29 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2021
  2. Apr 2021
    1. "Weltweit steigt mit dem Klimawandel das Risiko von extremen Regenfällen und Überschwemmungen", fasst Will Steffen von der australischen Nationaluniversität zusammen. Der Professor ist einer der führenden Klimatologen Australiens. "Die globale Durchschnittstemperatur ist bereits um etwa 1,1 Grad Celsius gestiegen. Für jeden Temperaturanstieg von einem Grad kann die Atmosphäre etwa sieben Prozent mehr Wasser aufnehmen", so Steffen
  3. Mar 2021
    1. Manmade CO2 Does Not Cause Measurable Warming

      Actually, CO2 does cause measurable warming. The warming effect is not huge, and not worrisome, but it is not zero, and it is large enough to be measurable.

      There really is no question about the fact that the Earth's average temperature has warmed slightly, as CO2 levels have risen, over the last six decades. The magnitude of that change is debatable: different "global" composite temperature indices vary in their measured trend by approximately a factor of two. But none of them show zero trend.


      The "climate sensitivity" of the Earth's temperatures to changes in CO2 level can be estimated by careful comparison of measured temperatures to measured CO2 levels. Here's an example on my web site, showing how that can be done:


      Climate change is a highly politicized issue, so, as is the case for any politicized issue, if you want to understand it you need to seek out balanced information. If you want to learn about the SCIENCE of climate change, instead of political spin, here's a list of resources which can help:


      It has:

      ● accurate introductory climatology information

      ● in-depth science from BOTH skeptics & alarmists

      ● links to balanced debates between experts on BOTH sides

      ● information about climate impacts

      ● links to the best blogs on BOTH sides of the issue

  4. Feb 2021
  5. Jan 2021
    1. Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with colleagues from Nanjing University and Texas A&M University have re-evaluated how much future global warming is in the pipeline if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations were to remain fixed at present-day levels, a quantity known as committed warming. Their new analysis accounts for the fact that surface warming to date has been large in certain regions but small in others, which has temporarily allowed Earth to shed heat more efficiently. Ignoring this “pattern effect”, as has been done in previous studies, gives the false impression that Earth’s energy budget is nearly balanced and implies that committed warming is only about 1.3°C (2.3°F) above pre-industrial levels. The team’s updated estimate is substantially larger, with a most likely value of 2.3°C (4.1°F). 
    1. Our planet’s energy balance is sensitive to spatial inhomogeneities in sea surface temperature and sea ice changes, but this is typically ignored in climate projections. Here, we show the energy budget during recent decades can be closed by combining changes in effective radiative forcing, linear radiative damping and this pattern effect. The pattern effect is of comparable magnitude but opposite sign to Earth’s net energy imbalance in the 2000s, indicating its importance when predicting the future climate on the basis of observations. After the pattern effect is accounted for, the best-estimate value of committed global warming at present-day forcing rises from 1.31 K (0.99–2.33 K, 5th–95th percentile) to over 2 K, and committed warming in 2100 with constant long-lived forcing increases from 1.32 K (0.94–2.03 K) to over 1.5 K, although the magnitude is sensitive to sea surface temperature dataset. Further constraints on the pattern effect are needed to reduce climate projection uncertainty.
    1. Bericht über eine Fernsehsendung mit Michael Mann, bei der es insbesondere darum geht, dass ein rascher stop der CO2 Emissionen schon in wenigen Jahren dazu führen kann, dass sich die globale Erhitzung nicht länger fortsetzt.

    1. The widespread idea that decades, or even centuries, of additional warming are already baked into the system, as suggested by previous IPCC reports, were based on an “unfortunate misunderstanding of experiments done with climate models that never assumed zero emissions.” 
    1. The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility.
    1. The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global mean temperature expected to occur following the cessation of net CO2 emissions and as such is a critical parameter for calculating the remaining carbon budget. The Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP) was established to gain a better understanding of the potential magnitude and sign of ZEC, in addition to the processes that underlie this metric. A total of 18 Earth system models of both full and intermediate complexity participated in ZECMIP. All models conducted an experiment where atmospheric CO2 concentration increases exponent
  6. Sep 2020
  7. Aug 2020
  8. Jul 2020
  9. Jan 2020
    1. Or global warming. I can’t see or touch it. What I can see and touch are these raindrops, this snow, that sunburn patch on the back of my neck. I can touch the weather. But I can’t touch climate. So someone can declare: “See! It snowed in Boise, Idaho, this week. That means there’s no global warming!” We can’t directly see global warming, because it’s not only really widespread and really really long-lasting (100,000 years); it’s also super high-dimensional. It’s not just 3-D. It’s an incredibly complex entity that you have to map in what they call a high-dimensional- phase space: a space that plots all the states of a system. In so doing, we are only following the strictures of modern science, laid down by David Hume and underwritten by Immanuel Kant. Science can’t directly point to causes and effects: That would be metaphysical, equivalent to religious dogma. It can only see correlations in data. This is because, argues Kant, there is a gap between what a thing is and how it appears (its “phenomena”) that can’t be reduced, no matter how hard we try. We can’t locate this gap anywhere on or inside a thing. It’s a transcendental gap. Hyperobjects force us to confront this truth of modern science and philosophy.

      A short, and very cogent argument here.

    1. The strategy would focus on vigorous range management, soil and water conservation including tree-planting, limiting over-grazing and preventing deforestation. Improving water availability would also require additional construction of surface dams during rainy seasons and deep wells.


    2. The primary causes of desertification in Somaliland include, among other things, deforestation, over-grazing and mismanagement of land and the environment as well as soil erosion, all of which have damaging effects on farmland and rangeland. Drought, considered as a cyclical phenomenon generally refers to rains failing for a long period of time which accelerates desertification and drastic reduction of water. Drought, is more compounded nowadays, by global climate change.

      a more complex explanation of desertification in Somalia

    1. Rehabilitation and restoration approaches can help restore ecosystem services that have been lost due to desertification.

      desertification - prevention and restoration

    1. (Through interpreter) Definitely there is a change. We used to count on the rainy season and the dry seasons. Now it's not normal. It has changed. We hear on the radios that in the West and in industrialized countries, there is a lot of pollution in the atmosphere.

      relationship between drought and global warming - Somali perspective

  10. Sep 2019
    1. Table 2.2:

      IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C - Table 2.2: The assessed remaining carbon budget and its uncertainties

  11. Mar 2019
    1. According to the analysis, urban areas were found to be relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas during heat waves. At 44.5°C, the non-urban areas were warmer than urban areas (43.7°C). However, during the night, all urban areas were hotter than the surrounding non-urban areas.

      Urban heat island effect

    1. Most strikers want their governments to aggressively cut their greenhouse gas emissions. Some youngsters are even demanding a lower voting age, so they can have a bigger say in political process. They want a safe future, powered by the wind and the sun, not dirty and dangerous coal and gas. For instance in Australia, students are urging politicians to move beyond fossil fuel projects, with the hashtag #StopAdani trending. The fear is that the coal mine project will damage water and the reefs.

      More power to you!

  12. Jan 2019
    1. . The power of glaciation and climate in shaping movement, lifestyle,and innovation cannot be underestimated

      really off topic but makes me think of global warming and how our present actions can have huge, tangible consequences

  13. Mar 2018
    1. As global temperatures rise, warmer oceans are expected to fuel stronger hurricanes, with disastrous consequences.

      Here is a sample annotation.

  14. Oct 2017
    1. ‘Truly it would seem as if “Man strews the earth with ruin.”4 But this conclusion is too flattering to human vanity. Man's most permanent memorial is a rubbish-heap, and even that is doomed to be obliterated’ (Sherlock, 1922, p. 343

      CO2 atmospheric concentration used as simple indicator for many years to track great acceleration / progression in Anthropocence, this now joined by long list of other indicators, escalating at an alarming rate, population, water use/ shortage, paper consumption, global warming, increase in number and ferocity of storms .......

    2. In 1873, the Italian geologist and priest Antonio Stoppani suggested that our technologies, infrastructures, and patterns of land use had created fundamental changes in Earth’s systems, propelling us into what he called an ‘anthropozoic era’

      Note : Read over Article again by Will Steffen, Paull J Crutzen & John R McNeill. [] (https://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/public-events/archiv/alter-net/former-ss/2007/05-09.2007/steffen/literature/ambi-36-08-06_614_621.pdf)

      Explore development of Anthropocence. How do we track progression of Anthropocene? CO2 Emissions??

  15. Aug 2015
    1. The right-wing base has a coherent position on climate change: It's a hoax, so we shouldn't do anything about it. The left-wing base has a coherent position: It's happening, so we should do something about it. The "centrist" position, shared by conservative Democrats and the few remaining moderate Republicans, is that it's happening but we shouldn't do anything about it. That's not centrist in any meaningful ideological sense; instead, like most areas of overlap between the parties, it is corporatist.

      The worst possible outcome.