66 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. “Why would Pete Wells order delivery from us?” the sous-chef asked.“Maybe he’s hungry?” Mr. Tran replied.I was. But I was on the job, too, and that first order persuaded me

      Q & A syntax which reveals two separate perspectives to the reader-- adds to the change factor within these times that Wells is trying to communicate. Informal tone taken on by Pete as food is more personal and opinionated. His audience are those who want to experience new, good food amidst these times. Humor and irony with the "Maybe he's hungry?" from Mr. Tran, stating the obvious with a purpose along with explaining how the chefs can't forget about the job at hand.

  2. Oct 2020
    1. Integrating academic and everyday learning through technology: Issues and challenges for researchers, policy makers and practitioners

      This article examines the potential to connect academic with knowledge learned through life and career experience using technology and other traditional methods. Challenges and best practices are presented and all levels of individual and institution are included in the discussion. Rating 8/10. Very interesting idea and cool how many levels of organization are included.

    1. Designing Social Media for Informal Learning and Knowledge Maturing in the Digital Workplace

      Ravenscroft, A., Schmidt, A., Cook, J., & Bradley, C. (2012). Designing Social Media for Informal Learning and Knowledge Maturing in the Digital Workplace. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(3), 235–249.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ966042&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      This paper presents an original approach to designing social media that support informal learning in the digital workplace. It adapts design-based research to take into account the embeddedness of interactions within digitally mediated work-based contexts. The approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and evaluation of software tools supporting a particular type of informal learning called "knowledge maturing". The paper: introduces and presents the rationale for, and concept of, knowledge maturing; presents a new design methodology for developing social media that support informal learning and knowledge maturing; focuses on one prototype, for "people tagging for organisational development", that was produced by the methodology (and concisely describes two others); presents the formative evaluation of the highlighted prototype; and finally, discusses the implications and insights arising from this work.

      8/10

    1. The Role of Informal Learning in Today's Successful Training Department

      Wittkopf, C., & Berge, Z. L. (2007). The Role of Informal Learning in Today’s Successful Training Department. Journal of Educational Technology, 4(2), 15–22.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1069185&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      The integration of work and learning is becoming the dominant means of workforce training in many organizations today. Though structured classroom learning will likely but never entirely recede, a preponderance of current research indicates that the future of most job-related learning will lie in non-traditional methods such as short e-training modules delivered directly to the desktop, podcasts, informal knowledge-sharing sessions, and even structured gaming environments. This paper will explore why such learning is becoming increasingly more critical, how a successful blend of informal and formal learning can achieve the individualized training that a majority of employees are beginning to demand, and the difficulties involved, specifically with respect to evaluation and the ways in which it can be leveraged by a training department. These types of learning can be combined with some traditional training events to create a meaningful learning path for new employees and existing ones alike, and training and development specialists will have to find ways to achieve the right blend to achieve improved workforce performance.

      7/10

    1. Informal Learning in the Workplace: Key Activities and Processes

      Cunningham, J., & Hillier, E. (2013). Informal Learning in the Workplace: Key Activities and Processes. Education & Training, 55(1), 37–51

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1005919&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      The purpose of this study is to define characteristics and processes that enhance informal learning in a public sector workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Based on interviews and questionnaires, the authors solicited examples of informal learning practices that 40 supervisors experienced during their careers. The examples were content analyzed to define seven broad themes underlying informal learning. Findings: The findings illustrate seven broad themes describing learning activities and processes. The first three themes describe the types of informal learning activities that supervisors found valuable: relationships; learning opportunities enlarging or redesigning their jobs; and enrichment opportunities that provided higher levels of managerial learning. Four themes describe processes for facilitating informal learning: planning processes; active learning and modelling; relationship dynamics; and tying learning to applications. Originality/value: The value of this study is in presenting a possible framework defining informal learning that describes both activities (the what) and the underlying processes (the how) by which they are delivered. Beyond this, it suggests that there is a close connection between the activities and the processes underlying them.

      8/10

    1. What Are Drivers for Informal Learning?

      Schürmann, E., & Beausaert, S. (2016). What Are Drivers for Informal Learning? European Journal of Training and Development, 40(3), 130–154.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1095233&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Purpose: The topic of informal learning at work has received increasing attention in the past years. The purpose of this study is to explore in which informal learning activities employees engage and what are the drivers for informal learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews were taken from ten human resources (HR) and ten marketing employees working at a German machinery manufacturer. Findings: Employees mostly learn informally by talking or collaborating with others, searching information online, feedback giving and seeking from colleagues and supervisors and reading. Next, it was found that organizational drivers, task and job drivers, personal drivers and formal learning influenced employees' informal learning. Background characteristics on the contrary were not found to influence informal learning. Overall, within these categories, the following drivers had the greatest influence on informal learning: commitment to learning and development, feedback as well as interactions with and support from colleagues and supervisors. Research Limitations/Implications: The design of this exploratory qualitative study brings some limitations. Based on the findings, suggestions for future quantitative and intervention studies are done. Practical Implications: The results show how human resources development (HRD) professionals could better support employees' engagement in informal learning and gives an overview of the determinants that could be influenced and in turn have a positive effect on employees' informal learning. Originality/Value: This study is one of the first studies unraveling informal learning as perceived by employees. It develops a comprehensive framework for categorizing drivers for informal learning.

      8/10

    1. Informal learning in the workplace : The key role of managers

      Informal learning in the workplace : The key role of managers. (2014). Development and Learning in Organizations, 28(2), 26–28. https://doi.org/10.1108/DLO-02-2014-0007

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=edsemr&AN=edsemr.10.1108.DLO.02.2014.0007&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      – Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies. – This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context. – A manager's lot is a tough one at the best of times. There is constant pressure to meet business and client needs, often against a backdrop of constantly dwindling resources. Economic uncertainty has ensured that this balancing act has become even more precarious in recent years. Delivering more for much less is very much the order of the day. Certain areas are notoriously vulnerable when the budget axe is wielded. Training and development is a perfect example. However, this is clearly something of a false economy as few companies will be best positioned to move forward if talent is not properly nurtured. Such short-term thinking continues to prevail though. – Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations. – The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to digest format.

      8/10

    1. Formal and informal learning in the workplace: a research review.

      Manuti, A., Pastore, S., Scardigno, A. F., Giancaspro, M. L., & Morciano, D. (2015). Formal and Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Research Review. International Journal of Training and Development, 19(1), 1–17.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1051188&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      The radical economic, social and cultural changes experienced by the labour market within recent decades have helped to highlight the central role played by the learning process in individual career development and organizational success. In such fast‐moving working contexts, skills and competencies rapidly become outdated and need to be continuously implemented and empowered as a strategic factor for global competitiveness. Traditional models of learning both inside and outside of the workplace have become unable to explain the complexity of such a process, weaving between and overlapping formal and informal components. Starting with this premise, the aim of the present paper was to analyse the role of knowledge and experience as important learning frames, which allow the acquisition and development of competencies in the workplace. A human resource development perspective was adopted, aimed at reconciling both the organizational and individual stances implied in the process. The methodology of achieving this was to review the most recent literature on workplace learning, with a special focus on its formal and informal dimensions.

      8/10

    1. Informal learning in work environments: training with the Social Web in the workplace.

      Garcia-Penalvo, F. J., Colomo-Palacios, R., & Lytras, M. D. (2012). Informal Learning in Work Environments: Training with the Social Web in the Workplace. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(8), 753–755.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ973953&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      The Internet and its increasing usage has changed informal learning in depth. This change has affected young and older adults in both the workplace and in higher education. But, in spite of this, formal and non-formal course-based approaches have not taken full advantage of these new informal learning scenarios and technologies. The Web 2.0 is a new way for people to communicate across the Internet. Communication is a means of transformation and knowledge exchange. These are the facts that cannot be obviated by the organisations in their training programmes and knowledge management. This special issue is devoted to investigating how informal learning changes or influences online information in Social Web and training strategies in institutions. In order to do so, five papers will present different approaches of informal learning in the workplace regarding Web 2.0 capabilities.

    1. Improving the way to Communicate Learning Activities to an Informal Learning Collector

      CASAÑ, M. J., HIERRO, N., GALANIS, N., MAYOL, E., & ALIER, M. (2015). Improving the way to Communicate Learning Activities to an Informal Learning Collector. International Journal of Engineering Education, 31(3), 874–883.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eue&AN=103081819&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Lifelong Learning has been a growing interest in e-learning research communities, in a similar way as other related kinds of learning (formal, non-formal and informal) already had. In fact, the Tagging Recognition and Acknowledgment of Informal Learning Experiences project proposes a framework to manage these types of learning, giving special attention to informal learning. This project gathers informal learning activities with an Informal Learning Collector. The main way for registering informal learning activities data into the Informal Learning Collector is using push mechanisms where the user explicitly introduces such information. In this paper, we present some evaluation of user opinions about this push communication mechanism, and propose an alternative way to communicate informal learning activities data, by using a pull mechanism. Using the pull mechanism, the Informal Learning Collector collects data directly from external applications. After the introduction of the pull mechanism, Informal Learning Collector users have confirmed that usability has been improved significantly.

    1. The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization.

      Amitabh, A., & Sinha, S. (2012). The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 5(2), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v5i2.2111

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eue&AN=76422894&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Over the years, there has been a significant shift in the approach towards 'learning' in an organization. The focus of learning is no more limited to only the formal training mediums, such as classroom interventions and elearning programs. The shift in learning paradigm is more towards the creation of new learning solution that provides formal and informal learning, information and collaboration - thereby enabling the formation of a 'personal learning environment.' Now, there is a shift from 'content focus' to 'learner focus' education. This paper will suggest the appropriate use of technologies and processes to create a rich learning environment that includes a broad array of instructions, information resources, and collaborative solutions. The paper will also focus on the areas or situations where the new learning environment can be applied and the ways in which an organization can leverage the full range of its learning continuum.

      8/10

    1. Workplace Learning in Informal Networks

      Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2014). Workplace Learning in Informal Networks. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.

      Learning does not stop when an individual leaves formal education, but becomes increasingly informal, and deeply embedded within other activities such as work. This article describes the challenges of informal learning in knowledge intensive industries, highlighting the important role of personal learning networks. The article argues that knowledge workers must be able to self-regulate their learning and outlines a range of behaviours that are essential to effective learning in informal networks. The article identifies tools that can support these behaviours in the workplace and how they might form a personal work and learning environment.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1034717&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      7/10

    1. The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization.

      Amitabh, A., & Sinha, S. (2012). The Learning Continuum Formal and Informal Learning Experiences - Enabling Learning and Creation of New Knowledge in an Organization. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 5(2), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v5i2.2111

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eue&AN=76422894&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Over the years, there has been a significant shift in the approach towards 'learning' in an organization. The focus of learning is no more limited to only the formal training mediums, such as classroom interventions and elearning programs. The shift in learning paradigm is more towards the creation of new learning solution that provides formal and informal learning, information and collaboration - thereby enabling the formation of a 'personal learning environment.' Now, there is a shift from 'content focus' to 'learner focus' education. This paper will suggest the appropriate use of technologies and processes to create a rich learning environment that includes a broad array of instructions, information resources, and collaborative solutions. The paper will also focus on the areas or situations where the new learning environment can be applied and the ways in which an organization can leverage the full range of its learning continuum.

      7/10

    1. Scaling informal learning at the workplace: A model and four designs from a large-scale design-based research effort 

      Ley, T., Cook, J., Dennerlein, S., Kravcik, M., Kunzmann, C., Pata, K., Purma, J., Sandars, J., Santos, P., Schmidt, A., Al-Smadi, M., & Trattner, C. (2014). Scaling Informal Learning at the Workplace: A Model and Four Designs from a Large-Scale Design-Based Research Effort. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(6), 1036–1048.

      https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=eric&AN=EJ1043430&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=uphoenix

      Workplace learning happens in the process and context of work, is multi-episodic, often informal, problem based and takes place on a just-in-time basis. While this is a very effective means of delivery, it also does not scale very well beyond the immediate context. We review three types of technologies that have been suggested to scale learning and three connected theoretical discourses around learning and its support. Based on these three strands and an in-depth contextual inquiry into two workplace learning domains, health care and building and construction, four design-based research projects were conducted that have given rise to designs for scaling informal learning with technology. The insights gained from the design and contextual inquiry contributed to a model that provides an integrative view on three informal learning processes at work and how they can be supported with technology: (1) task performance, reflection and sensemaking; (2) help seeking, guidance and support; and (3) emergence and maturing of collective knowledge. The model fosters our understanding of how informal learning can be scaled and how an orchestrated set of technologies can support this process.

    1. Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Review of the Literature

      In the last few decades, the workplace has been increasingly recognised as a legitimate environment for learning new skills and knowledge, which in turn enables workers to participate more effectively in ever-changing work environments. Within the workplace, there is the potential for continuous learning to occur not only through formal learning initiatives that are associated with training, but also through informal learning opportunities that are embedded within everyday work activities. This paper surveys the growing body of literature on informal learning, makes some critical observations about the importance of informal learning, and explains the various ways that informal learning can occur in the workplace.

      https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ952000

  3. Sep 2020
  4. Aug 2020
  5. Apr 2020
  6. Mar 2019
    1. 25 apps for professional development As the title suggests, this lists 25 apps for professional development. They are suited to micro and mobile learning, for the most part. In some cases, the apps seem suited to an early career employee rather than a mid career employee. There are reader comments. rating 3/5

    1. 5 technology enabled learning trends in 2017 This article was produced by a credible publisher and is included here because it points to the need for both mobile learning and micro learning. The authors assert but do not provide data for the increasing need for microlearning. This form of learning is said to be important because it is associated with the real world. Rating 4/5

    1. what is just in time learning: build an engagement engine This article helps professional developers strategize about the use of just in time learning. Some of the tips are unsurprising while others offer new ideas. It is a quick read and useful for ideas for professional developers. rating 5/5

    1. macro to micro learning: how to transform your course library This short article has limited utility because of its lack of breadth and reading is a bit difficult because of the small gray typeface. Nonetheless it is a current article that provides a few tips for those who seek to have a greater number of micro learning opportunities among their professional development offerings. rating 2/5

    1. bridging formal and informal learning through technology in the twenty first century: issues and challenges This article is in a fully online journal. It relates to schools but the learning is by students, not teachers. However, professional development is called for. The article addresses the desired topic in that it refers to social networking and other technology enabled forms of learning; however, it does not seem to be substantive enough to be tremendously helpful. rating 1/1

    1. difference between formal and informal learning This article addresses the topic it proposes to: it describes the difference between formal and informal learning and to some extent provides some advice about selecting the type. It describes by example more than by definition and seems aimed at adults. rating 1/5

    1. Factors influencing engagement in informal learning activities This article describes features that encourage informal learning among teachers. Those are: initiative, self-efficacy, love of learning, interest in the profession, commitment to professional development, a nurturing personality, and an interesting personality. One noteworthy feature is that the factors they refer to are personal in nature. This article does appear to fill a unique niche among the collection that I have found so far. rating 5/5

    1. informal learning with mobile devices - microblogging as learning resource This article uses the work of Schon, a theorist on learning and reflection whose work is often used to address workplace learning. The paper is on topic, relating to informal learning with mobile devices, but it focuses on high school students--which seems to be a rather unusual use of Schon's writing. Also the writing itself is both general and dated. There is a 2x2 that describes the relationship of formal and informal learning to intentional and unintentional learning as well as the use of devices. rating 1/5

    1. reconceptualizing learning: a review of the literature on informal learning This is an 80 page PDF that has the support of Rutgers. It is presented in the usual manner in which reports are written. Unsurprisingly the writing is clean and accessible. The role of technology in online learning is discussed.Mentoring and communities of practice are addressed. The writing is fairly general. rating 3/5

    1. Simulations and games in informal learning contexts This article seems to discuss science learning, which is not my foremost interest, but it does give an example of how informal online learning can be used to allow the learner to explore his or her own interests. It is not specific enough to be of high value but is useful as a preliminary reading that can perhaps inform search terms to use for future research. rting 2/5

    1. This is a discussion of informal learning that focuses on ensuring that incidences of informal learning are recognized. This discussion portrays it has happening through casual conversations, online discussions, or social media. The page is easy enough to read though it does not try to be comprehensive. rating 2/5

    1. Using mobile devices to support formal, informal, and semi-formal learning: uses and implications for teaching and learning This online article is presented with 'draft' stamped across it; it does not appear to be from a recognized publisher. The content does connect the topics I am looking for (informal or personalized learning, mobile devices, and teacher professional development). They discuss their recommendations and connect informal mobile learning to personalized learning. rating 4/5

    1. The cutting edge of informal learning: makers, mobile, and more. This article discusses the features of informal learning and also discuss how it can be 'meaningful' and engaging. Constructivism and constructionism are mentioned though not at length. This may be useful given the limited resources I have but it is not one of the more impressive journal articles I have seen. rating 3/3

    1. designing for sustainable mobile learning: evaluating the concepts formal and informal This is a journal article that is freely available online. They argue that informal learning is more 'enriching' than formal learning. They write about mLearning (mobile learning) and state that some 'design aspects' must be left to learners. This is formatted in the standard way and has the usability one would expect of an online journal article. There are citations as one would expect but I am not qualified to evaluate the information quality. rating 5/5

  7. Nov 2018
    1. At the same time, a large share of YouTube users say the site is important for helping them figure out how to do things they haven’t done before. Fully 87% of users say the site is important for this reason, with 51% saying it is very important. And the ability to learn how to do new things is important to users from a wide range of age groups. Roughly half (53%) of users ages 18 to 29 say the site is very important to them for this reason, and that view is shared by 41% of users ages 65 and older. In some cases, users’ responses to these questions show substantial variation based on how frequently they visit the site. Most notably, people who use the site regularly place an especially high level of importance on YouTube for learning about world events. Some 32% of users who visit the site several times a day – and 19% of those who visit once a day – say it is very important for helping them understand things that are happening in the world. That compares with 10% of users who visit less often.

      87% of users say that YouTube is an important outlet for informal learning (51% say it is very important).

  8. Oct 2017
  9. Sep 2017
  10. Sep 2016
    1. Regarding the major obstacles for higher education, blending formal and informal learning is considered one of the solvable challenges
    1. I wonder what would have happened if someone I trust had provided me with a list of resources and people she admired when I started out in online learning and open education four years ago.

      Interesting scenario. Sounds quite a bit like the role of this one person in grad school who gives you the boost you need. Usually not your director, who’s more of a name than a resource. Possibly someone with a relatively low status. It becomes something of an “informal advisor” role. “Trust” is indeed key, here. My first reaction reading this was to balk at the “trust” part, because critical thinking skills warrant other methods to gather resources. But this is a situation where trust does matter quite a bit. Not that the resources are necessarily better. But there’s much less overhead involved if rapport has been established. In fact, it’s often easy to get through a text or to start a conversation with someone using knowledge of the angle through which they’ve been recommended. “If she told me to talk to so-and-so, chances are that this person won’t take it the wrong way if we start discussing this issue.”

  11. Jul 2016
    1. Within the workings of the informal economy bullying and violence is rife. The harshness of these conditions, and the sword of damocles of deportation, is precisely why this labour is so cheap, and so many businesses opt for it. Bullying makes workers subservient, and scares them away from industrial organising (although there are now amazing unions now fighting for workers in these sectors - the IWGB, IWW, and UVW.) It is not just those businesses that do well out of this exploitation. It makes things cheaper for everyone, and oils the cogs of the whole economy. Many people are happy to reap this work’s benefits without ever taking responsibility for the suffering it causes. 
  12. Feb 2016
    1. Regarding the major obstacles for higher education, blending formal and informal learning is considered one of the solvable challenges

      Clearly also very important, if not more so, at the secondary level.

  13. Mar 2015
    1. We believe that it should be a system of activities and practices over time; these include the actions of individual learn - ers as well as the roles of other participants, such as mediating tools, semiotic media, and local conditions directly relevant to and supportive of (or obstructing) the learning activities

      Well that sounds scalable. Geez?

    2. Conventionally, an (occasionally naïve) attribu - tion of a valued condition to some specific cause (e.g., to an intervention). Rarely, however, are valued learning goals the outcome of discrete, identifiable causes.

      Getting at the idea that traditional outcomes based assessment is shallow.

    3. Assessment, evaluation and research all build on documen - tation but may require different modes and foci of documen - tation. In more traditional terms,

      An important distinction

    4. Know-that matters only insofar as it is mobilized as part of know-how; know-how (cultural capital) matters for career futures and social policy only when effectively combined with know-who (social capital).

      Know -that, know-how, and know who. Interesting way to define knowledge. the latter two being based on capital. As if knowledge is something we build up to spend?

    5. Learning that matters is learning that lasts and that is mobilized across tasks and domains

      Again you see the idea that learning as action is the major goal.

    6. Second is the improved ability to act collaboratively, coor - dinating and completing tasks with others, assisting them, and productively using affective sensibilities in doing so

      Here the group learning is put ahead of the individual. It goes back to it isn't learning if it isn't acted upon and acting in a group not only make learning visible but is also the goal.

    7. First is the personal increase of comfort with, and capacity to partici - pate in, activities that involve inquiry, investigation, and repre - sentation of phenomena in a widening range of domains.

      Interesting that comfort with the domain and listed before knowledge of the domain.

    8. emphasize the importance of taking into account in assessment design the incorporation of relevant knowledge about the history of the project, the community, and the partici - pating organizations and knowledge of the current wider insti - tutional contexts

      Interesting take on the importance of historical knowledge influencing assessment of informal spaces.

    9. Equally important is our social-emo - tional development in learning how to use our feelings—our emotional relations to others and our emotional reactions to events—for constructive purpose

      Interesting sentence structure here. Pure conjecture but I am sensing a tension among the theoretical underpinning and priorities of the authors.

    10. “Know-who” is as important as know-how in getting things done.

      I am stealing this when discussing social search and networked learning spaces.

    11. As an aspect of human development—at the individual, group, or organizational level—the learning that mat - ters is learning that is used.

      So this line here reveals a lot about the theoretical underpinnings of the authors. Then again so did their names.

    12. ndividual learners and neglect group-level learning and project-level or organization-level learning

      This would be something interesting for the club curriculum to try and get at.

    13. that simple declarative knowledge is only one valued outcome of learning and is too often overemphasized in assessment designs to the exclusion or marginalization of other equally or more important outcomes.

      this is often the case when we think in terms of practicality, efficiency, fidelity, and reliability.

    14. Informal learning experiences, in contrast, build on the diverse interests and curiosity of learners and support their self- motivated inquiries.

      Contrasting to formal education. I feel sometimes that formal education cab be vilified in the literature as being void of intentional learning.

      That just isn't true. Many students have complex reasons for wanting to succeed or not in school.

    15. ond, to offer program staffs, project funders, and other supporters recommendations of good practices in project assessment and identifiable needs for devel - oping improved assessment techniques.

      So more future looking. What do we have to develop?

    16. first, to offer to those who design and assess informal learning programs a model of good assessment practice, a tool kit of methods and approaches, and pointers to the relevant literature

      point away. This fits well with efforts in Mozilla Learning to try and develop friction free assessment.

    17. to reviewing the literature, the authors convened three expert meetings involving a total of 25 participants to dis - cuss key issues, identify successful approaches and outstanding challenges,

      This is a very interesting methodology to add to the traditional literature review.

    18. many sig - nificant learning outcomes may be unpredictable in advance of the learner’s participation

      and this basically sums up what makes assessment of informal learning so difficult.

    19. learning goals pursued by participants are generally open-ended, dependent in part on available resources and on repurposed ways to use those resources

      I like this idea of repurposing resources as a way to reach open ended goal, though sometimes informal learning spaces are joined for goals unrelated to learning or for very specific ended outcomes

    20. “Informal learning” is both a broad category and shorthand for a more complex combination of organized activities in face- to-face or online settings other than formal schools in which particular features are especially salient.

      Key definition of how the paper defines informal learning.

    21. what works in informal learn - ing and what doesn’t

      We also have to define success before we can start to measure it.

    22. knowledge base of science 2 Introduction learning in informal environments (Bell et al. 2009

      I need to go and read this.