy was three to six times the normal price."

      From DANAHAY 102: "Wells is implying that newspapers were exploiting the situation by making their newspapers unusually expensive."

    5. quasi proclamation

      From MCCONNELL 197: "That is, an official statement which does not quite claim to be an official statement."

    6. no time to add a word of comment

      GANGNES: The newspaper editors were so eager to get the newspapers printed and sell them that they did not include any journalistic commentary or other textual commentary on the proclamation; they simply reprinted it.

    7. how ruthlessly the other contents of the paper had been hacked and taken out, to give this place

      GANGNES: The other content they would have expected this newspaper to usually contain was left out so that it could accommodate the entire proclamation in large letters.

    8. hastily fastening maps of Surrey to the glass

      GANGNES: The shopkeeper is displaying maps of Surrey in his store window because that is the region in which the Martian invasion is taking place (Woking and its surrounding villages are in Surrey). He likely hopes that advertising the map in his window will prompt customers to buy maps of Surrey from him so they can follow the action.

    9. Westminster to his apartments near Regent’s Park

      GANGNES: Regent's Park is a large public park in the northern part of central London. It lies north of the Thames, and it would likely take the narrator's brother a little under an hour to walk there from the south, depending on where in Westminster he is and where his apartment is situated. Wells's final home was near Regent's Park.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 232: Regent's Park is "central London's largest park, containing the London Zoo and the Botanical Gardens. It extends north from Marylebone Road to Primrose Hill; and west from Albany to Grand Union Canal."

    10. small hours

      GANGNES: early hours after midnight ("wee hours")

    11. stupid

      GANGNES: In this case, not unintelligent, but rather, unaware or unknowing.

    12. selling his papers for a shilling each

      From MCCONNELL 201: "This was nearly fifty times the normal price of a newspaper."

      From DANAHAY 107: "The price of a newspaper [since earlier in the installment] has now risen from threepence to a shilling, or twelve pence."

    13. ten pounds

      From MCCONNELL 202: "equivalent of fifty dollars at the time"

    14. at Staines, Hounslow, Ditton, Esher, Ockham

      GANGNES: These villages are all to the north or east of Woking and would be suitably arranged to face the crescent of Martian fighting machines.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 230: Hounslow is "a suburban area of Middlesex, about ten miles west of central London."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 231: Ockham is "a village in Surrey, about two and a half miles southeast of Woking and five miles northwest of Guildford."

    15. make a greater Moscow

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL and HUGHES AND GEDULD seem to be at odds here about the historical significance of this reference. STOVER (147) agrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD.

      From MCCONNELL 206: "From September 2 to October 7, 1812, the French Army of Napoleon occupied Moscow, burning and destroying more than three-fourths of the city. They were finally compelled to retreat, however, due to Russian guerrilla resistance and the impossibility of acquiring adequate provisions."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "To frustrate the Martians by destroying their major objective, London, as the Russians did to Napoleon in 1812 by setting fire to Moscow."

    1. I would make a big detour by Epsom to reach Leatherhead

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 209: The narrator "intends to make a northerly bypass of Leatherhead then circle back to it from the east."

    2. ’luminium

      GANGNES: short for "aluminium" (British; American aluminum)

      From MCCONNELL 176: "First isolated in 1825, aluminum ... began to be produced in massive quantities only after the discovery, in 1866, of a cheap method of production by electrolysis."

    3. Sabbatical

      From DANAHAY 87: "literally means day of worship; people are dressed as if for going to church on Sunday"

    4. these is vallyble

      GANGNES: A large collection of orchids would, indeed, have been quite valuable. The craze surrounding "orchid hunting"--the search for rare and beautiful orchids to collect (and/or sell to collectors)--was at its height during the late nineteenth century, to the point where the fad had a name: "orchidelirium." Some varieties would fetch extremely high prices, and wealthy Victorians sunk extreme amounts of money into their collections.

      Sources and more information:

    5. the tower of Shepperton church—it has been replaced by a spire

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 210: This is the Church of St. Nicholas; it is later smashed by the Martians.

    6. outhouse

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    7. The inn was closed, as it was now within the prohibited hours.

      From DANAHAY 89: "Inns and pubs were allowed to sell alcohol only during particular hours specified by law."

    1. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopaedia Britannica entry.

    2. This lot’ll cost the insurance people a pretty penny, before everything’s settled.” He laughed with an air of the greatest good humour, as he said this.

      From STOVER 93-4: "The narrator's neighbor in Woking assumes, with a touching faith in bourgeois property values, that 'the insurance people' will settle for damages once the Martians are defeated."

    3. that a dispute had arisen at the Horse Guards

      GANGNES: STOVER corrects HUGHES AND GEDULD's annotation, though does not mention them specifically in the note, despite referencing them in other notes.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "Their notion is that there was an operational or tactical dispute--about how to deal with the situation--among the officers of the elite Horse Guards at the Horse Guard barracks (a building in central London opposite Whitehall). The Horse Guards are the cavalry brigade of the English Household troops (the third regiment of Horse Guards is known as the Royal Horse Guards)."

      From STOVER 94: Horse Guards here "is a shorthand reference to the British War Office, located on Horse Guards Parade near Downing Street in London. As Americans refer to the Department of Defense as 'The Pentagon' after its office building, so the British called its War Office 'the Horse Guards.' Not to be confused with the Household Calvary regiment The Royal Horse Guards, even then a tourist attraction when on parade."

    4. belligerent

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "waging or carrying on regular recognized war; actually engaged in hostilities," which is to say, the narrator is imagining, and is excited about, an epic war between the British and the Martians.

    5. Spotted Dog

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 207: Wells uses this name in place of the name of a real pub: the Princess of Wales.

      From DANAHAY 72: the name of a local pub

    6. I’m selling my bit of a pig.

      GANGNES: HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER both disagree with MCCONNELL about the meaning of this phrase.

      From MCCONNELL 159: "The landlord fears he may be selling (not buying) a 'pig in a poke.'"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 207: "One nineteenth-century slang meaning of 'pig' was goods or property. Hence the sentence might simply men: 'I'm selling my bit of property.' Another slang meaning of 'pig' was nag, donkey, or moke; while 'bit of' was an adjectival term that could be used variously to express affection for the subject it preceded. ... Another possibility is a real pig, i.e., the landlord is surprised--after asking a pig buyer to pay a pound and drive the pig home himself--to be offered two pounds with a promise moreover to return the pig. According to this, people are simply talking at cross-purposes, and the narrator then explains that he wants a dogcart, not a pig."

      From STOVER 98: "The landlord is puzzled by the narrator's haste to pay two pounds for his 'bit of pig' (=his valuable piece of property) coupled with a strong promise to return it."

    7. heard midnight pealing out

      From DANAHAY 75: church bells ringing

      GANGNES: Which is to say, the church bells rang in such a way that indicated the time was midnight

    8. in its wallowing career

      From DANAHAY 76: in its path

      GANGNES: In the 1898 edition, "wallowing" is removed.

    9. Apparently his neck had been broken. The lightning flashed for a third time, and his face leapt upon me. I sprang to my feet. It was the landlord of the “Spotted Dog,” whose conveyance I had taken.

      From STOVER 107: The narrator's false promise to return the dogcart was likely the cause of the landlord's death; he couldn't escape because the narrator had taken his means of conveyance.

    10. a driver in the Artillery

      From MCCONNELL170: "That is, he drove the horse-drawn carriage of the heavy field guns."

      GANGNES: As other scholars have pointed out (e.g., HUGHES AND GEDULD 210), the marked difference in the role of the artilleryman in the Pearson's as compared with the novel constitutes a significant change between the two versions. He is the "man" in the new chapter--"The Man on Putney Hill"--added for the volume, and he is a conduit through which the novel explores how humankind might grapple (or fail to grapple) with such a crisis as the Martian invasion. See Installment 9.

    11. gun he drove had been unlimbered

      From MCCONNELL: "To 'unlimber' a gun is to detach it from its limber, a two-wheeled carriage drawn by four to six horses, and prepare it for firing."

    1. waving a white flag

      GANGNES: which is to say, signalling peace or surrender

    2. by the light of their destruction

      GANGNES: The narrator is only able to see the people who are burning because the fire burning on their bodies creates light.

    3. the road from Woking Station

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 204: "The Chertsey and the Chobham roads start at Woking station, then divide. The 'Something' that 'fell with a crash far away to the left' fell presumably to the west. So the road referred to here is presumably the Chobham Road."

    4. mounted

      GANGNES: riding a horse

    5. collision

      GANGNES: In this case, an attack or conflict. Stent and Ogilvy sent their telegraph before there was any sign of overt hostility from the Martians; they contacted the barracks so that the soldiers might come to the pit and protect the Martians from being attacked by humans, not the other way around.

    6. my collar had burst away from its stud

      From MCCONNELL 148: "Collars at the time were detached from the shirt, generally made of celluloid, and fastened around the neck with a stud."

    7. incredible

      GANGNES: In this instance, unbelievable; the narrator is relieved that his wife believes his story about what happened to him because his neighbors did not.

    8. receiving no reply—the man was killed—decided not to print a special edition

      GANGNES: Because the newspapers didn't hear from Henderson after he sent a telegram with the news about the capsule's landing, the newspaper decided that it must have been a hoax, so it did not report a story on it. People have been murdered by the Martian heat-ray by this point, and hardly anyone who wasn't at the pit knows about the incident.

    9. north-west

      GANGNES: As HUGHES AND GEDULD point out (see below), this is a mistake that was not corrected in any of the novel's revisions. The error is somewhat jarring considering that Wells painstakingly situates the Martian invasion at extremely specific real locations. For more information on where this project situates the landing site, see the map page on The (De)collected War of the Worlds.

      HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "This is a slip. The second cylinder falls to the northeast ... in or near the 'Byfleet' or 'Addlestone' Golf Links (really the New Zealand Golf Course, then the only course thereabouts and the one Wells must mean)."

    1. carry warfare sunward

      GANGNES: Which is to say, invade Earth and destroy human beings; Earth is closer to the Sun than Mars is.

    2. clockwork of the telescope

      From MCCONNELL 127: "The clockwork would keep the telescope rotating in synchronization with the movement of its celestial object."

    3. just a second or so under twenty-four hours after the first one

      GANGNES: Presumably this timing is necessary because the capsules are all being "aimed" at roughly the same area geographically; the cylinders need a "straight shot" from their giant gun (cannon), and the Earth takes 24 hours to rotate back to roughly the same position in reference to the Sun. It may also take a significant amount of time to reload a new capsule into the gun.

    4. I remember how jubilant Markham was at securing a new photograph of the planet for the illustrated paper he edited in those days.

      GANGNES: It is not clear whether "Markham" is supposed to refer to a real editor of a specific newspaper. W. O. Markham edited the British Medical Journal, but that publication was not an illustrated paper. It is highly likely that "Markham" is a fictional character who is an acquaintance of the narrator

      Source:

    5. dull radiation

      GANGNES: the heat radiating from the cylinder (not harmful/nuclear radiation)

    6. public house

      GANGNES: British "pubs"/bars

    7. Few of the common people in England had anything but the vaguest astronomical ideas in those days.

      GANGNES: This statement implies that most English people became far more familiar with astronomy after their country was invaded by aliens from another planet.

    8. oxide

      From MCCONNELL 135: "Any chemical compound containing oxygen. The surface of the cylinder has been oxidized in the heat generated by its fall through the atmosphere."

    9. three kingdoms

      GANGNES: You will see below that three different annotated editions of the novel give three different definitions of this reference, and they do not agree as to whether it is Wales or Ireland that is meant to be the "third kingdom."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: England, Ireland, and Scotland

      From STOVER 70: Of Great Britain

      From DANAHAY 52: England, Scotland, and Wales

  3. Mar 2019
  4. Nov 2018
    1. With this idea in mind, it is easy to write the conditional formatting formula now. We need to write the following formula in the New Formatting Rule dialog, as if we were writing it into cell B7:

      In fact, the formula uses the top-left cell

  5. Sep 2018
    1. $f(x_)foratestvectorinputforatestvectorinput for a test vector input x_,givenatrainingsetXwithvaluesyfortheGPisonceagainagaussiangivenbyequationCwithameanvector,givenatrainingsetXwithvaluesyfortheGPisonceagainagaussiangivenbyequationCwithameanvector, given a training set X with values y for the GP is once again a gaussian given by equation C with a mean vector m_andcovariancematrixandcovariancematrix and covariance matrix k_$:

      ...$f(x)$ for a test vector input $x$, given a training set $X$ with values $y$ for the GP is once again a gaussian given by equation C with a mean vector $m$ and covariance matrix $k$:

    1. Under Darwin's hypothesis, there is variation among individuals at the start o

      Lamarckism = traits change amongst a population based on current needs--they then get passed down

      Darwinism = variation in traits are present at the beginning--the traits that permit survival are passed down

  6. Dec 2017
    1. there are several free online analysis tools that can also be extremely useful. Many allow you to enter or upload your data and then make one click to conduct several descriptive statistical analyses

      Would these be considered viable within the scientific field? In class we specifically use SPSS, but it's mentioned that Excel can also be used. Would online websites such as these be allowed in publications, conferences, or general research?

  7. Oct 2017
    1. 18 of these were publications analysing data contained in the WWARN database, which we term "core" WWARN publications.

      Neither from the WWARN_Papers.ris nor from the rest of the paper, I could infer which these 18 "core" publications were, which would help in understanding the reserch presented here.

  8. Feb 2017
    1. Figures, in general, may be described to be thal language, which is prompled either by lhe imagination, or by lhe passions.

      Wait, but couldn't we say all language is prompted by either the imagination or the passions? What has he clarified here? Or would he not agree that all language is a result of either imagination or passion?

  9. Jun 2016
    1. closed.

      closed. If the Dialog was opened without the use of a triggering element (for example, on a timeout or other external event), then the location of focus should be saved when the Dialog opens; if closing the Dialog does not cause changes to the page, then focus must be returned to it's original location before the Dialog opened. If the page was changed by the dialog, then focus should ... [TBD]

  10. Apr 2016
  11. Jan 2016
    1. The tower leans from its foundations, and every new story but hastens the final catastrophe. To educate men who must be condemned to poverty, is but to make them restive; to base on a state of most glaring social inequality political institutions under which men are theoretically equal, is to stand a pyramid on its apex.

      Basically, George is referencing how educating those who are bound to live a life of poverty up-ends the progress that it develops. This can be seen by the disorder that the lower-class causes when they realize how mistreated they are.

    2. association of poverty with progress is the great enigma of our times

      Definition of enigma: A person or thing that is mysterious, puzzling, or difficult to understand

      Clarification: Some people find it difficult to understand why there is a correlation between poverty and progress

      Question: Can there ever be a time when every person benefits from progress?

  12. Dec 2015
    1. In other words, these web mappers are prioritizing certain things–availability, price, ninety degree angles in street grids–over other things, such as relative size of land masses.
    2. The Internet–and information, more broadly–is always shaped by geography, and in turn shapes geographies. Rather than representing the 'end of geography', the Internet has made geography more important and visible in our everyday lives.
    3. the fact that there are underlying geographic patterns at all is interesting
    4. Rather, it was about how maps can help us gain alternative perspectives on the world.
    5. on the societies, spaces, and places that are being mapped, and from which maps emerge
    6. this essay focuses
    1. A spherical or Web Mercator spatial reference system uses mathematical formulas and parameters that are incompatible with and non-compliant to the WGS 84.
  13. Sep 2015
    1. by ten Hacken will never bea problem

      I thought that ten Hacken's problem was based rather on the assumption of "maximally-specific values", and since features must be maximally-specific, there is a problem saying that "cousins" has the value "gen", since "underspecified" is not maximally specific. One could say that values are "as maximally specific as necessary", but since the cases in 6 require gender marking it is problematic to assume that its plural don't (according to maximal specificity of values)

    2. I showedthat spurious ambiguities arise for a particular analysis of verbal complexes in Germanwhen one resolves the values of a binary feature (flip). This can be avoided by thecomplicated stipulation of a value in certain contexts

      It is not quite clear where the feature "FLIP" has been discussed, and what is the connection of FLIP and spurious ambiguities with gender.

    3. littlev

      If I am right, little v means in your tree "Voice". I would keep the terminology consistent

    4. She/he is very smart, isn’t she/he?

      The point is quite clear, nevertheless I would recommend not to give the options in this way but: She is very smart, isn't she/*he?

    1. PRR

      Again, in the past I thought that these terms were describing molecular engines that were quite specific to particular antibody/antigen interactions. Guess not.

  14. Jul 2015
    1. all information about phonology, syntax and semantics

      f the subject? whose phon, syn, and sem information? It could be interpreted as "all information of the sentence" which is surely not meant in this context.

    2. what it does in GB theory

      The use of little nPs (paralell to Little vP) in some minimalist accounts makes possessives and prenominal genitives to subjects/external arguments, i.e. in probably exactly this kind of "more general sense" that you meant for HPSG

    3. In the idiom in (i),Bär‘bear’ actually means a lie and the adjective has to be interpreted accordingly.

      It is right that "Bären" is in the scope of "groß", but not necessarily that "Bär" means "a lie". "aufbinden" means "to tell something wrong to so.", "Bär" means then "a story". To some extent, one could say that the idiom is not "einen Bären aufbinden", but only "Bär", taking into account that the meaning of "aufbinden" does not change. That is, the modifier would have scope over the entire idiom.

    4. self-embedding

      "Referring to the examples would clarifies the term "self-embedding"

    5. that-Verb

      What does "that-Verb" mean?

    6. that-Ver

      that-Verb?

    7. licensed by the same construction

      I'm not sure if [Subj V [that-S]] and [that Subj V [that-S]] are \"the same construction\". Taken Goldbergs definition of construction, they are actually different in form and also in meaning (cf. illocutive force in embedded sentences). This point would be true if you have 4 clauses, then the 2 constructions in the middle really would have the same form AND meaning.

    1. horizontal loop geometry of the modern state system

      Anyone have any clue what this means?

  15. Oct 2014
    1. GitHub integration WordPress integration

      What is meant by "integration" in each of these?

  16. May 2014
    1. “make a new comment” icon

      The comment icon is the "plus" sign at the bottom of the three tools visible when hovering over the speech bubble tab of the sidebar.

    1. A transaction is valid if it follows the rules of our protocol (e.g. sufficient funds to send, etc). Valid transactions are grouped into blocks. A block is valid if all the transactions in the block are valid. Validators are users with accounts that have bonded coins. We say that a validator has voting power in the amount of the bonded coins. Validators are good if the validator acts according to the protocol. Other validators are considered byzantine . Blocks are proposed and then committed into the blockchain by validators using the consensus algorithm. The network is responsive if transactions that pay sufficient fees get committed in a timely manner.

      A few words about what it means for coins to be "bonded" might be helpful here. I wasn't familiar with the concept of surety before reading this and it might have helped me.

  17. Sep 2013
    1. Yes, indeed, but that was no answer to the question: nobody asked what was the quality, but what was the nature, of the art, and by what name we were to describe Gorgias.

      I'm glad this is here. I began to feel a little lost in the reading, as if I wasn't catching on to the answer and was caught in word-salad. I'm no philosophy buff, so a lot of this is foreign to me.