17 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2021
    1. SARS-CoV-2 positive children

      Some children present with severe secondary effects in response to COVID-19, similar to Kawasaki disease, termed multisystem inflammatory disease in children (MIS-C). MIS-C patients present with higher frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and lower levels of IL-17A, ESDN and TNF-β (1, 2, 3, 4). Additionally, children with MIS-C demonstrate an increase in IgG antibodies but low IgM antibodies (2). Data suggests that binding of autoantibodies to proteins involved in immune cell signalling and in within the vasculature might explain the autoimmune reactivity contributing to MIS-C pathology (2, 4).


      1)Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, Martelli L, Ruggeri M, Ciuffreda M, et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10239):1771-8.

      2)Consiglio CR, Cotugno N, Sardh F, Pou C, Amodio D, Rodriguez L, et al. The Immunology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with COVID-19. Cell. 2020;183(4):968-81 e7.

      3) Vella L, Giles JR, Baxter AE, Oldridge DA, Diorio C, Kuri-Cervantes L, et al. Deep Immune Profiling of MIS-C demonstrates marked but transient immune activation compared to adult and pediatric COVID-19. medRxiv. 2020.

      4) Gruber CN, Patel RS, Trachtman R, Lepow L, Amanat F, Krammer F, et al. Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Cell. 2020;183(4):982-95 e14.

  2. Apr 2021
  3. Feb 2021
  4. Oct 2020
    1. t’s not clear why the sequence of the vaccines only mattered in girls, partly because there has been very little research into how male and female immune systems are different. “Somehow immunology has been blind to sex,” says Aaby. “If you read research about mortality in low income countries, there is no such thing as boys and girls – there are children. So we perceive that they have to be the same, and they are definitely not the same.”

      Take away: "Immune training" or bystander effects from other vaccinations may help to fight off Covid-19 or other infections, in spite of not being specific to that pathogen. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

      Claim: "Somehow immunology has been blind to sex"

      The evidence: This is not entirely true- there is actually a LOT of research into sex differences in the immune response, and it is well-known that women can generally mount stronger Th1-type immune responses against viral infections than men. This is thought to be partially linked to estrogen cycling, and partly due to the fact that women have 2 active copies of genes associated with immunity because those are encoded on the X chromosomes. Men only have 1 copy, and thus they don't generally mount as strong an inflammatory response. However, women are also more prone to autoimmune diseases as a consequence of having stronger inflammatory responses than men, which is seen in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.

      Sources: (https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90).

  5. Aug 2020
    1. Consiglio, C. R., Cotugno, N., Sardh, F., Pou, C., Amodio, D., Zicari, S., Ruggiero, A., Pascucci, G. R., Rodriguez, L., Santilli, V., Tan, Z., Eriksson, D., Wang, J., Lakshmikanth, T., Marchesi, A., Lakshmikanth, T., Campana, A., Villani, A., Rossi, P., … Brodin, P. (2020). The Immunology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with COVID-19. MedRxiv, 2020.07.08.20148353. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.08.20148353

    1. Luban, J., Sattler, R., Mühlberger, E., Graci, J. D., Cao, L., Weetall, M., Trotta, C., Colacino, J. M., Bavari, S., Strambio-De-Castillia, C., Suder, E. L., Wang, Y., Soloveva, V., Cintron-Lue, K., Naryshkin, N. A., Pykett, M., Welch, E. M., O’Keefe, K., Kong, R., … Peltz, S. (2020). The DHODH Inhibitor PTC299 Arrests SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Suppresses Induction of Inflammatory Cytokines. BioRxiv, 2020.08.05.238394. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.05.238394

    1. Unterman, A., Sumida, T. S., Nouri, N., Yan, X., Zhao, A. Y., Gasque, V., Schupp, J. C., Asashima, H., Liu, Y., Cosme, C., Deng, W., Chen, M., Raredon, M. S. B., Hoehn, K., Wang, G., Wang, Z., Deiuliis, G., Ravindra, N. G., Li, N., … Cruz, C. S. D. (2020). Single-Cell Omics Reveals Dyssynchrony of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Progressive COVID-19. MedRxiv, 2020.07.16.20153437. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20153437

  6. Jul 2020
  7. Jun 2020
    1. Long, Q.-X., Tang, X.-J., Shi, Q.-L., Li, Q., Deng, H.-J., Yuan, J., Hu, J.-L., Xu, W., Zhang, Y., Lv, F.-J., Su, K., Zhang, F., Gong, J., Wu, B., Liu, X.-M., Li, J.-J., Qiu, J.-F., Chen, J., & Huang, A.-L. (2020). Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Medicine, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0965-6

  8. Apr 2020
  9. Apr 2019