666 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
    1. None of that is possible with free but traditionally copyrighted content.

      I disagree again. Fair use in LMSs afford lots of pedagogical innovation, such as Hypothesis discussion of pdfs housed inside the shell and offered under fair use. I think the author is holding to tightly to his own 5-R formula, which is powerful but not omnipotent.

  2. Sep 2019
    1. systematic domination of women by men

      "systematic domination of women by men" the beside statement is varies according to person to person, that is the right each one but according to my perspective the idea is wrong because after a long period of time each girl will feel some loneliness. This isolation can be avoided if you have some to care you. No women in the could be independent but they can live independently only a certain period after they miss something in their life. Everyone will leave you but the one who love you will stick with your downs and ups. Your parents will pass you but your husband be with you until something has happen. Below you have five important benefits.

    1. “i want to live in the unknowing where everything is possible,”

      This sentence alludes to José Olivarez' mother, specifically his childhood with his mother where he doesn't know anything yet. Therefor, everything is possible. Aside from that, This also helps with understanding the content of the topic in which the three people are discussing.

    2. . i have my foot on the pedal

      This is meant to say that he is the person that takes charge of his life and no one else. Also, by not using capital letters at the beginning of the sentence(s), it allows it to seem more intimate and less professional, scripted.

    3. my mom hugs

      The purpose of the poem is to portray the life of a Mexican immigrant in The United States and the relationship with his mom

  3. Aug 2019
  4. Jul 2019
    1. Internet Reciprocal Teaching Promotes the Five CsCreativity: Students use divergent-thinking skills to generate their own questions and keywords for online searches. Their final projects require them to creatively express their own point of view. Communication: Students share what they learn as they work in small groups and with the whole class. They communicate with a wider audience by posting on a class blog. Collaboration: Students create collaborative knowledge through Internet inquiry and social interactions. They comment on one another's work using technologies such as VoiceThread and support one another through instant messaging. Critical Thinking: When using the Internet, students build the text they read, choosing which links to follow and which to ignore. The nonlinear nature of online reading helps support critical thinking. Students also learn to question the perspective and bias of online sources. Comprehension: Students learn important online reading skills, such as how to distinguish news articles from blog posts and editorials. They carefully read texts they encounter online to understand and evaluate different perspectives.

      5 Cs

    2. Internet Reciprocal Teaching Promotes the Five Cs

      5 C's of Internet Reciprocal Thinking: Creativity, Communication, Collaboration, Critical Thinking, Comprehension

    1. five phases:
      1. students collaborative with instructor to pick area of interest and work on a DQ to guide their research.
      2. students engage in OCI as the do research and use digital tools to make discoveries 3.Students use critical thinking to evaluate online info by analyzing credibility of their info. 4.Students synthesize what they learned/researched by combining info in multiple, multimodal sources.
      3. Students engage in online content construction by putting their research into their own words and choosing the best digital tool/text before sharing their answers.
    1. Despite the serious wrong done to us, the occupation of the port of Kiaochow was undertaken with the greatest care. We wish for the continuation of the friendship that has so long bound Germany with China and which so far has never been clouded.

      Germany wants to continue friendly relations while also being Asia's equal

    1. ake up the White Man’s burden — The savage wars of peace — Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease;

      Are they talking about the sacrifices the colony made?

    1. Evolutionary relationships of sorghum, rice and Arabidopsis with respect to Dofgene family
    2. Phylogenetic and motif analysis of sequenced Dof domains
    3. In silico characterization of sequenced Dof domains of cereal
    1. Treatment of L. donovani infected hamsters and isolation of mononuclear cells (lymph node cells)
  5. Jun 2019
    1. Increased Chemokine and Toll like receptor on T cells after vaccination in HBV positive newborns.
    2. Vaccination improved the Chemokine receptor CCR1, CCR3, CCR9 and Toll like receptor TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression in HBsAgpositive newborns compared to healthy newborns.
    3. T cell frequencies(Post vaccination response)
    4. Post-vaccination immune responses in newborns
  6. shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in
    1. Procedure
    2. Extraction of Tannin
    3. Reagent
    4. Tannin
    5. Standard
    6. Estimation
    7. Extraction
    8. Reagent
    9. Free amino acid
    10. Calculation
    11. Procedure
    12. Reagent
    13. Proline
    14. Extraction and determination of sugar
    15. Standard curve of sugar
    16. Reagents
    17. Estimation of total sugar
    18. Extraction and determination of protein
    19. Standard curve of protein
    20. Reagents
    21. Estimation of protein
    22. Extraction and determination of ascorbic acid
    23. Standard curve of ascorbic acid
    24. Reagents
    25. Estimation of ascorbic acid
    26. Biochemical
    1. Peptides were synthesized by standard solid phase synthesis protocols using Fmoc chemistry on a semi-automated peptide synthesizer (Model 90, Advanced Chemtech). For this, Wang resin pre-loaded with N-a-Fmoc-Glu was used as the starting material. The stepwise coupling of Fmoc amino acids was performed with DIPCDIIHOBT activation procedure. The coupling of each step was monitored by Kaiser test for free amine and wherever necessary, a double coupling was used to increase the yield. Before each coupling step and on completion of the synthesis, the N-terminal Fmoc group was removed using 20% piperidine (v/v in DMF). The peptides were cleaved from the resin and the side chains deprotected with appropriate volume of a mixture containing TF A, ethanedithiol, phenol, thioanisole and water (80:5:5:5:5, v/v). The resin was removed by filtration and the crude cleaved peptides were precipitated using cold diethyl ether and extracted in water. The peptides were purified by RPHPLC and their chemical identity was checked by mass spectrometry
    2. ynthesis of al-30 analogs
  7. May 2019
    1. But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.

      This is more than just a travel log. Here Jonah is saying no to God. He is refusing God’s plan for him. He is actually rejecting a direct request from the creator because of his own interests. Maybe he is afraid to prophesy repentance because his life could be at risk. There may be smooth sailing at first, but the wrath of God eventually catches up with him.

    1. The activities ofβ-xylosidase, xylan acetylesterase and arbinofuranosidase were measured using 1 mM p-nitrophenylxylopyranoside, p-nitrophenylacetate and p-nitrophenylarabinofuranoside, respectively prepared in sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0). One mL of reaction mixture containing 0.2 mL of crude enzyme solution, 0.3 mL of sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and 0.5 mL of substrate was incubated at 80 °C for 30 min. The reaction was terminated by adding 2 mL sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (1.0 M, pH 10.0). The activities were determined using p-nitrophenol standard curve (1-10 μg mL-1) drawn using absorbance values measured in spectrophotometer at 400 nm. One unit of the enzyme is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates 1μmole of p-nitrophenol mL-1min-1 under assay conditions.
    2. Assays for β-Xylosidase, acetylesterase and arbinofuranosidase
    3. Metagenomic library obtained from various extracted DNA was screened by replica plating method on 0.3 % w/v RBB xylan containing LB-amp plates. The cells were allowed to grow for overnight at 37 °C and thereafter incubated at 4 °C till the appearance of zone of hydrolysis. A total of 36,400 clones from various environmental samples were screened.
    5. PurifiedDNA fragments of size 2-8 kb were ligated to the treated vector using a 1:3::vector :insert ratio in a volume of 10 μL. The total amount of DNA was about 0.5 μg. Vector and insert DNA was heated to 45 °C for 10 min and the immediately chilled on ice for 5 min prior to addition of ligase and buffer. T4 DNA ligase (NEB, England) was added to a final concentration of 0.125 UμL-1 and reactions were incubated at 16 °C for overnight in a ligation chamber. Reaction mixture incubated under same condition without addition of the enzyme was used as control. A ligation reaction was also set up under condition with linear plasmid DNA containing the
    1. 5 III of the ligation mix was added to competent cells and mixed gently and the mix was kept on ice for 30 min before giving a heat shock at 42°C for 1 min. The· mixture was incubated on ice for 2 min and 900 III of LB broth was added to each tube. The cells were recovered by centrifugation at 250 rpm at 37°C for 1 h and were plated on LB agar plates containing the appropriate antibiotic(s) and incubated overnight at 37°C
    2. Transformation in E. coli
    3. . Jalciparum cultures were maintained as described previously (Trager and Jensen, 1976). Briefly, P. Jalciparum strain 3D7 was cultured at 37°C in RPMI " 1640 medium (list I) in 0+ RBCs supplemented with 10% AB+ human serum or : 0.5% Albumax II (complete medium). All media were preheated to 37°C and care was taken to minimize the handling time outside the 37°C incubator. Cultures were gassed with 5% CO2, 3% O2, and 92% N2 for 20 seconds and maintained at 37°C.
    4. Maintenance of P.falciparum cultures
    1. Trypan blue is a diazo vital stain which selectively colours the dead cells blue that can be visualized under light microscope. Equal volumes of cell suspension and -0.4% trypan blue dye were mixed and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. 10 J!L of stained cells were loaded on to a hemocytometer and a count of the number of viable and dead cells were made. This procedure was carried out routinely to ensure that cell viability is >95% before plating cells for experiments
    2. Assay for cell viability by Trypan blue dye exclusion method
    1. Phaser is a program for phasing macromolecular crystal structures by both molecular replacement and experimental phasing methods (A. J. McCoy, 2007). The novel algorithms in Phaser are based on maximum likelihood probability theory and multivariate statistics rather than the traditional least-squares and Patterson methods. For molecular replacement, the new algorithms have proved to be significantly better than traditional methods in discriminating correct solutions from noise. One of the design concepts of Phaser was that it be capable of a high degree of automation. Phaser has novel maximum likelihood phasing algorithms for the rotation functions and translation functions in MR, but also implements other non-likelihood algorithms that are critical to success in certain cases.
    2. Automated molecular replacement program (Phaser)
    3. simultaneously uses all symmetry operators, resulting in a single peak with an improved signal-to-noise ratio which directly gives the position of the model in the unit cell. In addition, the TF is coupled with a PF to remove false maxima which correspond to interpenetrating molecules. Both the TF and PF allow the incorporation of a second model already placed in the cell. The TF solution may be subjected to rigid-body refinement incorporated in MOLREP. Non crystallographic symmetry may be imposed on the model in order to restrain the refinement. Pseudo-translation is automatically detected from analysis of the Patterson map. A significant off-origin peak gives the pseudo-translation vector, which is used to modify structure factors in the TF calculation (Navaza et al., 1998). In MOLREP multiple copies of the macromolecule in the unit cell can be searched (Vagin, 2000).
    4. MOLREP is an automated program for molecular replacement that utilizes a number of original approaches to rotational and translational search and data preparation. MOLREP can perform a variety of tasks that require rotational and/or positional search: standard MR, multi-copy search, fitting a model into electron density, heavy-atom search and model superposition. The arsenal of rotation (RF) and translation (TF) functions includes self-RF, cross-RF, locked cross-RF, phased RF, full-symmetry TF, phased TF, spherically averaged phased TF and packing function (PF).The program is general for all space groups. The output of the program is a PDB file with the atomic model ready for refinement and a text file with details of the calculations. The rotational search is performed using the RF of (Crowther, 1972), which utilizes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. The default radius of the integration sphere is derived from the size of the search model and is usually two times larger than the radius of gyration. The RF solutions are refined prior to positional search using a rigid-body technique. The refinement is performed in space group PI and the outcome is evaluated by the correlation coefficient. It
    5. Automated molecular replacement program (MOLREP)
    6. include SORTING, that sorts, packs and assesses the quality of the experimentally measured diffraction data, and is run in the first step. The program TABLING calculates the continuous Fourier coefficients from the model placed in the artificial cell. The cross-rotation function is carried out by the program ROTING, which uses Crowther's algorithm (Crowther, 1972). TRAING is used to calculate the translation function. Finally FITING is used to refine the orientational and positional parameters of the molecule corresponding to the potential solutions, as a rigid body.
    7. To carry out MR, the AMoRe package can be used. AMoRe constitutes a suite of programs written by Jorge Navaza (Navaza, 1993; Navaza, 1994). These
    8. Automated molecular replacement package (AMoRe)
    9. was subsequently used as a probe model to carry out molecular replacement for one of the Fab-peptide complex; remainmg three Fab-peptide complexes were solved by using Ppy-LH as search model. The structure of antigen bound 36-65 Fab (2A61) was used for molecular replacement of two Fab-peptide complexes of the same antibody. AMoRe (Navaza, 1994) and Phaser packages from CCP4 suite (Elizabeth Potterton, 2003) were used for structure determination of antigen free BBE6.12H3 Fab and its complexes with peptide, respectively. The solution for 36-65 complexes was determined by using MOLREP from CCP4 suite. Both for MOLREP and AMoRe, calculations for rotation/translation functions were carried out using structure factors from 8 to 4 A resolutions. The transformation matrices obtained from AMoRe for antigen free Fab was utilized to orient the models in the corresponding unit cell. However, both Phaser and MOLREP have a module which automatically does orientation. The packing function of Phaser also checks for possible clashes or voids between the symmetry related molecules. All the solutions were unambiguous. For outputs of AMoRe and MOLREP the crystal packing was examined using Coot (Emsley P, 2004) to ascertain the absence of steric clashes or large voids between symmetry related molecules. Calculations of the Matthews coefficient (Kantardjieff and Rupp, 2003) indicated presence of two molecules for antigen free Fab and a single Fab molecule for all Fab-peptide complexes within the asymmetric unit.
    10. wavelength component in three dimensions inversely proportional to their values of h, k and /. The image of the object can be reconstructed by recombining the individual sine waves as occur in the objective lens of the microscope. Since it is not possible to focus the X-rays, only the intensities could be recorded with the loss of phases, well known as phase problem of crystallography. Macromolecular crystal structures are usually solved using one of the three techniques; multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR), multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) or molecular replacement (MR). Of the three, MR is generally used in cases where a structural homolog is available. Since the structure of a number of antibodies is already known, MR is the method of choice for structure determination of antibody Fab. The molecular replacement method, involves orienting and positioning a model molecule in the experimental unit cell through rotations and translations. The rotation function developed by Rossman and Blow ( 1962), involves rotation of the Patterson function of one group or molecule with respect to the other in all possible ways and the ultimate superimposition of the two Patterson functions. The translation function deals with positioning the oriented molecule in the unit cell of the unknown structure. It utilizes the cross vectors between various symmetrically related molecules for positioning the probe in the target unit cell. The translation function is carried out by moving the oriented model in small increments along all three directions and calculating the correlation between observed and calculated intensities. From the solutions obtained, the one with the highest correlation and lowest R-factor was chosen for molecular replacement. The structure of the Fab of putative anti-NP germ line mAb Nl G9 was used for molecular replacement. The refined model of the native unliganded germline Fab
    11. The goal of diffraction analysis is reconstruction of the detailed structure of the asymmetric unit from a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern breaks down the structure into discrete sine waves. Any shape can be presented in three dimensions as the sum of sine waves of varying amplitudes and phases. The individual reflections of a diffraction pattern represent such waves, which have
    12. Structure determination using molecular replacement
    13. Structure determination
    1. Transformation of the bacterial host with an appropriate plasmid was performed using the method of Mandel and Higa ( 1970). A vial of competent bacterial cells was thawed on ice. The plasmid DNA was added at a concentration 1 ng/25 Jll of competent cells and the mixture was allowed to stand on ice for 30 min. The cells were given a heat shock by incubating the mixture at 42 °C for 90 sec, followed by a 2 min. incubation on ice. The mixture was diluted 10-fold with LB and incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Afterwards the cells were plated on the LB-agar containing the antibiotic whose resistance marker was present in the plasmid.
    2. Transformation of Bacterial Host
    3. Oligonucleotides used in this study were synthesized by Rama Biotechnologies (Hyderabad, India).
    4. Oligonucleotides
    1. In addition, cryosections of an ovary from a normal cycling female (10 years) were also processed. Sections passing through a follicle were selected, washed in PBS and blocked for 30 min in 5% normal goat serum. The sections were incubated at 37°C with 1 :250 dilution of rabbit pre-immune and immune sera for 1 h, washed with PBS and incubated for 1 h with 1 :2000 dilution of goat anti-rabbit lg-FITC conjugate. Slides were washed with PBS and mounted in Glyceroi:PBS (9: 1) and examined under fluorescent microscope.
    2. A 3 year old monkey was treated daily for 3 days with an intramuscular injection of 25 IU of PergonaJ® (Laboratoires Serono S.A., Aubonne, Switzerland). The monkey was ovarectomized on day 6, and the ovary was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and sections of 5 J..Lm thickness were cut in a cryostat at -20°C and fixed for 20 min in chilled methanol.
    3. Immunofluorescence on Bonnet Monkey Ovarian Sections
    4. The staining solution was aspirated and the plates left at 27°C 0/N. Plaques whicl appeared as clear zones, were identified, marked and verified under the microscope Plaques were picked up using a sterile 200 J.Ll tip and viruses were allowed to diffuse ou 0/N in 200 J.LI of CM to make the plaque pick stock virus.
    5. Sf9 cells ( 1.8x 1 o6) seeded in a 35 mm culture dish were infected in duplicate with 100 J!l of the serial dilutions (1 oO to w-2) of the transfection supernatant for I h. The viral inoculum was aspirated and 1.5 ml of the cooled agarose overlay (1.5% LMP agarose, 0.5X CM) was added to each dish and allowed to set. 1 ml of CM was added to each dish and the plates were incubated at 270C for 5 days. Medium was removed and cells were stained with 2 ml of staining solution (0.03 % neutral red in 10 mM PBS) for 1 h.
    6. Plaque Assay for Isolating Viruses
    7. Conditions for expression of r-bZP3 in SG 13009[pREP4] cells transformed with the pQE-bZP3 plasmid were standardized. Cells were grown till A6oo=0.7 and induced with different concentrations of IPTG (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mM) for a constant time period (3h) or induced with a 0.5 mM IPTG for different time periods (0, 1, 2, 3 or 5 h). Cells were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot as described above.
    8. Standardization of Expression Conditions
    9. mixed by inverting tubes. Following an incubation on ice for 5 min, 150 J.tl of ice cold potassium acetate solution (prepared by mixing 60 ml of 5 M potassium acetate, II.5 ml of glacial acetic acid and 28.5 ml of water) was added. The mixture was incubated on ice for 5 min and centrifuged at I2,000 g for 5 min at 4°C. The supernatant was decanted into a fresh tube and extracted once with an equal volume of phenol equilibrated with 10 mM Tris, pH 8 and 1 mM EDT A (TE) followed by extraction with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24: 1 ). DNA was precipitated by adding 2 volumes of chilled ethanol, contents mixed and tube incubated on ice for 30 min. The pellet collected after centrifugation at 12,000 g for 15 min was washed once with 70% alcohol, dried and resuspended in 50 J!l TE. To remove RNA contamination contents of the tube were treated with 20 J.tg/ml RNAase for I5 min at RT. DNA was checked and analyzed after restriction digestion by agarose gel electrophoresis.
    10. Colonies obtained after transformation were inoculated in 5 ml LB and grown 0/N in the presence of 100 Jlg/ml ampicillin (LB Amp). Next morning 1.5 ml of the culture was centrifuged for I min at I 0,000 rpm in a microfuge. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in 100 Jll of chilled GTE (50 mM Glucose, 25 mM Tris HCI and 10 mM EDT A). After an incubation at room temperature (RT) for 5 min, 200 Jll of freshly prepared alkaline SDS (0.2 N NaOH, 1% SDS) was added and the contents
    11. Small Scale Plasmid DNA Isolation
    1. containing 2. 2 M formaldehyde and 50 % V /V formamide. The samples were chilled on ice for 5 mins. and loading buffer added. A Taq I digest of phi X 174 DNA, filled-in wi~h Klenow polymerase using 32P-dCTP, was used as size marker for electrophoresis. The gels were run at <5 Vjcm.
    2. Total RNA was resolved in formaldehyde -agarose gels as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) • In general, the electrophoresis was performed using 1.2 ~ 0 agarose gels containing 2.2 M formaldehyde and 1 X running buffer 0.04 M rnorpholinopropanesulfonic acid -MOPS, pH 7.0; 0.01 M sodium acetate; 0.001 M EDTA ). RNA samples upto 20 ug in 5 ul ) were incubated at 55°c for 15 minutes in 5 X gel buffer
    3. Electrophoresis of RNA.
    4. lectrophoresed on 0.7 % -1.2 % agarose gels in TAE or TBE buffer. Choice of the percentage of agarose and the electrophoresis buffer system was made following the guidelines of Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). In general, upto 1 kb fragments were resolved on 1.2 % agarose gels using TBE buffer. For most other purposes, TAE buffer was used. Agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The run was stopped when the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 1 em -1.5 em from the edge of ' the gel, except when the sample had fragments smaller than 500 bp, in which case the elctrophoresis was terminated at an earlier stage. The gel was immersed in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide, for 30 minutes, to stain the DNA. When detecting very low amounts of DNA, the staining was done for 60 minutes followed by destaining in 1 mM Mgso4 for one hour at room temperature. The DNA bands were visualised on a short wavelength UV transilluminator ( Fotodyne, Inc., USA and photographed with a Polaroid MP-4 camera using Polaroid type 667 film.
    5. DNA digested with restriction enzymes was
    6. For rapid electrophoretic analysis of plasmid DNA prepared by miniprep protocol, or to monitor the progress of digestion during various cloning procedures, the DNA was resolved on short agarose gels, taking less than one hour for the run. The electrophoresis was carried out in TAE buffer using 8 em long gels with a comb of teeth size 0.4 x 0.2 em. The width of the gel was variable, depending on the number of samples to be analysed. Gels were run at 50 100 volts, till the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 0.5 em of the edge of the gel.
    7. Mini gel electrophoresis
    8. Electrophoresis of DNA
    9. Agarose ~ electrophoresis
    10. Ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and gentamycin were from Sigma. Geniticin ( G418 ) was from Gibco Laboratories, USA.
    11. Antibiotics.
    1. The membranes were suspended (1.4 x 108 cell equivalent) in 250 III of incorporation buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH = 7.4, 25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCb, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TlCK, 1 Ilg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM ATP, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.4 Ilg/ml tunicamycin). Each assay tube was prepared by adding 12.5 III of 1 % Chaps, 2.8 III of 200 IlM GOP-Man, 10 III of GOP-[3H]-Man (1IlCi) and 25 nmol of synthetic substrate (49). The contents were lyophilized and 250 III of membrane suspension (1 .4 x 108 cell equivalent in incorporation buffer) were added to each tube. The tubes were incubated at 28°C for 20 minutes, cooled to 0 °C and the membranes were pelleted at 4 °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. The eH] mannosylated products, that were recovered in the supernatant, were mixed with 0.5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate and applied to a C18 Sep-pak cartridge that had been washed with 5 ml 80% propan-1-01 and 5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate. The cartridge was washed with 1.5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate and then the eluate was reapplied to the same cartridge. The cartridge was subsequently washed with 5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate, after which the bound material was eluted with 5 ml of 60% propan-1-01. The final eluate was concentrated and redissolved in 100 III of 60% propan-1-01. One tenth of this volume was taken for scintillation counting. The above assay was then carried out with a range of concentrations of OMJ to assess it's effect on the activity of eMPT enzyme parse.
    2. eMPT inhibition assay
    3. mixture). These samples were lyophilized and 125 III of the reaction mixture was added to each tube. The tubes were then incubated at 25°C for 1 h and the biosynthetic LPG was extracted as described above. 10 III of the solvent E extract was taken for scintillation counting.
    4. 1. Mild acid hydrolysis: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.02 N HGI (200 Ill). The mixture was then placed in a 100 °G water bath for 5 minutes. After hydrolysis, the sample was again dried under nitrogen and codried thrice with toluene (0.5 ml). The residue was suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 2. Nitrous acid deamination: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.2 ml of 0.125 M sodium acetate (pH = 4.0) and 0.25 M sodium nitrite. The mixture was incubated at 25 °G for 40 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 3. PI-PLC treatment: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and suspended in 0.4 ml of PI-PlG buffer (0.1 M Tris chloride, pH = 7.4 with 0.1 % deoxycholate) and 0.2 ml of PI-PlG concentrate (B.subtifis culture supernatant) was added. The mixture was then incubated at 37 °G for 16 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The effect of deoxymannojirimycin (Sigma, Gat. no. 0-9160) on the cell free biosynthesis was carried out. OMJ (5 mg) was dissolved in 1 ml of MQ water and 2.5, 5, 25 and 50 III were transferred to eppendorf tubes separately (which corresponded to 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 IlM concentrations of OMJ in 125 III ofthe reaction