1,155 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2017
    1. In the new middle-class colleges, composition was a required course taught by assistant professors and graduate assistants,

      Not much has changed here.

    2. Alcohol constituted the "drug problem" of the age, and ii was largely a male problem, from which women suffered because it contributed to the physical abuse of women and children, diverted family finances from needed supplies, and encour-aged prostitution and other social ills.

      On the whole, Prohibition wasn't great, but its sources were complex and not without merit.

    3. Thus Sarah Grimke had to develop a feminist critique of the social and rhetorical limitations

      In other words, she had to argue to be able to argue.

    4. until every career is open lo them

      What is compelling here is the implicit assertion that rhetoric requires locations and vocations to flourish.

    5. Newman takes up the question of how people give credence to any proposition that is not subject to demonstration. He concludes that we assent quite justifiably to a great variety of propositions on the strength of accumulated probabilities, propositions for which we cannot adduce ir-refutable proof or a clear logical argument.

      This is a major area of concern because the realm of the probably is vast.

    6. reatise on practical psychological rhetoric

      Here we the explicit use of faculty psychology to compose a rhetoric.

    7. but any assertion about experience

      Here is experience again. Any connections to Hume here?

    8. Apparently no new theory was needed; certainly none was forthcoming.

      The theory/practice divide still occasionally surfaces in contemporary rhet/comp.

    9. "Polite"

      Here's that word again (see Blair).

    10. !>ciencc and technology came into their own.

      The emergence of STEM.

    11. Industrial Revolution

      Recall the video we watch in class on education. We are about to the Enlightenment get mechanized.

    1. The climate scientists gave the conspiracy theorists an opening by letting their advocacy color their science, which compromised the legitimacy of their enterprise and, ironically, weakened the political movement itself.

      Check out this book on the intersection of science and democracy.

    2. This advocacy meme is widely used in law courts and political debates, and it can work well when the question at hand is one of taste or morality

      But although taste be ultimately founded on sensibility, it must not be considered as instinctive sensibility alone. Reason and good sense, as I before hinted, have so extensive an influence on all the operations and decisions of taste, that a thorough good taste may well be considered as a power compounded of natural sensibility to beauty, and of improved understanding" (957).

    3. But no one had claimed that the steel had melted, only that it had gotten hot enough to weaken and collapse, which it did.

      Campbell: "The like may be said of what is melted, or hardened, or otherwise altered by it. If then, for the first time, I try the influence of fire on any fossil, or other substance, whatever be the effect, I readily conclude that fire will always produce a similar effect on similar bodies. This conclusion is not founded on this single instance, but on this instance compared with a general experience of the regularity of this clement in all its operation" (918).

    4. Conspiracy theorists have connected a lot of dots.

      Campbell: "The second difference I shall remark is, that moral evidence admits degrees, demonstration doth not" (913).

    5. The Conspiracy Meme

      Use Campbell and Blair quotes (and/or paraphrases) to annotate this piece.

    1. Then again, I suppose you can buy something you like without knowing why you like it. 

      Right, how transparent are we to ourselves?

    2. I suppose what’s at stake in taste is your ability to know why you ought to like something?

      Something like the ability to give reasons?

    3. “Who gets to do rhetoric?” 

      Very good question. We can see here how particular understandings of rhetoric necessarily assume (or even prescribe) certain kinds of bodies and minds and even environments.

    4. call this” community” developed rhetoric as opposed to “self” due to the fact that those around the young person shape the mind as they grow.

      Excellent. This answers my above question.

    5. taste being a self-developed form of rhetoric that changes with the passing of time.

      Interesting. I wonder what you mean by "self-developed"? Surely there is a social element here as well?

    6. Rhetoric is required in order to determine what is tasteful; therefore, taste is rhetorical. Their relationship is closely intertwined. 

      Has me thinking of Lanham's phrase: "social drama" and the idea that some of these dramas are more formal that others, which then makes me think about the different ways individuals can develop practice taste.

    7. Although it seems subjective, Hume claims that proper taste can be refined through practice and education. 

      Nice "although" here.

    8. Second, Hume’s Taste could be a rhetorical act itself; one’s Taste could produce some effect from an individual, including an alteration of his or her own Taste.

      This is a compelling line of thought. Taste as both a rhetorical cause and effect. Or, to put the question rhetorically, it's not necessarily what taste is but what taste does.

    9. practice and objectiveness.

      I like the emphasis on practice here.

    10. I can’t seem to find it

      You're killing me: using other people's annotations is the whole point here. FIND IT AND USE IT!

    11.  Appealing to a “common audience,” therefore, does not mean an orator must lower his/her standards of taste (Hume 839).

      Very good weaving of annotations in developing this response.

    12. The rhetorics of normalcy is not restricted to size and proportion, but here are expanded to bodily sensations and, consequently, judgments.

      Fan-fucking-tastic!

    13. a social aspect here as well, which is one of the ways that taste is rhetorical – it is a product of the dynamic relationship between the self and the world.

      A Lanham connection here.

    14. “Beauty is no quality in things themselves. It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty.”

      Is Hume actually arguing this position?

    15. And so in this way, taste is rhetorical in that it wrestles both within itself and between its other interpretations for a decisive standard

      "Wrestling" is actually a very apt analogy here. Check this out.

    16. It seems that Hume grapples with a similar problem.

      Nice connection here!

    17. Hume’s Taste can be understood as an amalgamation of personal preference or opinion and virtuosity.

      In part, yes. But taste also involves the object itself. Also, it is it just personal or also cultural and historical?

    18. amalgamation

      A bundle.

    19. mean

      Or, what does this question do?

    20. Tyler

      Work more directly from the readings: they are your building blocks here.

    21. completely subjective

      Would Hume agree here?

    1. if Cicero had stopped at this point.

      This is an interesting moment as we think the rhetorical tradition as a series of annotations, and as we recognize our own historical embeddedness.

    2. I proceed to what is of more real use, to point ~ ~ . out the assistance that can be given, not with re-cl,"~ spect to the invention, but with respect to the dis-• •P . , position and conduct of arguments.

      Peter Ramus haunts us here.

    3. Conviction affects the understanding only; persuasion, the will and the practice. It is the businci.s of the philosopher to convince me of truth; it is the business of the orator to persuade me to act agreeably to it, by engaging my affections on its side. Conviction and persuasion do not always go together. They ought, indeed, to go together; and 111011/d do so, if our inclination regularly followed the dictates of our understanding.

      A very important move made here within the history of rhetoric.

    4. Every object which makes any impression on the human mind, is constantly accompanied with certain circumstances and relations, that strike us at the same time. It never presents itself to our view, isole, as the French express it; that is, inde-pendent of, and separ.ited from

      Yet more bundles.

    5. Time overthrows the illusions of opinion, but es-.k~6' •r tablishes the decisions of nature

      What is the value of a one-hit wonder?

    6. When these sentiments are perverted by ignorance or prejudice, they are ca-pable of being rectified by reason

      Reason rectifies. Reason as art sheriff.

    7. the majority

    8. Must we collect the voices of others, before we fonn any judgment for our-selves, of what deserves applause in eloquence or poetry?

      The "voices of others"? Surely not.

    9. Laplander
    10. Hottentot
    11. o close is the connex-ion between thoughts, and the words in which they arc clothed.

      The distinct, even though here tightly connected, between words and things.

    12. Rhetoric serves to add the polish; and we know that none but firm and solid bodies can be polished well.

      This seems to beg the question, "Who or what deserves rhetoric?"

    13. preserve classical goals amid changing social conditions and new developments

      What kinds of tensions are created by this combination of goals?

    1. Another remark on this article that deserves our notice is, that the less improved in knowl-edge and discernment the hearers are, the easier it is for the speaker to work upon their passions, and by working on their passions, to obtain his end.

      This is a persistent view both since Campbell and preceding Campbell. Of course, it is predicated upon Campbell's previous divisions concerning imagination, passion, understanding.

    2. Part V. Connexion of Place

      This section is jumping out at me this time around. Keep it mind later on when we turn to discuss the elements of the rhetorical situation. Campbell opens up for discussing the material dimensions of rhetoric: not simply rhetoric as the discursive activity of humans, but as an emergent aspect of human and nonhuman relations. Also, recall here Rickert on the role of the caves themselves in the making of cave art.

    3. These two qualities, therefore, PROBABILITY and PLAUSIBILITY

      This is an important set of terms to think through in terms of come to think about and with rhetoric.

    4. Here again there is commonly scope for argu-menl. 22 Probability results from evidence, and begets belief. Belief invigorates our ideas. Belief raised to the highest becomes certainty. Certainty flows either from the force of the evidence, real or apparent, that is produced: or without any evi-dence produced by the speaker, from the previ-ous notoriety of the fact.

      BOOM!. A lot to unpack here.

    5. On the contrary, they arc by nature, as will perhaps appear afterwards, more friendly to truth than to falsehood, and more easily retained in the cause of virtue, than in that of vice.

      Virtuosity is some evidence of virtue, to recall Lanham.

    6. Our eyes and hands and feet will give us the ~~'.r , same assistance in doing mischief as in doing ~. good; but it would not therefore be better for the "'""- world that all mankind were blind and lame

      A pretty powerful articulation of the weak defense,

    7. they arc her handmaids •

      Note the gendered term here.

    1. This may be due lo the weakness of our nature, which prompts us to take an inordi-nate delight in ourselves and in our own pursuits.

      See also, academic activists ;)

    2. Again I say, this is harmful,\ since the invention of arguments is by nature prior 10 the judgment of their validity,

      This is crucial for me. And it harkens back to Lanham as well.

    3. Since imagination has always been esteemed a most favorable omen of future development, it should in no way be dulled.

      See this talk: "Changing Education Paradigm"

    4. There is a danger that in-struction in advanced philosophical criticism may lead to an abnonnal growth of abstract intel-lectualism, and render young people unfit for the practice of eloquence.

      Think about the method of this course, which asks students to hesitate before what Vico calls "a habit of advanced speculative criticism."

    5. cleanse

      A pretty powerful word for us now.

    6. Such are the "instruments" employed by our modem sciences; let us now turn to the comple-menlary aids employed in the various sectors of our culture

      Note his emphasis upon these instruments and the work they have done, which includes shaping the human imagination.

    7. As for the aim, it should circulate, like a blood-stream, through the entire body of the learning process.

      The way aim circulates.

    8. navoidable inconveniences or our own

      Just lovely.

    9. ours or the Ancients'

      dissoi logoi

    10. knew.much stiJI unknown to us

      Really think upon this: if knowledge is in some sense contextual and historical, think of what we do not know. That is, imagine that there is an inaccessible library somewhere filling up in equal measure and at the same rate as the library we can access.

    11. how we may remedy

      What is the goal of one's inquiry or practice? Where is Vico putting the emphasis and what difference does this difference make?

    12. esuit

      BOOM!

  2. Jan 2017
    1. 1ginable, and fonnsthe pre­f the heroes. ''Whalisthis,") toJOSABl:,, fi nding her inHAN, the priest of BAAL, ifDAVID speak tothis trai­d, lest the earth shouldopen tdevour you both? Or lest uldfall and crushyou to­purpose? Why comesthe to poison theair, which we Tid presence'!"Suchsenti­.vith great applause on the , atLONDON the .spectators :h pleased lo hearAcmLLES 11 he was a clog inhis fore­is heart, or Jurrnm threaten lrubbing, ifshewill notbe lesarc also a blemish inany •hen they rise up to supcrsti­emsclves into every senli.e from any connection withsc for the poet, that the cus­had burthened life with somnies and observances, thatmpl from that yoke. It mustIS in PETRARCH to compareto JESUS Cl!RlST. Nor is it!l agreeable libertine, Boe­y to give thanks to Goo1die.s, for their assistance in,t hii; enemie.s.Mary Astel

    1. :J one more deeply than all . cl • • ~ m mo erauon. :f. , The lady of Andros 511-59] t rience to see an individual " II of his efforts on a single j ho has spent all his life on ; is, by far, more important '1 sec him inclined lo make ·3 Jlty to matters wholly for-1 e due lo the weakness of~ npts us to take an inordi.'~ s and in our own pursuits. ~ of delivering false judg-[ am particularly afraid of ews on eloquence, since I defense of my assignment lischargcd it, permit me to :ally indebted to any one · with pertinence and with heir intrinsic purport, the Jghl up, so as to free me te will be certain lo enlist re intent to do so. Thomas Sheridan

    1. notation.

      Annotating the body.

    2. nall let/er relating lo he arm is oflen placed fash with a preceding •served No. I. In such hat the position of the nd that the transverse s changed. Here each ·hole semicircle from ded. ,, I ol1.c~&.4.,~•;."-'J wt. ~~11'\·l~ Figure

    1. relation

      I think relations end up being a big part of the show for Hume. There is an important distinction between something like relativism and relationalism. See kpolizzi's annotation of Hume's use of catholic.

    2. Nay, there scarcely is any man, who can boast of great constancy and uniformity in this particular.
    3. These are in continual flux and revolution.

      Never finally deciding.

    4. Where men vary in their judgments, some defect or perversion in the faculties may commonly be remarked;

      yikes!

    5. Many men, when left to themselves, have but a faint and dubious perception of beauty, who yet are capable of rel-ishing any fine stroke, which is pointed out to them.

      A social aspect here as well.

    6. mbarrassing;

      I love this word here. Captures the stakes nicely, I think.

    7. composition, even the most poetical, is nothing arts is observed, even during the most polished but a chain of propositions and reasonings

      Black boxes unpacked.

    8. prejudice

      What's perhaps unusual here is that prejudice is the lack of externalities rather than the removal of them.

    9. is not conformable to that which is required by lhe performance.

      This is again interesting as it bears upon the rhetorical work of an audience. We often tend to assume that rhetoric is someone a speaker does to an audience, but the work of the audience is also rhetoric.

    10. being found incompatible

      His use of incompatible here is fantastic in light of his emphasis upon relations throughout. Rhetoric as compatibility?

    11. practice

      Great word here, which suggests effort, training, pedagogy.

    12. But a delicate taste of wit or beauty must always be a desirable quality; because it is the source of all the finest and most innocent enjoy-ments, of which human nature is susceptible

      What strikes me here is the great emphasis upon receptivity.

    13. A good palate is not tried ,• by strong flavours; but by a mixture of small in-~ gredients, where we are still sensible of each a part, notwithstanding its minuteness and its con-~ fusion with the rest

      Nuance.

    14. The great resemblance between mental and bodily taste will easily teach us to apply this story.

      The mind and body rejoined: Cartesian dualism bypassed?

    15. man in a fever would not ""-~3 insist on his palate as able to decide concerning -.+,. fl~vours

      A very crucial point here: judgment and discernment are themselves relational and contextual.

      That said, we would be wise to keep in mind the Lemos piece on norms and normalcy (as it bears upon bodies) as we read the rest of this paragraph.

    16. proper time and place

      Kairos.

    17. If they are found I I to please, they cannot be faults; let the pleasure, which they produce, be ever so unexpected and unaccountable

      Echoes of Plato and debates about the relation of the pleasurable to the good.

    18. experience;

      This is a key term here, which Hume is very diligently working through. Experience also becomes important to the American pragmatist tradition in the late 19th/early 20th centuries.

    19. a priori,
    20. It is evident that none of the rules of composi-1 l tion are fixed by reasonings a priori,

      They are, in other words, not black boxes.

    21. at least, a decision, afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning an-s~ other

      What have to find a way to get along.

    22. really does no more than is implied in the terms themselves.

      In this sense, words are doing more than signifying: they are making: the word is the thing.

    23. fundamentally empiri-cal, based on experience rather than a priori ideals or abstract rules

      God help me, but I really love reading David Hume.

    24. sentiments

      Why this word as opposed to others like opinions, preferences, beliefs, or attitudes?

    25. retorted on us

      It's called Facebook.

    26. Standard of Taste

      This is the black box that Hume hopes to unpack.

    27. Hume considers the possibility that there is, indeed, complete relativism in this matter. But his purpose is to find ways to reduce or eliminate disagreement, to set a standard

      A rhetorical concern dating back to at least Aristotle: how to decide upon things in the realm of the probable rather than the absolute.

    1. Eloquence, like the fair sex, has too prevailing beauties in it to suffer itself ever to be spoken ~~-•k..l, against. And it is in vain to find fault with those arts of deceiving, wherein men find pleasure to be deceived.

      The continuation of the move to gender rhetoric/eloquence as feminine.

    2. so indeed are perfect cheats

      BOOM!

    3. S1111111

      Here comes the payoff.

    4. First, to make known one man's (r thoughts or ideas to another; Secondly, to do it with as much ease and quickness as possible; and, Thirdly, thereby to convey the knowledge of things: language is either abused or deficient, when it fails of any of these three.

      Another weak defense of language.

    5. between

      What other prepositions could we (re)place here?

    6. This should teach us moderation i11 imposing our own sense of old authors

      A nice methodology for this course, as we have discussed.

    7. that make such a noise in the world

      What might be the relationship between rhetoric and noise?

    8. the intervention of words

      What a lovely phrase.

    9. I think myself obliged to give a reason why I have followed this method.

      Yes, John, why should we care?

    10. especially those of figure and number, of which men have so clear and dis-tinct ideas

      Add in some Lemos here as well. And some Mark Twain.

    11. White and sweet, yellow and bitter, carry a very obvious meaning with them, which every one precisely comprehends, or easily perceives he is ignorant of, and seeks to be informed. But what precise collection of simple ideas modesty or frugality stand for, in another's use, is not so certainly known

      An interesting progression here: to where might it ultimately lead?

    12. From hence it will unavoidably follow, that the complex ideas of substances in men using the same names for them, will be very various, and so the significations of those names very uncer-tain.
    13. ven in the mouths of those who had both the intention and the faculty of speaking as clearly as language was capable to express their thoughts.

      Everybody is in this boat.

    14. And hence we see that, in the interpretation of laws, whether divine or human, there is no end; comments beget com• ments, and explications make new matter for ex-plications; and of limiting, distinguishing, vary-ing the signification of these moral words there is no end.

      "There is no end." Another useful way to think through rhetoric in light of Muckelbauer.

      But, of course, there are often temporary ends achieved.

    15. Besides, the rule and measure of propri-ety itself being nowhere established, it is often matter of dispute

      Dispute is a way to think through rhetoric here.

    16. who have scarce any standing rule to regulate themselves and their notions by, in such arbitrary ideas.

      There is a strong moral component here in Locke's thinking about language.

    17. standards in 11at11

      What Lemos might identify as norms?

    18. since one man's complex idea seldom agrees with another's, and often differs from his own-from that which he had yesterday, or WilJ have tomorrow

      Links to Hume on taste.

    19. C•.-<\

      We will read Corder later this semester.

    20. I. Civil. II. Philosophical.

      What is a consequence of splitting these up?

    21. First, One for the recording of our own thoughts. Secondly, The other for the communicating of our thoughts to others

      A weak defense of words?

    22. it is necessary first to consider their use and end:

      This is a compelling focus: what do words do?

    23. These reflections lead \ ..μ.., -&AA:>.-lc..-~ Locke to insist on the need for clarity, especially in discussing knowledge. He at-~ tacks Scholastic philosophy for creating obscurities through disputation, and he at-wi.....+-~ tacks rhetoric for increasing ambiguities through excessive ornamentation.

      This is a good nutshell here.

    24. Words are also the source of many of our ideas

      So language here is also a create source (invention).

    25. ohn Locke powerfully aflccted the direction of rhetoric, and every other intellectual endeavor a~ well. in the eighteenth century.

      So, then, in what ways (or how) was he able to do this: to impact rhetoric. What does this claim reveal about the scope and province of rhetoric.

    1. The science of variation like the clinical gaze was believed to unearth all sides of truth and was therefore effectively applied as a form of industrial management in order to cope with population growth.

      This debate/division continues today in the care v. cure debate and in various approaches to bedside manner

    2. It ought necessarily to precede every other inquiry into social physics, since it is, as it were, the basis.

      We will come to later take up this racialization of the Enlightenment.

    3. his own body

      See the foot). See the hand).

    4. An anomaly is thus a mere difference in degree for which the norm will serve as metric.

      Normal is a powerful, potent, and potentially pernicious black box. And it is frequently a black box deployed against rhetoric.

    5. science (and politics) of eugenics

      The tight relation of science and politics is strong in someone like Locke.

    6. Norms, have long inhabited the architect’s toolset

      I want to highlight the useful understanding of norms as tools: this very quickly begins to unpack the black box that is normal. Lemos turns norms" into Morty's car battery*.

    1. A technical project like that of a freeway system is, by contrast, saturated with interests; no one would argue for its being economically and politically neutral.

      Aramis

    2. new technology, a particular form of decision-making, the incarnation of a new epistemology, the carriers of a new ideology, and even as a veritable modern myth

      all with bearing upon rhetoric

    3. Algorithms have thus become agents, which is partly why they give rise to so many suggestive metaphors. Algorithms now do things.

      Latour

    4. Semantic confusion may in fact signal a threshold moment when it behooves us to revise entrenched assumptions about people and machines.

      "a spot were ambiguity necessarily arises"

    5. ignored its political dimension

      there is a point to made here

    6. His book is not for readers who think the devil is in the details; it is centered rather on a sweeping Faustian bargain: “humans agree to give up meaning in exchange for power.”

      ...hum...

    7. Algorithms, we have realized, can be carriers of shady interests and vehicles of corporate guile. And so, as a new batch of commentators urge, we must “make algorithms accountable.”

      Charles Stross

    1. Rhetoric selects,

      There is an interesting construction of agency here: rhetoric is treated as the subject of the sentence. Rhetoric does the selecting. This suggests, perhaps unwittingly, the kinds of claims Rickert makes about rhetoric as less a tool than a capacity or even a force. We participate in rhetoric, but we don't necessarily control it.

    2. MEDIEVAL RHETORIC

      The Jesuits were major proponents of rhetorical education or what they called eloquentia perfecta.

    1. This style of reading will change what we’re constructing here, so let’s see where it goes.

      And the style reflects place, which reminds me a Rickert's comments about the rhetorical efficacy of the caves themselves.

    2. It presents rhetoric spatially, away from “us,”

      Great observation here.

    3. not an object

      Very interesting.

    4. insert Michelle Obama side-eye

    5. who is a lobbyist and has very little patience for rhetoric

      Irony of ironies, no?

    6. not once did anyone ask “What is that?”

      This is significant, is it not?

    7. comforting, but also too-close-to-home description

      Yes, it is both of these things.

    8. The writer, serving as his own audience, becomes persuaded and formed through his own writing.

      Well said.

    9. The Foucault reading surprised me because I never thought of self writing as a rhetorical activity.

      It is always a pleasure to be surprised by something we are reading, and I am glad you are noting your reaction to a reading here.

    10. Raj

      This microresponse is a little too micro.

    11. and they are effects that can only be produced because of the fact that rhetoric metamorphoses throughout time and space.

      Excellent!

    12. it is this approach of using the past as a tool for moving toward the future that makes it important to focus on the “has been” of rhetoric just as much as the “will be” of the term.

      Nicely put!

    13. importance on gathering data and experiences of the past

      In other words, even if rhetoric is the art of never finally answering the question, "What is rhetoric?" this art would necessarily include all attempts to finally answer that question.

    14. Rhetoric is the home of uncertainty and doubt that we go to in order to find harmony and sustenance in things that do.

      This sentence captures the oscillation that Lanham describes.

      (And do make sure that your microresponses do engage the readings, your own annotations and the annotations of others.)

    15. question

      Might we say questioning to maintain the verbiness of rhetoric?

    16. As consciousness and capacities continue to evolve, new rhetorical heads grow from the stems of the old.

      There is a strong connection here, then, to Foucault's hupomnemata: the productive yet endless exercise of sorting through what one has and is reading (about rhetoric).

    17. Rhetorical Hydra

    18. as Muckelbauer does

      Muckelbauer does quite the opposite it seems.

    19. Although the sophists took great pride in their rhetorical methods, the Greeks frowned upon their usage of the methods and found the act to be distrustful.

      The great historical irony of mistrusting something so seemingly important to the workings of the world.

    20. If this chain of annotations doesn’t demonstrate what rhetoric is, I don’t know if we will ever understand this elusive concept.

      What is compelling here is the word demonstrate rather than something like define. As with your annotation calling our attention to the term perform, I think your microresponse works as a "definition" of rhetoric insofar as it eschews defining it and simply performs it instead.

    1. Tolookatlanguageself-consciouslyistoplaygameswithit;tolookthroughlanguageunselfconsciouslyistoactpurposivelywithit

      To oscillate between the weak and strong defenses.

    2. Itdidnotsimplytrain,itcreated,thepublicperson

      A nice strong connection to Foucault's "Self Writing" and shaping of the self.

    3. TheStrongDefensearguesthat,sincetruthcomestohumankindinsomanydiverseanddisagreeingforms,wecannotbaseapolityuponit.

      This is really something to think through. It challenges much of Western thought as well as the goals of higher education. I cannot help but think of the current phrase post-truth in this context.

    4. ourmotives

      Motive always orbit any discussion of rhetoric.

    5. Soallthatisworthwhileinhumanlifecomesdown,atlast,tostudyingaboutthePlatonicSocrateswith,presumably,AllanBloom

      Full disclosure: this is one of my favorite in-print, academic zing.

    6. religiousway

      What caveats might Rickert add here with respect to religious.

    7. Wewererightallalong;thewell-informedmanisthevirtuouscitizen.Asourcivicsteacherpromised,theworldwillbesavedbythe currenteventsclub

      This view is certainly one that manifests itself in terms of politics as well.

    8. HisstateddefenseistheWeakone:"Rhetoricismerelyatool,nobadthinginitself.Orrather,itistheboxoftoolsforper-suasiontakentogether,availableforpersuadersgoodandbad"

      A useful articulation of the Weak Defense.

    9. "Virtuosityissomeevidenceofvirtue"(71)

      This phrase is certainly a challenge. And of course there are etymological links between virtue and *virtuosity".

    10. theinterfacebetweenabsoluteandcontingentstatements

      This is a very helpful way to understand the relationship between the Weak and the Strong defenses. That is, what the Weak Defense will treat as an absolute, the Strong Defense will treat as contingent.

    11. communicationandconstruction

      Note the linkage between communication and construction here.

    12. endangeringpossibilities

      These "endangering possibilities" are the focus of much of the Enlightenment thinkers we will shortly engage.

    13. Restrictingrhetorictostyleanddelivery,Ramussolvesthe"Q"ques-tionbydefinition.Rhetoricisacosmetic,andbadgirlswearmakeupaswellasgoodones,probablybetter.

      With Ramus, goodness and badness precede (and so exceed) rhetoric. Also, Lanham's gendered example is no accident. Recall our discussion of Plato's gendered use of cosmetic and cookery. Learn more on feminism and the sophists.

    14. SuchshiftingiswhatRamushatedthemost:"Forartsoughttoconsistofsubjectsthatareconstant,perpetual,andunchanging,andtheyshouldconsideronlythoseconceptswhichPlatosaysarearchetypalandeternal"(99)

      Ramus wants black boxes that cannot be unpacked (or excavated).

    15. Truthoncecreatedinthiswaybecomesreferential,asinlegalprecedent.

      The truth is annotative.

    16. fyouseparatethedisciplineofdiscourseintoessenceandornament,intophilosophyandrhetoric,andmakeeachaseparatediscipline,itmakesthemeasiertothinkabout.Thusbeginsmoderninquiry'slonghistoryoflookingforitslostkeysnotwhereitlostthembutunderthelamppost,wheretheyareeasiertofind.

      This is potential an answer to LoLo's question of Muckelbauer.

    17. Isocrates

    18. paideia
    1. symbol

      Etymology: Greek σύμβολον mark, token, ticket, ‘tessera’, < σύν sym- prefix + root of βολή , βόλος a throw (compare συμβάλλειν to put together, < σύν sym- prefix + βάλλειν to throw)

      See the excellent documentary Cave of Forgotten Dreams. Trailer here. There is a lovely discussion of Paleolithic hunting techniques, which collect around the throwing of spears. The film thus brings together both the projections of the spears and the projections upon the cave walls. And just as hunting is not a representative task but rather a performative task design to produce an effect, so too are the cave paintings.

    2. Nor can rhetoricsimply arrive as a package deal. Rather, it coalesces out of multiple cultural, material, andsemiotic strands that are mutually entangled and coevolving.

      This is the ethos of this course. Rickert's argument also resonates with Muckelbauer's "Returns of the Question."

    3. Chauvet Cave

    4. Hohle Fels,
    1. architectonic principle

      See: McKeon, R. (1971). The uses of rhetoric in a technological age: Architectonic productive arts. In Bitzer, Lloyd F. and Black, Edwin (Eds.). The prospect of rhetoric, 44-63. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  3. Dec 2016
  4. Nov 2016
  5. rhetoricalmeanderings.org rhetoricalmeanderings.org
    1. So my creation process is relatively simple because of the two-dimensional characteristics, but I am able to make complex maneuvers, animations, and placements because of the three-dimensional environment.

      There is something very rhetorically interesting here. Language, well, writing, could be seen as two-dimensional in a strict sense. Words in writing are just flat marks upon the page, but their arrangement (what you call here "complex maneuvers") adds a dimension. Indeed, often times bad writing is referred to as two dimensional. The third dimension must be earned.

    2. Music expresses things

      I would say that music does much more than this. It doesn't express so much as it both evokes and creates. That is, the music expresses things doesn't fully account for how music moves people. Your language here gets at this by the way: in the tension between "expresses" and "inherently persuades". Are expression and persuasion the same thing?

    3. music could be part of that alternative

      Good question.

    4. I'm not sure if he stopped because he felt awkward or because he forgot the rest of the words, but does it really matter? I'm impressed he knows that much.

      This is actually pretty impressive.

  6. Oct 2016
  7. rhetoricalmeanderings.org rhetoricalmeanderings.org
    1. First, it is almost entirely independent.

      Hum. Independent in what ways? Surely, it will have constraints, which are another important aspect of rhetoric and pedagogy.

    2. but am I wrong to wish for what I can only imagine a Greek education would have been like?

      Maybe?