268 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2023
  2. Feb 2023
    1. Plyometric Training

      Numerous books and articles have been written about plyometric training for athletes. However very few offer detailed progressive programs that take into account the need for a system of training that can be applied to a broad range of athletes. Instead you get a smorgasbord of exercises and opinions. Although the works of Chu, Radcliffe and Gambetta were outstanding at the time of their writing, very little has been written in the last ten years that connects our current knowledge of functional training with how to design and implement a system of plyometric exercises. In order to fully understand plyometrics, we must look at basics like terminology, volume and frequency.


      The first area that needs to be addressed in the area of plyometric training is terminology. The language of plyometrics must be universal so that any coach or athlete can view the program of any other coach or athlete and understand the exercises ideally without photos or video. The discrepancies in terminology were first brought to my attention by Mike Clark of the National Academy of SportsMedicine. Clark pointed out in a 2000 lecture that many coaches currently used names to describe plyometric exercises that were not properly descriptive of the movement.

      Skip- single leg takeoff with two foot contacts

      Although many might view these descriptions as simple and common sense, I realized that I inadvertently had misclassified exercises. We had always referred to two legged jumps over hurdles as hurdle hops. I believe that this was and still is a common error among many strength and conditioning and track coaches. Clark made the facetious point that "bunnies don't hop, they jump".

      Many might view this as a minor discrepancy but, a call from a coach in California made me realize the cost of "minor discrepancies".

      The coach in question called me and said "Boy, are your guys great athletes, I can't get one guy on my team to do those thirty inch hurdle hops you guys do." I quickly realized that my "minor discrepancy" had caused this coach to try to perform an exercise with one leg that we had been doing with two. He had his athletes hurdle hopping as the program indicated while I had mine hurdle jumping.

      A small detail? Maybe.

      The reality is that an athlete could have been badly injured because of my incorrect use of descriptive terminology.

      Categories of Exercises

      After looking at terminology, the next area to examine is the categories of the different types of jumps, hops and bounds. I believe that this is the major failing of the most popular commercially available ACL injury prevention programs.

      The two most popular, The Santa Monica PEP program and the Sportsmetrics program focus almost exclusively on jumps with no emphasis on bounds or hops. The reality is that the mechanism of the ACL tear is most frequently in a single leg hop (actually a redundancy as the term hop denotes single leg) or bound scenario, not a double leg jump.

      A sound plyometric program must include a balance of exercises from each terminology category. Athletes must perform a balance of jumps, hops and bounds. In addition, hops must be done both forward, at 45 degree angles and potentially side to side. It should be noted that hopping medially and laterally are entirely different in both the muscles stressed and the injury prevention potential.

      Medial hops ( hops toward the midline) are more difficult and provide much needed stress to the hip stabilizers.


      One question that begs to be answered revolves around the volume of jumps. Volume is measured by the number of jumps per session and has most frequently been measured by the number of foot contacts. Recently we have seen lots of recommendations for what are being referred to as extensive plyometrics. The concept basically advocates a high volume of "little jumps" to build up to more intense plyometrics.My feeling is that the term extensive plyometrics is a bit of an oxymoron. The whole idea of plyometrics is facilitate explosive contractions with the eventual goal of reduced ground contact time

      One of the major failings of many plyometric programs is too high a number of foot contacts. Extensive plyometrics not only doesnt solve this problem but, more than likely exacerbates it. We also have to distinguish if some of the "extensive plyometrics" recommended are valuable, necessary or even really plyometrics ? Although in a technical sense all movements involve strech shortening I'm not sure that jump rope or line hops prepares the tissue properly for the more intense activity to follow?

      We try to keep the number of jumps, hops and bounds at roughly 25 per day and 100 per week and never use extensive plyometrics in a preparatory phase.


      Instead, we use a realtively constant volume of drills that progress in intensity. The intensity of plyometric training is difficult to measure and really involves understanding the difference between a program of controlled jump training and a true plyometric program. Many exercises that we consider to be plyometric in nature are actually simply jumping exercises. A box jump is really just a jump. In order to be "truly" plyometric there needs to be a reactive component. However, our program is probably better described as a "progression to plyometrics" program.

      Controlling the intensity of plyometric exercises is actually based on controlling how gravity is allowed to enter the picture and to act on the body. Jumps up to a box or hops up to a box are the lowest intensity as they involve a strong concentric contraction but minimize eccentric stress by not allowing the body to "in effect" come down. With box jumps and box hops, what goes up does not really come down. The body is accelerated up to a height but not allowed to travel back down. The athlete jumps up and steps down, thereby effectively negating the effect of gravity as an accelerating force.

      What we do know is that mistakes in plyometric progressions will manifest themselves primarily as patella femorall issues. This could be due to tendon loading issues or to overstress of the patella femoral joint but in either case the issue is too much jumping ( or hopping)and or drills that are not properly progressed in intensity. Volume is frequently the enemy, particularly in atheltes that already experience a high volume of foot contacts in practice or training. Professor Jill Cook points out that peak tendon stress is at the point of switching from eccentric to concentric contraction. The goal of our progression is prepare for that point in a more controlled and thoughtful manner.

      Chu's early work classified intensity of jumps based on whether the jumps were done in place or, covered horizontal distance. Although this early quantification system of in-place, short, and long was state of the art in the eighties, our increased analysis of the effects of physics on the body leads us to a system that I believe better describes the effect of jumps. I prefer classifying jumps as gravity reduced or gravity enhanced and then move to semi-elastic ( bounce) and elastic (rebound or continuous). Early plyometric descriptions left no room for jumps that were actually not plyometric in nature.

      The following videos illustrate our progression


      One of the first questions when discussing frequency and plyometrics relates to the NSCA position statement. I find it intriguing that the NSCA once published such a short sighted piece. In the initial position statement the NSCA took the position that plyometrics should only be done twice per week. This has since been amended to read that the same joints should not be worked on consecutive days. The NSCA takes no position on intensity or volume other than to indicate that depths jumps may be too intense for larger athletes. My feeling is that plyometrics can be performed up to four times per week but, must be divided into linear and multi-directional days. Linear plyometrics involve pure sagittal plane jumps and hops, while multi-directional plyometrics work in the frontal and transverse planes.

      Transverse Plane Plyometrics

      I believe that athletes must do decelerative work in the transverse plane but, think that transverse plane jumps and hops must be approached with great care. It must be noted that in many cases the transverse plane exercises recommended look very much like the injury mechanisms we are trying to avoid.

      Age/ Level of Experience

      Another interesting point in the NSCA statement relates to the development of a proper strength base for plyometrics. No one has defined what proper is. Previously foolish, short-sighted recommendations were made relative to strength base. Some writers recommended a certain number of weeks of strength training prior to beginning a plyometric program, others recommended a certain strength level prior to undertaking a plyometric program. It is my feeling that strength training and plyometric training can be done concurrently providing common sense is used.

      The reality is that young athletes begin intense plyometric programs without a strength training base or a required strength level every day. Both gymnastics and figure skating involve intense plyometric type activity from very young ages. The key is to manage the effect of gravity on the body. The keys to a plyometric program are simple:

      Good plyometrics are quiet. Failure to land quietly indicates that the athlete lacks eccentric strength and that the exercise is inappropriate. All that may be necessary is to decrease the height of the obstacle involved. Athletes should only jump onto boxes that they can land on quietly.

      PS- Athletes should always jump from and land in from the same position.

  3. Jan 2023
    1. Intensidade em exercícios pliometricos são compostos por esforço colocado durante a atividade

      Quanto maior for a intensidade, menor será o volume aplicado ao mesmo

      Pliometria extensiva normalmente geram uma baixa sobrecarga no sistema, porém podem simbolizar uma alta sobrecarga no tecido (através de repetidas exposições)

      O progresso vem através do momento e do impacto gerado por cada exercício

      Progresso leva tempo, tenha paciência

    1. Box Jump

      Adicionar um desafio, um obstáculo para criar uma referência ao nosso cérebro

      Para diminuir o impacto da fase excêntrica ao tentar pular o mais rápido possível.

      Tentar não colocar caixas muito altas para não houver compensação na flexão lombar

      Tentar subir com as pernas quase praticamente retas para evitar esse problema e garantir que a altura está superada pelo atleta.

    1. Basicamente, Max analisou como o depth Jump é feito. E também a importância da carga impulsiva para treinar e melhorar a performance.

      Loading comes from velocity

      Impulse Loading é o que acontece no esporte e na vida, por isso devemos treinar

      A massa vem do próprio peso corporal

      Será que preciso “conscientemente” cocontrair para ter o ssc

      GCT curto e força alta = impulse Loading

      Não apenas para o Depth Jump, qualquer exercício que o indivíduo esteja em um estado relaxado e rapidamente precisa reverter o momento excêntrico gerado pela ação

  4. Sep 2022
    1. A falta de uma carga excêntrica além do desafio da posição, podem permitir um bom nível de transferência desse tipo de exercício para a performance na aceleração

  5. Oct 2021
    1. That said, when doing paired sets, make sure your pairings meet one of these rules: They include exercises using the same piece of equipment. They include exercises pairing a piece of immobile equipment (e.g., a bench press, squat rack or machine) with exercises using mobile equipment (e.g., dumbbells, resistance bands, or body weight). They include exercises pairing two pieces of mobile equipment or body weight

      Algumas regras e padrões ao utilizar super séries.

  6. Mar 2021
    1. When yousquat, for example, your glutes help distribute and share theload placed on your lower body with other muscles, like yourquads and hamstrings. If your glutes are weak, in other words,other muscles have to compensate

      Importância do glúteo de distribuir melhor a carga colocada sobre os membros inferiores.

    2. For example, let’s say you rely heavily on your quads to lift and jump. Thisincreases your chances of developing patellofemoral pain syndrome (genericknee pain) because you’re loading your knees instead of the big engines ofyour hips.
    3. training your glutes burns more caloriesthan training other body parts, especially when you perform glute exercises ina progressive manner
    1. This is one of the mechanisms by which creatine is thought to work, as it increases a cell's fluid volume, which may then promote cell growth.
    2. in-series hypertrophy refers to muscles growing by actually getting longer, like adding segments to a rope
    1. The soleus initiates slow contractions, while the gastroc initiates fast contractions. (Cordo et al., 1982)
    2. The medial and lateral heads of gastroc function differently from one another; the medial head works much harder than the lateral head to eccentrically resist knee extension.
    3. If you want the calves to grow you need to make them do what they're not used to doing.
    4. The guy with really long Achilles tendons, high calves, short muscle bellies, and a higher percentage of slow twitch muscle fibers will have a much more difficult time making his calves into cows than the guy with shorter Achilles tendons, low calves, long muscle bellies, and a higher percentage of fast twitch muscle fibers.

      A questão genética envolvendo panturrilhas.

    1. Free weights reign superior, machines allow us to do things we can't do with free weights: Training muscles in various ranges of motion, providing for unique positions, isolating various joints and muscles, and/or providing constant tension throughout full ranges of motion.
    2. Leg Press Pros
      • Hipertrofia

      Usado como um complemento ao agachamento para hipertrofia do quadríceps. Encaixaria como exercício metabólico.

      • Força

      Pode adicionar força para sair do chão no terra, o movimento do Leg Press é biomecanicamente similar a amplitude de início do Terra (pelo menos para a articulação do joelho).

      • Especificidade

      Alguns esportes como remo, ou até mesmo futebol americano (Para LB e DL) a produção de força é semelhante no stance inicial

    1. The Second Rep

      As leituras eletromiograficas da segunda repetição produzem um maior índice de ativação do que a primeira repetição.

      Como se o Sistema Nervoso tivesse "pegado a manha" de realizar o movimento de uma maneira mais eficiente.

    2. However, my research indicates that muscle fibers within a muscle can function differently from one another even if they don't have separate heads. For example, during my research I noted that the upper rectus abdominis and lower rectus abdominis function differently.

      Apenas 1 estudo

    1. training through a spectrum of repetition ranges is best for those looking to maximize muscle growth. Our recent study looking at a varied versus constant loading protocol suggests a potential benefit to such an approach, at least for increasing growth in the upper body musculature (Schoenfeld et al 2016).
    2. the short-term nature of resistance training studies leaves open the possibility that results may be at least in part attributed to a novelty effect and that findings might diverge over time.
    1. Hip, ankle, and thoracic mobility drills, core stability drills, and glute activation drills can go a long way in helping people reach proper depth. However, due to anatomical variations at the hip such as cam or pincer femoroacetabular impingement syndrome, there are plenty of lifters who will never be able to deep squat with proper form (Lamontagne 2009).


    1. Because the three mechanisms of hypertrophy feed off one another, it's best to follow a daily undulating or concurrent periodization scheme, as opposed to a linear model.
    2. Muscle Damage: Focus on the Negative

      É provocado por negativos lentas, amplitude de movimento estendida e alta tensão na posição alongada do músculo. A variedade na seleção de exercícios também resolve o problema.

    3. The key is to keep constant tension on the muscles by maintaining a continuous cadence (no rest between reps) and reversing direction just short of lockout or just before bottoming out, depending on the exercise's strength curve.

      Deixar alguns graus tanto no início quanto no fim do movimento. Para manter tensão constante.

      Entretanto dependerá de qual exercício está sendo executado e sua curva de força (ascendente ou descendente)

    4. most lifters have some "sweet spot" below the one-rep max for which mechanical tension on the targeted muscles is at its highest. Adding additional weight won't increase mechanical tension and may actually shift it away from the desired muscles and onto passive structures or other muscles.

      O pico de tensão mecânica tem um ponto perfeito com a carga sendo abaixa de 1 rep máximo.

    1. the ideal number of sets per week would be somewhere between 15 and 30 depending on the muscle group in question, the exercises chosen, and the inherent recovery ability of the individual.

      Uma média baseada em fatores e no indivíduo.

    1. Sticking to solely heavy work or solely high-rep work won’t build the optimal physique – you need the best of both styles of training if you want to reach your maximum muscular potential
    2. Movements that place the greatest tension at long muscle lengths (in a stretched position) are best suited for creating muscle damage.
    3. Movements that either place constant tension on a muscle or place the greatest tension on a muscle at shorter muscle lengths (in a contracted position) are best suited for creating a pump.

      Quando feito com repetições médias (8-12) a altas (12-15) e mantendo o tempo de descanso curto.

      Exercícios que colocam tensão constante sobre um músculo, são exercícios baseados em máquina.

    4. In general, performing squats, deadlifts, hip thrusts, bench presses, military presses, chins, and rows will ensure that you’re maximizing mechanical tension across the various muscle groups. However, one exercise alone will not maximize tension on the entire spectrum of fibers within a muscle.
    1. Elevated barbell reverse lunge

      Lembrar que esse mesmo exercício possui diferentes nomes na internet. O que trouxe a ideia de fazer o TCC focado nessa falta de padronização de nomes de exercícios.

    2. Dynamic Pigeon
    3. One-Arm Quadruped Hip Circle
    4. they help you develop a more well-rounded body that’s not just stronger and better looking but also more mobile—benefits that the typical warm-up on the treadmill or bike simply can't match.

      they = sequência de aquecimento por Nick

    5. Joints are designed primarily to function in their mid-range of motion, but they also need activity using their full range of motion in order to stay healthy and maintain their current range.
    6. Metabolic Conditioning Protocols

      Feitos para aumentar a resistência e diminuir a interferência da fadiga na performance da habilidade. Alguns exercícios utilizam apenas o peso corporal, enquanto outros misturam equipamentos...

      Exercícios Recomendados:

      • Boxe e KickBoxe
      • Bola de reação
      • Complexos (Peso corporal, unilateral, bola medicinal, corda, barra, kettlebell, farmer walks)
      • Sled ou empurrar/puxar pneus
      • Lançamento de bola medicinal (explosivo) com corrida buscando a bola.
    7. Steady-State Cardio Exercises

      Exercícios aeróbicos de longa duração e com intensidade moderada. São mais recomendados nos dias sem treinamento na sala de musculação.

      Exercícios Recomendados:

      • Caminhada Leve
      • Elíptico
      • Bike Spinning
    8. Supramaximal Interval Training
      • Diferente de HIIT (menos efetivo em melhorar a performance e aptidão física)
      • Realizar ações com mais do que 100% da capacidade do VO2 máximo com descanso passivo. (Exemplo da ofegação e conversa durante uma corrida)


      • Suicídios
      • Gasser (Corrida de 50 jardas)
      • Corridas em subidas
      • Remador
      • Esteira
    9. the type of cardio conditioning you do corresponds to the set-and-rep scheme used in the preceding strength-training portion of the workout. On days when you spend the most time on the strength-training portion—the workouts with the most sets (e.g., four per exercise)—you use SMIT, because it takes the least time of the cardio-conditioning methods. In contrast, on days when you do the fewest sets (e.g., two per exercise)—which is where you spend the least time on strength training—you perform steady-state cardio because it takes the longest of the cardio-con-ditioning methods. And on days when you do three sets per exercise, you use one of the metabolic conditioning protocols because they require a moderate amount of time

      Uma estratégia para utilizar com programas de condicionamento

      De maneira resumida: nos dias em que o treinamento de força é longo dentro da sala de musculação, protocolos de condicionamento curtos serão utilizados e vice-versa.

    10. Recall, however, that muscle growth can result from using the lower rep ranges generally associated with strength building, and strength increases can result from using the higher rep ranges generally associated with size
    11. For instance, research has shown that daily variations in intensity and volume (sets and reps) are more effective than weekly volume variations for increases in maximal strength; they may also lead to greater gains in muscle size (11,12,13,14)
    12. the smartest approach is to incorporate bothheavy-load, low-volume work and lighter-load, higher-volume work in an undulating fashion.


    13. Ab snail
    14. Suspension biceps curl
    15. Specifically, the performance programs use the most exercises in the speed and power category and the fewest in the size category, whereas the muscle programs reverse that pattern

      Outra diferença entre programas voltados para a melhora da performance e programas para treinar o músculo.

    16. one of the biggest differences between the performance workout programs and the muscle workout programs lies in the choice of which exercise cate-gory you do first (when you’re freshest) and which you do at the end of the workout (when you’re more fatigued).

      Ponto interessante.

    17. bigger muscle mass better dissipates the impact force and vibration caused by events such as falling, getting punched, and taking or delivering a football hit

      Justificativas para ter um programa de hipertrofia para atletas.

    18. it's mathematically and physically impossible for anyone to match, or even come close to replicating what they can bench press in a push from a standing position. It also tells us that the heavier you are, the more horizontal and diagonal pushing force you can produce from the standing position (regardless of your weightroom num-bers) because you have more bodyweight from which to push
    19. Metabolic stress: Increasing time under tension (TUT) increases metabolic stressand gives you incredible pump, or muscle-cell swelling. This swelling cancause both an increase in muscle-protein synthesis and a decrease in proteinbreakdown, which are essential components of the process by which the bodyrepairs and grows muscle tissue after exercise (4,5,6)
    20. muscle damage refers to muscle-tis-sue microtears that occur when working muscles tire and struggle to resist theweight while the muscle fiber is lengthening eccentrically. This can cause theactin and myosin to be forcibly ripped apart, thereby causing damage.

    21. Mechanical tension: This tension is exerted on the muscles from movement andexternal loads to reduce, produce, or control force.

      Lembrar que essa tensão é gerada pelos filamentos de actina e miosina através das pontes cruzadas para reduzir, produzir ou controlar a força.

    22. One of the best workout methods to achieve both of these goals is to perform medicine-ball throwing exercises. When throwing the ball, unlike when lifting weights, you don’t have to slow down at the end of the range of motion; you can just let the ball fly. Therefore, simply throwing the ball in different directions (remember, power is direction specific) trains your body to generate explosive power without putting on any brakes.

      "both of these methods" = Treinamento da velocidade do movimento e o padrão de ativação muscular trifásico.

    23. However, you won't lose athletic ability if you regularly do athletic actions while integrating some general bodybuilding concepts

      O corpo não é tão facilmente estimulado

    24. As you can see, using general exercises to get bigger and stronger does help you improve your overall athletic ability and functional capacity. But this approach has its limitations, which is why the functional-spectrum training system also incorporates specific exercises—to produce benefits in the areas where the general exercises fall short.


    25. Compound exercises can be classified as general exercises because they don't necessarily reflect any specific force-generation patterns.
    26. In short, different load placement and body position during an exercise changes the force generation and neuromuscular coordination demands of the exercise. Cross-body exercises utilize a different type load placement and body position than compound exercises
    27. However, in such cross-body movements, force generation is still limited primarily by whole-body stability, as well as joint stability (10).
    28. The serape effect was a term coined to describe the diagonal prestretch of four pairs of muscles (rhomboids, serratus anterior, external obliques, and internal obliques) that occurs when rotating the shoulders and hips in opposite directions. The pre-stretch of these four pairs of muscles creates a snap-back effect (like snapping a rubber-band), which increases force production and movement efficiency in rotational actions such as throwing or kicking
    29. These total-body power exercises also closely match the force-production patterns of fast, ballistic, sport-type actions, which involve what is called a triphasic muscle-fir-ing pattern.

      Padrão Trifásico envolve períodos alternados de ativação dos músculos agonistas e antagonistas. Esse tipo de padrão sempre está presente em movimentos rápidos, balísticos.

    30. Total-body power exercises are categorized as specific exercises

      Pelo motivo que os exercícios de potência replicam a geração de força específica e a padronização da coordenação neuromuscular dos movimentos que são a fundação de todas ações explosivas no mundo atlético.

      Exemplo: A sequência de rotação para balançar um implemento é a mesma para efetuar um soco. Ambas as ações envolvem produzir força do chão, iniciando com as pernas e quadris, seguido pelo tronco, e terminando com os braços que controlam o componente da precisão..

    31. your power is initiated by the larger, stronger muscle groups in the central part of your body, whereas the smaller muscles of your extremities are used in fine movements and coordination (i.e., skills)
    32. the three pillars of power:•Vertical or diagonal power•Horizontal power•Rotational power

      Providenciam a fonte para todas as ações explosivas no mundo atlético.

    33. Working on sport skills with specific exercises is not the same thing as working to improve specific force-generation and neuromuscular coordination patterns

      Atentar a essa importante dica: não é sobre replicar como uma habilidade específica da modalidade é realizada com adição de sobrecarga, e sim replicar a geração de força específica e a padronização da coordenação neuromuscular.,

    34. because these exercises do not necessarily reflect the specific force-generation and neuromuscular coordination patterns of many common move-ments in athletics, their positive transfer into improved performance potential is less obvious.

      A transferência indireta, pois ajudam na performance por aumentar a hipertrofia, recrutamento de unidade motora, densidade óssea e força de tecido conjuntivo. Essas mudanças não são ruins por não serem específicas, até porque podem melhorar a saúde e reduzir o risco de lesão.

    35. General exercises are essentially conventional strength-training exercises and may consist of either compound or isolation movements using free weights, cables,

      Comparado aos exercícios específicos criam um ambiente mais adequado para estimular aumentos nos ganhos de massa, força...

    36. The simplest and most straightforward way to implement the principle of specificity is to select exercises similar to the target activity with regard to the joints about which movement occur and the direction of the movements. In addition, joint ranges of motion in the training should be at least as great as those in the target activity

      Qual movimento articular ocorre e a direção dos movimentos são requisitos para tornar um exercício específico.

    37. Although all athletes should use well-rounded, whole-body exercise rou-tines, supplementary exercises specific to the sport can provide a training advantage.

      Por que aumentam a geração de força específica e padrões de coordenação neuromuscular dos movimentos atléticos específicos.

    1. there are many factors that limit one’s ability to develop pressing strength while standing, including stability and neuromuscular control of the core musculature, the individual’s weight, the base of support the individual utilizes, and the direction in which the pressing motion is performed
    1. When designing a program to train isometric torsional endurance or strength of the trunk musculature, the 1-armed cable row may be considered
    2. Thus, for a client or athlete where back loading is not a concern, the standing bent-over row exercise may be preferred (being mindful of maintaining the neutral spine curve, which ensures the spine to maintain the highest tolerance level
    3. if a client or athlete is prone to having low back trouble, the inverted row could be considered given the very modest lumbar spine load. On the other hand, thoracic and upper back musculature is more substantially challenged.
    4. Inverted rows spare the back with more neutral spine angles and may be more appropriate for those who have less tolerance to spine motion and load
    5. spine stiffness is a direct predeterminant of spine stability.
    6. some exercises may be better for rehabilitation (modest muscle activation with low spine load) and others for athletic training (higher muscle activation resulting in larger spine load).
    1. The reason why the lunge is so functionally pertinent is that it exemplifies walking, running, stair climbing, balance, and change of direction in sport (ie. agility).
    1. The main issue with traditional calf raises is that you end up rolling more weight toward your pinky toes as you raise your heels.

      Interessante. Para diminuir essa tendência pode adaptar o exercício para realizar com o osso do tornozelo dos pés em contato constante, forçando a realizar a dorsiflexão através do grande dedão.


    2. Walking Calf Raise
    3. The dynamic maximum strength of the calves is a basic prerequisite for short sprints and should be regarded as a performance reserve.

      Importância de treinar as panturrilhas

    1. In other words, strength training at longer (stretched) muscle lengths (that includes an eccentric component) not only causes muscles to be stronger at long lengths, but also promotes flexibility by causing muscle fibers to produce new sarcomeres in series within a muscle, which allows the muscle to lengthen more (6, 7).

      Era o que o Dr. Seedman já argumentava no seu treino de valorização do tempo na fase excêntrica.

    2. I'll concede that if you want to do all you can to help improve the strength of the core muscles to transfer force by limiting trunk movement, you've got to use some isometric core exercises.

      Uma justificativa na melhor transmissão de força pelo tronco.

    1. Nordic hamstring curl
    2. This agrees with other research, which showed that the lying leg curl (where movement originates at the knee joint) elicited significantly greater activation of the lower lateral and lower medial hamstrings compared to the stiff-legged deadlift, where movement originates at the hip joint, such as in a Romanian deadlift. (5)
    1. Well, as you descend into the bottom of the squat or lunge (in hip flexion and knee flexion), the rectus femoris is trying to lengthen at the knee but shorten at the hip, and ends up staying roughly the same length. Then as you ascend (performing hip extension and knee extension), the muscle is trying to shorten at the knee but lengthen at the hip, and again ends up staying about the same length. (3)

      Biomecânica e cinesiologia do agachamento

    2. backward sled pulls


      O mesmo conceito poderia ser realizado na esteira com inclinação andando de costa.

    3. research shows the rectus femoris seems to grow more from single-joint, machine-based knee extension training relative to the other three quadriceps. (2)
    1. The 15 Strength Training Principles
      1. Permaneça sempre no Básico (Princípios)
      2. É sobre tornar um atleta mais forte, não transforma-lo num levantador de peso profissional
      3. Maximizar a capacidade funcional (habilidade de realizar diversas tarefas relacionadas ao movimento).
      4. Adote uma abordagem mista (Exercícios compostos + cruzados + isolados)
      5. Pense nos conceitos biomecânicos da força na execução de um exercício.
      6. Utilize exercícios isolados para treinar amplitudes não enfatizadas em exercícios multiarticulares
      7. Reduza a redundância, maximize a eficiência
      8. Treine movimentos e músculos
      9. Construa força dentro de TODA amplitude de movimento
      10. Encaixa exercícios para indivíduos, não ao contrário
      11. Seleção de exercícios pelos 2C (Conforto e controle)
      12. Faça mais volume no seu lado mais fraco, também no seu link mais fraco
      13. Tente ser 1% melhor após cada sessão
      14. Crie estresse sem lesar
      15. Siga o princípio da especificadade
    1. all exercises that involve free weights and cables have a point within the range of motion (ROM) where the exercise is hardest on the muscles involved, and another point where the exercise is the easiest based on the lever-arm (i.e. moment arm) involved.

      A falsa crença que executando um movimento por toda a amplitude traduz fortalecimento efetivo e igualitário por toda amplitude passada.D

    2. Horizontal pressing exercises like bench presses and push-ups effectively strengthen the pecs when they're in their mid to lengthened range. However, they don't strengthen the muscles when the pecs are in their shortened range, like when the arms are straight out from the torso

      Nessa posição encurtada, você não esta trabalhando contra uma força que esta puxando seus braços pra fora.

    1. In practical terms, you don't need to do exercises like dumbbell front raises if you've already been doing a few compound pressing exercises of different angles, especially exercises like incline presses and overhead presses.

      Estudo comprovou que o deltoide anterior tem uma boa ativação ao realizar supinos no banco reto e inclinado, além de estimular muito mais durante o desenvolvimento.

    1. You see progress from either adding weight using the same number of reps, or by doing more reps with the same weight.
    2. There are only foundational fundamental training principles, like overload, specificity, individuality, etc., that need to be practiced. And it's these principles that dictate the exercises that should be included and how they're applied in a comprehensive training program. In other words, exercises are just methods that allow us to apply principles
    1. Three Ways to Use Partial Reps
      1. Amplitude completa + Parciais com a mesma carga

         Realizar até a falha a amplitude completa e depois usar parciais pós falha.
      2. Amplitude completa primeira (2-3 séries) seguido de + 2-3 séries de parciais com cargas maiores

      3.Parciais primeiro (4-6 repetições) com carga alta, seguido do movimento completo com cargas mais leves.

    2. Partial reps can be extremely beneficial for building strength. Incorporating them into your workouts can help you to develop strength better than just exclusively going "full range of motion" in many common pressing and lower body exercises.
    1. the smartest approach is to use both heavy-load, low-volume work with lighter-load, higher-volume work in an undulating fashion.

      Posso dar uma tentativa.

    2. mechanical tension can be created either by lifting heavy loads for fewer reps or by lifting medium loads for more reps. So, either can create a stimulus for muscle growth (16). Not to mention, regularly varying sets and reps is an effective means of improving muscle strength and size (17, 18, 19, 20).

      Variação para uma hipertrofia completa

    3. So, mechanical tension is really the driving force of muscle growth, and muscle damage and metabolic stress are just the physiological results of it
    1. Variation of the exercises may be as important, if not more important, than changes in volume and intensity, and can also result in more complete muscular development.
    1. As you gain mastery over one habit and it no longer requires practice and focus, add another, but never before that. In practice, it could be learning to consistently drink more water, gaining another hour of sleep, adding more vegetables to your intake, keeping a journal, or practicing stress-reducing techniques.
    2. Add a bit of logic to this emotional roller coaster: There are 3500 calories in each pound of fat. If you lost 3 lbs. on the scale yesterday, did you figure out how to burn 10,500 extra calories? The same concept applies in the opposite direction. Did you eat 10,500 EXTRA calories yesterday? This fluctuation is normal - treat it that way.

      Jeito de falar

    1. Observations for the shoulder blade and the upper arm can be seen from the front and side views with the overhead squat, pushing (pushup) and pulling (cable row) motions. The movements to note during an overhead squat assessment for possible signs of UCS include:
      • Braços caindo para frente ou ao lado durante a descida
      • Cabeça migrando para frente
      • Elevando ou escápulas elevadas
      • Cotovelos flexionados ou desafiado em manter os braços retos
    2. Some basic assessments that can be implemented to identify distortion patterns are gait observations, overhead squat, pushing and pulling motions, and static posture analysis. With any postural assessment—static, dynamic or transitional—UCS can be observed by watching head position relative to the shoulders, and the arms and shoulder blades relative to the ribs.

      Alguns exemplos de como avaliar

    3. First, it can serve as a stand-alone phase of training that will help the client achieve better postural control and endurance. Second, it can be applied as the movement preparation for a workout.
    1. Over time this forward head position leads to ligamentous creep deformation having lasting neurophysiological effects. This was demonstrated with a feline study that found the creep deformation that occurred over the first 30 minutes did not recover with 10 minutes of rest and was present up to seven hours later. 5 The other finding of this research was even more alarming: the primary risk factor was not the load but rather the duration of the load. The implication of this is concerning given we spend an average of 2.8 hours a day using our mobile device.

      Argumentou a ocorrência frequente de deformações nos ligamentos do pescoço com uma carga leve, porém duradoura sobre essas fibras.

    2. “Posture effects and moderates every physiological function from breathing to hormonal production. Spinal pain, headache, mood, blood pressure, pulse, and lung capacity are among the functions most easily influenced by posture
    1. One of my favorite knee-friendly strength training exercises is the half-squat, half-deadlift.

      Indicado para pessoas que não podem realizar flexões acentuadas do joelho.

      Também é bastante funcional no mundo esportivo, pois simula por exemplo a quebra que muitos recebedores fazem durante um corte numa rota.

  7. Feb 2021
    1. Further, when using a dumbbell, the diameter of the dumbbell plates puts the weight forward of the axis of rotation of the shoulder, placing high levels of stress on the muscles involved in external rotation (such as the teres minor and the infraspinatus) that help stabilize the shoulders.

      Justificativa pela qual não é interessante utilizar halteres e Kettlebells no Power Clean. Além da carga ser consideravelmente menor.

    1. The second most important nutrient for functional hypertrophy is glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body. Glutamine is the primary building block in the intestinal lining and it restores the intestines, improving gut health. It also lowers inflammation and supports digestion.

      Não conhecia esses benefícios da glutamina

    1. Short-term adaptations include increased cycling power; total work performed on the bench press and jump squat; and improved sport performance in sprinting, swimming, and soccer (Volek et al. 1997; Mero et al. 2004; Wiroth et al. 2001; Tarnopolsky and MacLennan 2000; Skare, Skadberg, and Wisnes 2001; Mujika et al. 2000; Ostojic 2004; Theodorou et al. 1999; Preen et al. 2001). Long-term adaptations when creatine monohydrate supplementation is combined with training include increased muscle creatine and PCr [phosphocreatine] content, lean body mass, strength, sprint performance, power, rate of force development, and muscle diameter (Kreider et al. 1998; Volek et al. 1999; Vandenberghe et al. 1997). In long-term studies, subjects taking creatine monohydrate typically gain about twice as much body mass, fat-free mass, or both (i.e., an extra 2 to 4 pounds of muscle mass during 4 to 12 weeks of training) as subjects taking a placebo (Stone et al. 1999; Noonan et al. 1998; Kirksey et al. 1999; Jones, Atter, and Georg 1999). The only clinically significant side effect reported in the research literature is weight gain (Kreider, Leutholtz, and Greenwood 2004; Kreider et al. 2003); however, many anecdotal claims of side effects, including dehydration, cramping, kidney and liver damage, musculoskeletal injury, gastrointestinal distress, and anterior (leg) compartment syndrome, still appear in the media and popular literature. While athletes who are taking creatine monohydrate may experience these symptoms, the scientific literature suggests that these athletes have no greater, and a possibly lower, risk of these symptoms than those not supplementing with creatine monohydrate (Greenwood et al. 2003; Kreider et al. 2003). The position stand also included the statement, “The tremendous numbers of investigations conducted with positive results from creatine monohydrate supplementation lead us to conclude that it is the most effective nutritional supplement available today for increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and building lean mass.”

      Creatina é foda.

    1. New movement patterns, especially those performed when unstable, are generally learned at a low velocity. However, most sports are performed at high velocities, resulting in a contradiction of training specificity (Behm 1995; Behm and Sale 1993).

      Sugerindo que dentro de um contexto esportivo, não faz muito sentido realizar um treinamento visando força e potência sobre superfícies instáveis.

    1. Exercícios Contra Indicado para quem sofre de dores anteriores no joelho:

      • Movimentos em Cadeia fechada com mais de 90° de flexão do joelho (Agachamento, Afundo...)
      • Movimentos de Cadeia Cinética Aberta de 0 a 30° (Amplitude final da extensão de Joelho)

      Exercícios Indicados para quem sofre de Dores Anteriores no Joelho:

      • 1/4 a 1/2 de um agachamento e Leg Press
      • Afundo Parcial e Flexão de Joelhos Sentado.
    1. he reality is that improving one’s ability to perform certain sporting skills is not about replicating what that specific movement looks like, but rather it is about replicating the specific force generation patterns involved within that movement pattern. In other words, when the focus is only on what the exercise looks like, one can easily make the mistake of loading sport-specific skills instead of working on improving the specific force generation patterns used to perform sporting movements. The problem with this is that the movement skills required in sports have accuracy components that are exact—not similar.

      A ideia aqui é realizar exercícios que trabalhem o mesmo padrão de movimentos, padrão de produção força, amplitude articular que são exigidos dentro da habilidade esportiva.

    1. In addition, performing compound exercises with reduced loads and increased volume on instability devices may still be of benefit to individuals wishing to improve or maintain the general health benefits of exercise, as well as individuals in a deload training phase who need to decrease forces and velocities to allow for recuperation

      Interessante notar que pode ser utilizado durante aquela fase de descarga, ou de leveza para estimular ainda mais a parede abdominal do aluno.

    1. I would add that workhorse athletes often make the best coaches later on.  Since they didn’t have the extreme talent that let them succeed “easily” they tend to be the ones who take apart their sport and chosen activity bit by bit.  They study every aspect of technique, nutrition and training to try to eke out the most of whatever talent they do have.

      Frase chave: Os "trabalhadores" frequentemente se tornam excelentes técnicos.

    2. is it conceivable that part of what makes people willing to put in the 10 years of grinding work to get good at something is an innate characteristic?

      Perseverança é inata?

    1. So when muscle starts pumping out IL-6 into the system chronically it goes to the brain and makes people fatigue sooner.  This happens when glycogen levels get depleted and we know that exercise performance is harmed when this occurs.  And suddenly we have a potential link from the earlier observation of muscle glycogen being involved in overtraining.

      IL-6 e sua relação com a fadiga (crônica) que pode gerar Overtraining central.

    2. Current models of adaptation to training include all stressors onto the trainee or athlete: job, money, relationships, school, etc.  They all add up to the total (allostatic) stress load on the athlete.

      Os estresses da vida comum estão referenciados na literatura como estresses alostéricos.

    3. However, by the strictest definition, overtraining has not truly occurred unless the athlete’s actual performance level has fallen.  He may be tired, he may feel run down but if performance hasn’t actually dropped, he hasn’t become overtrained.  At least not yet.

      PALAVRA CHAVE: Décrescimo de Performance

    1. Between those two things, overtraining or even overreaching tends to be rare in the general population.  Not impossible, mind you, just rare.
      1. As pessoas não treinam tão pesado assim.
    2. It became clear early on that true overtraining, whereby it took months to recover to previous performance levels, was fairly rare.


    1. That might mean 1-2 sets maximum per muscle group/per exercise.  You can add a set each week as you rebuild yourself to your previous volume.

      Pessoas que estão voltando aos treinos após muito tempo.

    2. When layoffs get much longer, a month or more, the rules change as both neural adaptations and muscle mass are often lost.  This means that my “twice as long to return” rule of thumb starts to become less and less useful

      Tempo maior que 1 mês

    3. So over a few days off, very little if nothing is lost.  For very technical activities (such as Olympic lifting) often “groove” is lost quickly which can manifest itself as a performance loss

      3-5 dias

    1. This is where warmups (how Dan John implements this idea) can be used to great benefit.  Consider someone who wants to get better at the Olympic lifts.  If they were to start every workout with a warmup consisting of some basic barbell complexes including power or squat cleans such that they got 15-20 good reps at the start of every workout (on top of whatever they did in training), imagine how many reps they might achieve over the course of a year compared to someone training the movement once or twice per week without the warmups.  Or without focused deliberate practice warm-ups.  If doesn’t go up exponentially, but it adds up over time.

      Era um pensamento que já havia me ocorrido, com essa mesma frase do Dan John. Colocar LPO (Não apenas isso) como algo a se fazer toda sessão de treino, durante o aquecimento.

    2. being an expert at one task has almost no bearing on the ability to be expert in another task, even if those tasks are somewhat related. 

      • Stiff x RDL são exercícios diferentes
      • Stif: Realizado com os joelhos estendidos (ocorre curvatura exacerbada da lombar)
      • RDL: Flexão do joelho mantendo a coluna "reta"
      • Ambos trabalham o mesmos grupos musculares (Isquiotibiais, Glúteos e Eretores da Espinha)
      • Cuidar com o Stiff sendo realizado com cargas altas, a tensão da carga vai ser direcionada para os ligamentos da espinha.
      • RDL pode ser usado como um exercício complementar a um grande (Ex: Terra), enquanto o STIFF pode ser utilizado no aquecimento.
      • Evitar fazer poucas repetições com muita intensidade em ambos os exercícios, os riscos são muito altos para o desenvolvimento da musculatura.
    1. Similar to the above ideas, lifters performing explosive movements (e.g. cleans) often benefit from working up to a heavier weight in a slower lift (e.g. RDL or deadlift).  When the lifter moves back to the explosive lift, the weights usually feel much lighter and often move faster.

      Potencial de Pós-ativação.

    2. Additionally, there are times when static stretching may be absolutely required prior to weight training; usually this occurs when someone has a severe flexibility limitation that prevents them from performing an exercise in good form.

      Relação com a anamnese feita para descobrir possíveis problemas (Lembrar da Citius).

    1. But it’s even more insidious than that: these medium days end up being too easy to really stimulate fitness, but too hard to allow complete recovery. It’s this weird no-man’s land that doesn’t accomplish anything good.

      As consequências de evitar um dia de treino fácil.

    2. But most people aren’t satisfied doing that kind of training. They don’t like doing the short duration (an easy/active recovery workout might only take 20-30 minutes). They figure that if they took the time to drive to the gym, they should do a full workout session. So the duration starts to climb.

      Aplicações práticas do conceito de dias fáceis.

    3. So three days of hard workout might be followed by three days of very easy work or even taken completely off. The hard/easy concept is still being adhered to, just on a slightly longer time frame.

      Aqui poderia brincar com 2 sessões, ou até algo a mais dependendo da individualidade de cada aluno.

    1. the simple fact is that high-intensity training can NOT be sustained in the long-term without dietary carbohydrate. Eventually glycogen gets depleted, performance falls off and folks overtrain.

      Quando se aplica junto treinamento intervalado com dieta sem carbo.

    2. The studies that low-carb advocates always like to cite are invariably not calorie controlled

      Parece ser a mesma relação do volume de treinamento em meios de treinos diferentes..

    3. Do metabolic weight room stuff for 25 minutes, intervals for 20 minutes and that leaves 15 for warm-ups and cool-downs. As long as the other four days per week are completely off, this might be workable. For a while anyhow.

      Interessante estratégia para pessoas que só conseguem realizar atividades 3 vezes por semana.

    4. To my knowledge, pretty much every study done comparing interval training to steady state (in terms of fat loss or metabolic adaptation) has done it in isolation. The subjects were neither dieting nor doing any other form of training such as weight training.

      Famoso falso positivo

    1. Tudo se resume a gostos e preferências do aluno. Perguntas como que tipo de treino você se sente "Feliz": Cansado após terminar, ou fazer certo exercício por algum tempo, gosta de erguer cargas altas...

    1. Muscle groups of the training exercise must be the same as the competition exercise. Range of motion and the direction of movement of the training exercise must be the same as the competition exercise.

      Critérios da correspondência dinâmica que dão origem a teoria do treinamento de vetor da força.

    1. It's fairly rare to see someone with a 4.6 or better forty yard dash who can't vertical jump 30 inches

      Ideia de estudo?

    1. The bigger the propulsion force, the greater the acceleration. The body inclination can affect this, but to get into more incline position some pre-requests needs to be  in place first.

    1. Muscles have a role in the transfer of energy from one joint to another. The phenomenon of energy transfer from joint to joint is a very interesting mechanism that along with  reactive-elastic function allows cost-effective functioning of the human body. An illustrative example of energy transfer is a function of hamstrings.  M. quadricepsextend the knee joint, and if you keep your hamstrings length the same (isometric contraction) such as a non-elastic rope, extension of the knee will ‘transfer’ over the hamstring to hip extension too. In this way m. Quadriceps extends the hip with the help of coordinated actions of  the hamstring muscles.  This ’enegry transfer’ phenomena occurs in all bi-articulated muscles (ones that cross two joints).

      Não entendi tão bem, pesquisar mais.

    1. The strength that makes the most elite sprinters faster than their counterparts was the ability to produce more isometric force in one tenth of a second, against an isometric resistance in the hip, knee, and ankle joint, through flexion and extension. 


    2. The amount of time that should be devoted to learning the lifts should depend on the fatigability of the nervous system. This should be somewhere around a half hour to 45 minutes for most people, and only then if working with a competent coach. This should leave plenty of time to maintain previously gained strength.

      Levantamentos Olímpicos

    3. It’s arguable that many athletes spend far too much time trying to “isolate their core,” when in reality, the trunk’s primary function is to act as a bridge between the upper and lower body and as a lightning rod between the hips and shoulders. It’s far more functional and time-efficient to instead perform compound exercises that require the movement of multiple motor segments, joints, and limbs and build trunk strength as well.

      Aqui pode entrar a interpretação de realizar uma melhor execução de estabilizar o core (fingindo que levarei um soco e segurar o mijo).

    4. our feet are indeed an engineering marvel, with 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are articulated), and over 100 tendons, ligaments, and muscles.

      Complexidade do Pé.

    5. it’s my job as a coach to know when to push and when to back off. The upcoming five-week preseason block is the time of year to really push hard because the technical and tactical components of the game won’t come back into play for a while.

      Ele utiliza o exemplo dele do período fora de temporada, onde não existe uma realização de práticas voltadas a modalidade principal.

    6. As a general rule of thumb I encourage people to jump and or sprint once to twice a week (power and speed), lift something heavy a minimum of once a week (strength), go for long walks daily (aerobic endurance), and do muscle burning (anaerobic glycolytic) and muscle building (hypertrophy and strength endurance) type work a minimum of every 7-10 days.

      Estratégias para manter um mínimo de manutenção das capacidades físicas já conquistadas.

    7. Duração dos resíduos dos efeitos do treinamento:

      Velocidade Máxima: 5 Dias (+/- 3 dias) Força de Resistência: 15 Dia (+/- 5 dias) Resistência glicolítica anaeróbica: 18 Dias (+/- 4 Dias) Resistência Aeróbica: 30 Dias (+/- 5 Dias) Força Máxima: 30 Dias (+/- 5 Dias)

    1. here are some really good research at what actually cause exhaustion, and to make it short, it is not the failure at the periphery. it is the conscious decision to stop it

      Não é falhar, mas o desejar parar.

    1. Foam roll to address „restrictions“ in musculo-fascial tissues Isometric stretch, that utilize 3D stretching concept to further address common „restrictions“ in musculo-fascial tissues Activation work, to „wake up“ given muscle groups (usually glutes, hip rotators and scapulae stabilizers) that are in a „give mode“ Dynamic mobility to further activate and warm-up the body (and to decrease any negative effects of static stretching), imprint some appropriate movement patterns and provide a progressive transition to main workout

      Esquema de aquecimento.

    1. I believe they can be harmful to the disks if they are not performed properly. One issue is that as momentum builds up, you might stretch further than you could otherwise. It’s not that performing the exercise will immediately cause an injury. It’s like a cavity in that the effects progressively worsen over time and make you a regular patient of a chiropractor.

      Opinião do autor, teria que ver publicações acadêmicas para saber o real resultado. Descobrir antes de passar exercícios como swing.

  8. Jan 2021
    1. Use a Semi-Inline Foot Stance


      Explicação dos motivos

    2. Use the Lunge-to-Squat-to-Lunge Test
    3. Maintaining a forward torso lean onto the heel of the front leg is essential. In fact, this may be the most critical cue. It ensures the hips are pushed back posteriorly and actively engaged throughout the exercise. A good lunge involves solid hip hinge mechanics. An overly upright torso places greater stress on the knees and low back while minimizing stress to the glutes and upper thighs. That's not what you want.

      Sempre realizei o movimento com o tronco mais reto do que inclinado.

    4. Build your foundation first. For lunges, that foundation begins with the feet and ankles.

      Se a pessoa não tem a habilidade de se equilibrar sobre uma base única e não tão estável, não adianta querer encontrar equilíbrio durante o movimento.