388 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The custom title bar has been a success on Windows, but the customer response on Linux suggests otherwise. Based on feedback, we have decided to make this setting opt-in on Linux and leave the native title bar as the default. The custom title bar provides many benefits including great theming support and better accessibility through keyboard navigation and screen readers. Unfortunately, these benefits do not translate as well to the Linux platform. Linux has a variety of desktop environments and window managers that can make the VS Code theming look foreign to users.
  2. Jul 2022
    1. If your laptop is extremely old then I would recommend Puppy Linux.If your laptop isn’t very old but doesn’t perform very well I would recommend AntiX.If your laptop is a little old but still can’t handle Windows 7/10 very well I would recommend Lubuntu.

      3 OS recommendations for old laptops: 1. Puppy Linux 2. AntiX 3. Lubuntu

    1. So the correct command to use is findmnt, which is itself part of the util-linux package and, according to the manual: is able to search in /etc/fstab, /etc/mtab or /proc/self/mountinfo
  3. Jun 2022
    1. The main problem of the Linux community is that it is divided. I know this division represents freedom of choice but when your rivals are successful, you must inspect them carefully. And both rivals here (MacOS and Windows) get their power from the "less is more approach".This division in Linux communities make people turn into their communities when they have problems and never be heard as a big, unified voice.When something goes wrong with other OSes, people start complaining in many forums and support sites, some of them writing to multiple places and others support them by saying "yeah, I have that problem, too".In the Linux world, the answers to such forums come as "don't use that shitty distro" or "use that command and circumvent the problem".Long story short" average Linux user doesn't know that they are:still customers and have all the rights to demand from companiesthey can get together and act up louder.Imagine such an organizing that most of the Linux users manage to get together and writing to Netflix. Maybe not all of them use Netflix but the number of the Linux users are greater than Netflix members. What a domination it would be!But instead we turn into our communities and act like a survival tribe who has to solve all their problems themselves .
    2. Big Software companies like Adobe or Netflix do two things that are relevant for us and currently go wrong:They analyse the systems their customers use. They don't see their Linux users because we tend to either not use the product at all under Linux (just boot windows, just use a firertv stick and so one) or we use emulators or other tools that basically hide that we actually run Linux. --> The result is that they don't know how many we actually are. They think we are irrelevant because thats what the statistics tell them (they are completely driven by numbers).They analyze the feature requests and complains they get from their customers. The problem is: Linux users don't complain that much or try to request better linux support. We usually somehow work around the issues. --> The result is that these companies to neither get feature requests for better Linux support nor bug reports from linux users (cause its not expected to work anyways).
    1. Create .bash_profile in your home directory and add these lines: export SHELL=/bin/zsh exec /bin/zsh -l

      Change user's default shell without root access.

  4. May 2022
    1. 查看内存信息1)使用free命令默认单位为K,可通过结合参数-b、-k、-m分别以单位B、K、M进行显示
    1. If you are on Linux, you can simply download it from GitHub but the most convenient way is to use the pyenv-installer that is a simple script that will install it automatically on your distro, whatever it is, in the easiest possible way.

      Installing pyenv on Linux

  5. Apr 2022
    1. I sometimes wondered why the VS Code team put so much effort into the built-in terminal inside the editor. I tried it once on Linux and never touched it again, because the terminal window I had right next to my editor was just massively better in every way. Having used Windows terminals for a while, I now fully understand why it’s there.

      VS Code terminal is not as efficient on Linux

    2. They just automate the process of going to the website, downloading an installer and then running it - which is slightly better than doing it yourself.

      Windows package managers are unlike Linux ones

    3. Desktop Linux is often criticized for this, but Windows is much worse, somehow! It’s really inconsistent. Half of it is “new” UI and half of it is old Win32/GDI type UI - just as bad as KDE/GTK - except worse, because you can’t configure them to use the same theme. Also, when you install a Linux distribution, it’ll start off either all KDE or all GTK, or whatever - but with Windows you’re stuck with a random mix of both right from the start.

      Windows is a mess...

  6. Mar 2022
    1. level 1Fatal_Taco · 2 days ago · edited 2 days agoArch Linux, and likely most distros, are defined by these few things and are not limited to:The Linux Kernel, what type of config and modules it's been compiled with.The pre-packaged programs it comes with by default.The init.The package manager.The repositories it references.The slightly differing Linux Filesystem Hierarchy.The types of computers it runs on.
  7. Feb 2022
    1. LXC, is a serious contender to virtual machines. So, if you are developing a Linux application or working with servers, and need a real Linux environment, LXC should be your go-to. Docker is a complete solution to distribute applications and is particularly loved by developers. Docker solved the local developer configuration tantrum and became a key component in the CI/CD pipeline because it provides isolation between the workload and reproducible environment.

      LXC vs Docker

    1. == and != for string comparison -eq, -ne, -gt, -lt, -le -ge for numerical comparison

      Comparison syntax in Bash

    2. > will overwrite the current contents of the file, if the file already exists. If you want to append lines instead, use >>

      > - overwrites text

      >> - appends text

    3. The syntax for “redirecting” some output to stderr is >&2. > means “pipe stdout into” whatever is on the right, which could be a file, etc., and &2 is a reference to “file descriptor #2” which is stderr.

      Using stderr. On the other hand, >&1 is for stdout

    4. single quotes, which don’t expand variables

      In Bash, double quotes ("") expand variables, whereas single quotes ('') don't

    5. This only works if you happen to have Bash installed at /bin/bash. Depending on the operating system and distribution of the person running your script, that might not necessarily be true! It’s better to use env, a program that finds an executable on the user’s PATH and runs it.

      Shebang tip: instead of ```



      !/usr/bin/env bash

      alternatively, you can replace `bash` with `python`, `ruby`, etc. and later chmod it and run it: $ chmod +x my-script.sh $ ./my-script.sh ```

  8. Jan 2022
    1. uix includes package definitions for many GNU and non-GNU packages, all of which respect the user’s computing freedom. It is extensible: users can write their own package definitions (see Defining Packages) and make them available as independent package modules (see Package Modules). It is also customizable: users can derive specialized package definitions from existing ones, including from the command line (see Package Transformation Options).

      O sea que esta es la solución a mi inconformidad con los instaladores de arch linux: un montón de software que no uso instalado como dependencias.

    1. All operating systems with network support have a hosts file to translate hostnames to IP addresses. Whenever you open a website by typing its hostname, your system will read through the hosts file to check for the corresponding IP and then open it. The hosts file is a simple text file located in the etc folder on Linux and Mac OS (/etc/hosts). Windows has a hosts file as well, on Windows you can find it in Windows\System32\drivers\etc\if(typeof __ez_fad_position!='undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-vitux_com-box-3-0')};

      El archivo host traduce el hostnames a direcciones IP. Cuando abrimos un sitio tipeando su URL en un navegador nuestro hostfile la IP correspondiente para abrirla.

      1. En su primera parte el hostfile contiene nombres e IP de nuestra máquina local.
      2. En su segunda parte se encuentra información sobre los host capaces de usar el protocolo IPV6 y difícilmente es editada por el usuario.
    1. -xcf cursorfile cursorsize This lets you change the pointer cursor to one loaded from an Xcursor file as defined by libXcursor, at the specified size.

      Esta es la opción que debo usar con el comando "xcursor" para configurar la forma y tamaño del cursor en X.

    1. This runs a loop 555 times. Takes a screenshot, names it for the loop number with padded zeros, taps the bottom right of the screen, then waits for a second to ensure the page has refreshed. Slow and dull, but works reliably.

      Simple bash script to use via ADB to automatically scan pages:

      for i in {00001..00555}; do
         adb exec-out screencap -p > $i.png
         adb shell input tap 1000 2000
         sleep 1s
      echo All done
  9. Dec 2021
  10. Nov 2021
    1. special permission bit at the end here t, this means everyone can add files, write files, modify files in the /tmp directory, but only root can delete the /tmp directory

      t permission bit

    1. I find some of XDG's default dirs, especially ~/.local/share/whatever, to be very annoying. (Almost as annoying as having ~/snap polluting my home dir, but for a different reason.) I shouldn't have to type such long paths or navigate three folders deep in order to access my data files. I therefore make use of the XDG_DATA_HOME environment variable for XDG-style programs, so they will put my files somewhere convenient. However, I don't think Snap can honor that variable, because AppArmor rules require fixed paths. Given 1 & 2, I think ~/.snap/data is a sensible compromise, at least until the underlying components are flexible enough to let the user choose.
  11. Oct 2021
    1. $@ is all of the parameters passed to the script. For instance, if you call ./someScript.sh foo bar then $@ will be equal to foo bar.

      Meaning of $@ in Bash

    1. The solution is absolutely straightforward and posting it *will* be embarrassing.

      Christmas 2016 & user seth, with 24k posts currently, is a total dipstick asshole for someone asking a very basic reasonable question & sticks to being an insulting tart for 6 posts.

      This is now one of the top answers online. There is still no oneliner to change your default route metrics.

    1. 管線命令僅會處理 standard output,對於 standard error output 會予以忽略 管線命令必須要能夠接受來自前一個指令的資料成為 standard input 繼續處理才行。

      也就是使用 | 的命令

  12. Sep 2021
    1. I find it much simpler to use a partition label with LABEL=.... It is shorter, easier to remember, and also has the advantage that should the partition go bad and need to be replaced you can create a new partition, give it the same label provided the old partition is either removed or at least changed to be unlabelled and fstab will never know the difference.
    1. sudo apt-get autoclean sudo apt-get autoremove sudo apt-get clean sudo apt update sudo apt-get dist-upgrade --fix-missing sudo apt-get dist-upgrade --fix-broken sudo apt full-upgrade sudo apt -f install dpkg --configure -a
    1. The best practice is this: #!/usr/bin/env bash #!/usr/bin/env sh #!/usr/bin/env python

      The best shebang convention: #!/usr/bin/env bash.

      However, at the same time it might a security risk if the $PATH to bash points to some malware. Maybe then it's better to point directly to it with #!/bin/bash

    1. Here's my bash boilerplate with some sane options explained in the comments

      Clearly explained use of the typical bash script commands: set -euxo pipefail

  13. Aug 2021
    1. set -euo pipefail

      One simple line to improve security of bash scripts:

      • -e - Exit immediately if any command fails.
      • -u - Exit if an unset variable is invoked.
      • -o pipefail - Exit if a command in a piped series of commands fails.
    1. AUR

      The AUR is a well-known user repository for Arch projects! This is a test note.

    1. CBL-Mariner is an internal Linux distribution for Microsoft’s cloud infrastructure and edge products and services.

      CBL-Mariner <--- Microsoft's Linux distribution

  14. Jul 2021
    1. All platforms. Professional features. Beautiful UI. Totally free. FontBase is the font manager of the new generation, built by designers, for designers.

  15. Jun 2021
    1. GRUB hidden menu change FAQ  

      details about grub menu hidden and how to enable, access, etc

    1. There is one very important reason for enabling job control to be useful inside scripts: the side-effect it has of placing background processes in their own process groups. This makes it much, much easier to send signels to them and their children with one simple command: kill -<signal> -$pgid. All other ways of dealing with signaling entire trees of processes either involve elaborate (sometimes even recursive) functions, which are often bugnests, or risk killing the parent in the process (no pun intended).
    1. The alternative for curl is a credential file: A .netrc file can be used to store credentials for servers you need to connect to.And for mysql, you can create option files: a .my.cnf or an obfuscated .mylogin.cnf will be read on startup and can contain your passwords.
      • .netrc <--- alternative for curl to store secrets
      • .my.cnf or .mylogin.cnf <--- option files for mysql to store secrets
    2. Linux keyring offers several scopes for storing keys safely in memory that will never be swapped to disk. A process or even a single thread can have its own keyring, or you can have a keyring that is inherited across all processes in a user’s session. To manage the keyrings and keys, use the keyctl command or keyctl system calls.

      Linux keyring is a considerable lightweight secrets manager in the Linux kernel

    3. Docker container can call out to a secrets manager for its secrets. But, a secrets manager is an extra dependency. Often you need to run a secrets manager server and hit an API. And even with a secrets manager, you may still need Bash to shuttle the secret into your target application.

      Secrets manager in Docker is not a bad option but adds more dependencies

    4. Using environment variables for secrets is very convenient. And we don’t recommend it because it’s so easy to leak things

      If possible, avoid using environment variables for passing secrets

    5. As the sanitized example shows, a pipeline is generally an excellent way to pass secrets around, if the program you’re using will accept a secret via STDIN.

      Piped secrets are generally an excellent way to pass secrets

    6. A few notes about storing and retrieving file secrets

      Credentials files are also a good way to pass secrets

    1. As it stands, sudo -i is the most practical, clean way to gain a root environment. On the other hand, those using sudo -s will find they can gain a root shell without the ability to touch the root environment, something that has added security benefits.

      Which sudo command to use:

      • sudo -i <--- most practical, clean way to gain a root environment
      • sudo -s <--- secure way that doesn't let touching the root environment
    2. Much like sudo su, the -i flag allows a user to get a root environment without having to know the root account password. sudo -i is also very similar to using sudo su in that it’ll read all of the environmental files (.profile, etc.) and set the environment inside the shell with it.

      sudo -i vs sudo su. Simply, sudo -i is a much cleaner way of gaining root and a root environment without directly interacting with the root user

    3. This means that unlike a command like sudo -i or sudo su, the system will not read any environmental files. This means that when a user tells the shell to run sudo -s, it gains root but will not change the user or the user environment. Your home will not be the root home, etc. This command is best used when the user doesn’t want to touch root at all and just wants a root shell for easy command execution.

      sudo -s vs sudo -i and sudo su. Simply, sudo -s is good for security reasons

    4. Though there isn’t very much difference from “su,” sudo su is still a very useful command for one important reason: When a user is running “su” to gain root access on a system, they must know the root password. The way root is given with sudo su is by requesting the current user’s password. This makes it possible to gain root without the root password which increases security.

      Crucial difference between sudo su and su: the way password is provided

    5. “su” is best used when a user wants direct access to the root account on the system. It doesn’t go through sudo or anything like that. Instead, the root user’s password has to be known and used to log in with.

      The su command is used to get a direct access to the root account

    1. Linux Kernel 5.11 Released Linus Torvalds (the creator of Linux) has officially released the latest kernel for the open source operating system. Kernel 5.11 includes the usual dose of expanded hardware support, as well as a feature that should excite gamers, and an improvement for Wi-Fi.

      As far as expanded hardware support, kernel 5.11 has brought improvements to RISC-V, as well as support for RISC-V CPU architecture such as OpenRISC support for the LiteX SoC controller driver.

      On the Intel side of things, kernel 5.11 adds support for: Iris Xe GPU, Software Guard Extensions (SGX), and Intel Platform Monitoring Technology (PMT). Conversely, Intel Itanium support has finally been dropped.

  16. May 2021
    1. Disclaimer If this tool works, great! However, no guarantees are made that it won't hasten the heat death of the universe through the spontaneous combustion of your CPU.
  17. Apr 2021
    1. By default, fork(2) places a newly created child process in the same process group as its parent, so that e.g. a ^C from the keyboard will affect both parent and child.
    2. But the shell, as part of its session leader duties, creates a new process group every time it launches a pipeline.
    3. Job control is what happens when you press ^Z to suspend a program, or when you start a program in the background using &
    4. A job is the same as a process group.
    1. Windows Subsystem for Linux, also known as WSL, is a compatibility layer for running Linux binary executables natively on Windows 10 using a Linux image
    1. i found that for the osx host "gonzo" , the vanished files (not the warning message itself) appear in stdout - for linux hosts they _both_ appear in stderr , but nothing in stdout (rsync.err.#num is stderr, rsync.log is stdout)
  18. Mar 2021
    1. Proton is a new tool released by Valve Software that has been integrated with Steam Play to make playing Windows games on Linux as simple as hitting the Play button within Steam. Underneath the hood, Proton comprises other popular tools like Wine and DXVK among others that a gamer would otherwise have to install and maintain themselves. This greatly eases the burden for users to switch to Linux without having to learn the underlying systems or losing access to a large part of their library of games. Proton is still in its infancy so support is inconsistent, but regularly improving.
    1. I've been made aware of a "Compatibility tool to run DOS games on Steam through native Linux DOSBox" called "steam-dos". It can be found on https://www.github.com/dreamer/steam-dos . I pulled this tool from git and using it as the the steam play compatibility tool Megarace 2 runs without issue. Saving both settings and games works again! There is no keyboard support for controlling the vehicle in game but both mouse and joystick/gamepad work. To get around a missing launcher.exe error I copied "MegaRace 2.exe" to the same folder as the original and renamed the copy to "Launcher.exe". Linux users: in your MegaRace 2 folder (steamapps/common/MegaRace 2/) create a symbolic link to start.sh named Launcher.exe. This allows the game to launch through Steam. This also allows you to put time on the game through Steam, hitting that coveted 5 minute mark that makes creating a review possible. With that out of the way, the game itself is a nice touch of nostalgia but the port is absolutely terrible. I don't remember it being quite this difficult to install off the 2 CDs. The game won't launch at all without tweaking. Can't save the config settings. Can't save the game at all in fact. While I really like MegaRace 2, you unlock tracks by completing the previous ones. Since the game can't be saved, I end up running The Foundry track over and over until I'm sick of it.So I'm torn. I love the game but I hate the completely broken port. For $3 and a local install of DOSBOX it can be made to work so I will recommend it anyway.
    1. The reason we've avoided registering "Cinnamon" as a desktop name is that it opens up issues with many upstream apps that currently OnlyShowIn=Gnome or Gnome;Unity or just Unity. The relationship Mint has with Gnome and Ubuntu isn't genial enough that we could get them to add Cinnamon to their desktop files, so we would have to distribute and maintain separate duplicate .desktop files just for Cinnamon for these upstream packages.
    1. Also manually adding [Default Applications] x-scheme-handler/zoommtg=ZoomLauncher.desktop to either $HOME/.config/mimeapps.list or $HOME/.local/share/applications/mimeapps.list does not lead to xdg-open via exo-open recognizing the zoommtg protocol.
    1. xdg-email
    2. There's a command that knows about your default browser: xdg-open http://google.com This will also work for every other type of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), like images - which will automatically open with eog, openoffice documents, and so on, and also on filesystem paths (xdg-open /tmp/foobar.png).
    1. SystemRescue (also known as SystemRescueCd) is a Linux system rescue toolkit available as a bootable medium for administrating or repairing your system and data after a crash.

  19. www.ventoy.net www.ventoy.net
    1. Ventoy is an open source tool to create bootable USB drive for ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI files.

      With ventoy, you don't need to format the disk over and over, you just need to copy the ISO/WIM/IMG/VHD(x)/EFI files to the USB drive and boot them directly.

  20. Feb 2021
    1. For example, on the terminal I'm using, the right arrow outputs ^[[C. You can see what sequence your terminal outputs by pressing Ctrl-V Right Arrow. The same is true for other cursor-control keys such as Page Up and End.
    1. Typically, a process associated with a controlling terminal is foreground process and its process group is called foreground process group. When you start a process from the command line, it's a foreground process:
    2. Quit the program by sending a different signal to both processes, e.g. SIGQUIT with Ctrl + \.
    1. Why then sending the SIGINT manually to the shell doesn't kill the child, e.g. 'kill -2 <shell-pid>' doesn't do anything to a child process while Ctrl-C kills it?
    2. The shell process itself is in yet another process group all of its own and so doesn't receive the signal when one of those process groups is in the foreground. It's that simple.
    3. Switching "jobs" between foreground and background is (some details aside) a matter of the shell telling the terminal which process group is now the foreground one.
    4. I am trying to understand how CTRL+C terminates a child but not a parent process. I see this behavior in some script shells like bash where you can start some long-running process and then terminate it by entering CTRL-C and the control returns to the shell. Could you explain how does it work and in particular why isn't the parent (shell) process terminated? Does the shell have to do some special handling of CTRL+C event and if yes what exactly does it do?
    1. The CTRL-\ key sends a kill signal to the foreground job which, under normal circumstances, is guaranteed to terminate it. This signal cannot be captured by a process. However, this means the process cannot cleanup and is just summarily stopped. In some cases, a process can be stuck in a kernel wait state so this signal never reaches it. In that case, the process is unusable but cannot be killed.
    1. Also, this code will fail if $$ is not the process group leader, such as when the script is run under strace. Since a call to setsid(2) is probably tricky from a shell script, one approach might be to ps and obtain the process group ID from that.
    2. ps -o pid,pgid,stat,args
    3. When your script starts a process, that child becomes a member of a process group with PGID equal to the PID of the parent process which is $$ in the parent shell.
    4. To accomplish this, after starting the children (loop.sh) in the background, call wait, and upon receipt of the INT signal, kill the process group whose PGID equals your PID.
    5. You need a trap in loop.sh. Traps are cleared for every subshell started unless they are explicitly trap ''SIG ignored by the parent.
    1. ps --forest -o pid,tty,stat,time,cmd -g $(ps -o sid= -p 2795)
    2. To get all the processes spawned by a process the whole tree needs to be built. I used awk for that. At first it builds a hash array to contain all PID => ,child,child... . At the end it calls a recursive function to extract all the child processes of a given process. The result is passed to another ps to format the result.
    1. # Usage: run_with_timeout N cmd args... # or: run_with_timeout cmd args... # In the second case, cmd cannot be a number and the timeout will be 10 seconds. run_with_timeout () { local time=10 if [[ $1 =~ ^[0-9]+$ ]]; then time=$1; shift; fi # Run in a subshell to avoid job control messages ( "$@" & child=$! # Avoid default notification in non-interactive shell for SIGTERM trap -- "" SIGTERM ( sleep $time kill $child 2> /dev/null ) & wait $child ) }
    2. Personally, I prefer signalling an error for invalid values
    1. We can ask timeout to try to stop the program using SIGTERM, and to only send in SIGKILL if SIGTERM didn’t work. To do this, we use the -k (kill after) option. The -k option requires a time value as a parameter.
    1. timeout_child () { trap -- "" SIGTERM; child=$!; timeout=$1; ( sleep $timeout; kill $child; ) & wait $child; } And the usage: ( while true; do echo -n .; sleep 0.1; done) & timeout_child 2
    1. Instead of modifying /usr/share/applications/google-chrome.desktop, the file can be copied into ~/.local/share/applications/google-chrome.desktop and modified without root access. This file will take precedence over the global desktop file.
    1. Systemd targets are reached once and do not fire again when the connection state changes. Depending how your network is managed there are a couple of options:

      Alternatives to react to network-changes in various linux setup: systemd, NetworkManager, netcl, wicd

    1. About network-activation targets & events, but does not detect e.g. "airplane-mode" :-( (referred by man-pages)

    1. I still cannot install it on SID (Winter 2021):

      $ sudo apt install wine32
      Reading package lists... Done
      Building dependency tree... Done
      Reading state information... Done
      Some packages could not be installed. This may mean that you have
      requested an impossible situation or if you are using the unstable
      distribution that some required packages have not yet been created
      or been moved out of Incoming.
      The following information may help to resolve the situation:
      The following packages have unmet dependencies:
       libcurl4:i386 : Depends: librtmp1:i386 (>= 2.4+20131018.git79459a2-3~) but it is not going to be installed
       libfaudio0:i386 : Depends: libgstreamer-plugins-base1.0-0:i386 (>= 1.10.0) but it is not going to be installed
       libwine:i386 : Depends: libgstreamer-plugins-base1.0-0:i386 (>= 1.0.0) but it is not going to be installed
                      Recommends: libodbc1:i386 (>= 2.3.1) but it is not going to be installed
                      Recommends: libsane1:i386 (>= 1.0.27) but it is not installable
                      Recommends: libasound2-plugins:i386 but it is not going to be installed
                      Recommends: gstreamer1.0-plugins-good:i386 but it is not going to be installed
      E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.