22 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Oct 2021
    1. Granted, how a natural entity can have interiority, i.e., subjectivity, is a hard problem, but if the question of integration and unification is not identical to the “Hard Problem of Consciousness” (Chalmers 1995) it is also inseparable from it and surely a presupposition of the very possibility of interiority. Nor would even an understanding of how subjectivity could be resident to a single cell tell us how consciousness could become an integrated unity across many cells. If we assume consciousness is a physically based phenomenon, and that it draws upon the activity of various parts of the brain, let alone constituent cells, then we must face our deficits in understanding how the experience of a unified consciousness is realized at the level of an integration of some cells but not others albeit in the absence of evident, non-arbitrary, physical boundaries.

      This is a very salient point. The experience of consciousness of a (multicellular) human being is the experience of a biological superorganism. While normativity may apply to the both single and multi-cellular beings by extension, we cannot infer from that alone that our experience of consciousness has an analog at the cellular level.

  3. Mar 2021
  4. Feb 2021
    1. When T-Cells are activated they release cytokines (yes, that cytokine), which trigger additional T-Cells to be made, which then release even more cytokines. One type of T-cells that are created are called cytotoxic T-cells. Cytotoxic T-cells are the cells that are able to roam the body and mercy kill infected cells who are chemically calling out to be killed and ideally to stop the increased production of viruses like COVID-19.
  5. Dec 2020
  6. Aug 2020
  7. Jun 2020
  8. Feb 2020
  9. Aug 2019
    1. the maintenance of the pluripotent state of animal stem cells requires hypoxic conditions, whereas higher oxygen tension promotes cell differentiation
  10. Feb 2019
  11. Oct 2018
  12. biopub.hypothes.is biopub.hypothes.is
    1. Global protein acetylation

      See for example "Lysine Acetylation Targets Protein Complexes and Co-Regulates Major Cellular Functions" by Chunaram Choudhary, Chanchal Kumar, Florian Gnad, Michael L. Nielsen, Michael Rehman, Tobias C. Walther, Jesper V. Olsen, Matthias Mann, Science, 14 Aug 2009, which demonstrates that "the regulatory scope of lysine acetylation is broad and comparable with that of other major posttranslational modifications".

    1. Passaged rBMSCs exhibited significantly greater proliferation rates at 1% O2 and 5% O2 than those at 18% O2 and the cells exposed to 1% O2 showed the highest proliferative potential, which was evidenced by the growth curves, colony-forming efficiencies, and CCK-8 absorbance values.
  13. Oct 2017
  14. Mar 2017
  15. Oct 2016
    1. Eventually cells stuck together to form creatures with many cells. Plants and animals came out of the sea onto land and became ever more complex and aware