52 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
    1. Black Box testing: Software on the rack

      Black Box testing: Software on the rack

      Black Box testing is defined as a testing technique in which the functionality of an application is tested without looking at the internal code structure, implementation details and knowledge of internal paths of the software. This type of testing is completely based on software requirements and specifications.

    1. before you can think out of the box, you have tostart with a box

      Can it be?! Twyla Tharp has an entire chapter in her book on creativity that covers a variation of the zettelkasten note taking concept!!!


      Does the phrase "thinking outside of the box" make a tacit nod to the idea of using a card index (or the German zettelkasten) for note taking, sense making, and thinking?

  2. May 2022
    1. We reduce risk in the shaping process by solving open questions before we commit the project to a time box.

      We don't give a project to a team that still has rabbit holes or tangled interdependencies.

    1. »BlackBoxing« genannt. Diese verschleiert die Genese von Akteuren. Der Begriff be-schreibt dabei den Umstand, dass jedes technische Artefakt bereits das Ende einerHandlungskette darstellt.

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  3. Apr 2022
    1. In 1934, Marcel Duchamp announced the publication of his Green Box (edition of 320 copies) in a subscription bulletin — an enormous undertaking since each box contains 94 individual items mostly supposed “facsimiles” (Duchamp’s word) of notes first written between 1911 and 1915, each printed and torn upon templates to match the borders of the scribbled originals for a total of 30,080 scraps and pages.

      Marcel Duchamp announced his project the Green Box in 1934 as an edition of 320 copies of a box of 94 items. Most of the items were supposed "facsimiles" as described by Duchamp, of notes he wrote from 1911 to 1915.

      How is or isn't this like a zettelkasten or card index, admittedly a small collection?

  4. Feb 2022
    1. you can't see the beetle in my box nor I the one in yours ludwig wittgenstein use the beetle in the Box analogy to suggest that the meaning of sensation words such as pain isn't given 00:01:10 by referring to some private inner introspected something a sensation to which you alone have access in his view there can't be more to the public meaning of our language than we are capable of teaching each other and the 00:01:23 private something the beetle can't have a role in that teaching because we can't get at

      The duality of self and other is the peculiar symmetrical asymmetry of being human, and possibly of being life itself.

      Similarity and differences in the meaning of words between individuals is unavoidable because we all seem to share this quality of consciousness, as well as the quality of experiencing others as objects of our consciousness.

      Nature instills the quality of "unique conscious experience" to each of us. Biological replication is the basis for the repetition of this pattern in all members of our species.

      Why was I drawn to the content of this youtube, which came from this article interviewing Teodora Petkova: https://medium.com/content-conversations/a-semantic-text-strategy-conversation-teodora-petkova-fa6d8ad7c72f Through this youtube and through the interview with Teodora Petkova, I became aware of Ludwig Wittgenstein's beetle-in-a-box analogy for private thoughts.A meme is reproduced and shared over and over, drawing people who resonate with it.

      Hence, my own discovery of this idea demonstrates the mechanics of self and other consciosness. In any rendition of the present, my semantic state has been influenced by countless number of other writers, content developers or consciousnesses, echoing Husserl's Lebenswelt. Once we are bootstrapped into language through a long gestation period of child development, we simply grow our vocabulary of words, and continuously upgrade their individual meaning through the unique experiences of our unique lifeworlds.

      This symmetrical asymmetry is a distinct and unique property of the individual human, showing just how entangled the individual is with the collective, the self with the other.

      It is said that the most obvious is at the same time the most difficult to see. The metaphor "a fish does not know of the water that surrounds it" is apt. Our symmetrical asymmetry of experience is so universal that its salience and peculiarity is easily overlooked and not explicitly discussed except by the philosophically inclined. It is more often subconsciously felt than made into an explicit subject of discourse. It is recognized as obvious and coming with the territory of being human.

      Indeed, we might say that this common peculiarity of the private, subjective world is paradoxically one of the strangest and yet one of the most common at the same time. Its obviousness does not lessen its profound sense of magic.

      The fact that we live in these two kinds of worlds, the private inner and the public outer, and that these terms "private inner" and "public outer" are themselves abstractions, also explains how our participation in collective reality may often not live up to expectations.

      For example, in a time when the world needs to undergo a monumental whole system change, it is a challenge to mobilize sufficient number of people to drive the needed change. Part of the reason for this could be that the individual pole, the salience of the "private, inner" pole could prioritize it above even such collective action. The ideas and feelings in our own life as an individual, driven by our private inner lives may dominate our individual actions. Getting on with life often supersedes even threats to society.

  5. Sep 2021
    1. The current supported languages out-of-the-box are Sass, Stylus, Less, CoffeeScript, TypeScript, Pug, PostCSS, Babel.
  6. Jun 2021
    1. We were not strictly blackbox testing our application. We wanted to simulate a user walking thru specific scenarios in the app which required that we have corresponding data in the database. This helps ensure integration between the frontend and backend was wired up successfully and would give us a foundation for testing critical user flows.
    1. Levels
    2. White-box testing (also known as clear box testing, glass box testing, transparent box testing, and structural testing) is a method of software testing that tests internal structures or workings of an application, as opposed to its functionality (i.e. black-box testing)
  7. Mar 2021
  8. Feb 2021
    1. Koo's discovery makes it possible to peek inside the black box and identify some key features that lead to the computer's decision-making process.

      Moving towards "explainable AI".

    2. Neural nets learn and make decisions independently of their human programmers. Researchers refer to this hidden process as a "black box." It is hard to trust the machine's outputs if we don't know what is happening in the box.

      Counter-argument: Why do we trust a human being's decisions if we don't know what is happening inside their brain? Yes, we can question the human being but we then have to trust that what they tell us about their rationale is true.

    1. We've developed scientific methods to study black boxes for hundreds of years now, but these methods have primarily been applied to [living beings] up to this point

      It's called psychology.

  9. Jan 2021
  10. Oct 2020
  11. Aug 2020
    1. In a pure cloud world, this atomic unit of documents seems increasingly archaic. Documents are more a constraint of a pre-cloud world. And once you assume storing them online is table stakes, the question becomes where is actual collaboration happening that then leads people to wherever they need to do work.

      The document model, stored in the cloud, as pioneered by Dropbox and Box, hinges on the archaic metaphor of "a document". Kwok points out that: "documents are a constraint of a pre-cloud world". When storing documents online becomes trivial, people still need to coordinate on where (i.e. in which document) the collaboration is happening.

    1. Amylin interacts cooperatively with leptin. The anorexigenic effects of lepin when paired with amylin are greater than the sum of leptin and amylin’s independent anorexigenic effects. In other words, there is a greater-than-additive effect on satiety when leptin and amylin signaling pathways are simultaneously activated. The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is one site of amylin-leptin interactions. The administration of amylin enhances leptin binding in the VMH, and both leptin and amylin receptor activation initiate some of the same signaling cascades (e.g., STAT3, Akt, and ERK). The STAT3 pathway seems to be particularly important in the interaction between leptin and amylin. Amylin-enhanced leptin signaling in the VMH requires amylin’s induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Notably, even following the development of leptin insensitivity (e.g., in obese individuals), amylin administration can restore leptin sensitivity.

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    2. Pramlintide is an amylin agonist approved for the treatment of T1DM and T2DM. Pramlintide is co-administered with insulin analogs and contributes to suppression of postprandial blood glucose by delaying gastric emptying, inhibiting glucagon secretion, and reducing food consumption. Like amylin, pramlintide is primarily deactivated by renal clearance, which also likely involves degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. In obesity, satiety signals often have a diminished capacity to elicit their anorexigenic effects due to decreased receptor sensitivity. This is particularly true in the case of the adipose tissue-derived satiety signal leptin. In obesity, leptin insensitivity (also called leptin resistance) is profound. However, amylin receptor agonists remain potent appetite-suppressing agents in obese individuals but require continuous administration to effectively treat obesity. Furthermore, in some cases, amylin enhances the anorexigenic effects of other satiety signals (e.g., CCK, PYY, insulin, leptin) when co-administered.

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    3. The delay in gastric emptying induced by amylin is most likely achieved through central effects on the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain. The dorsal vagal complex contains multiple nuclei and plays a critical role in regulating gastric motility. The dorsal vagal complex includes the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV). The area postrema mediates some of the physiological and behavioral effects of amylin, and projects to the NTS. The NTS integrates both neural and endocrine signals (including amylin) and relays the integrated signals to the DMV. The DMB projects preganglionic axons toward the stomach, providing autonomic control over gastric motility. One proposed (though not yet validated) mechanism by which amylin delays gastric emptying is through excitation of the NTS. Amylin may accomplish this excitation of the NTS by interacting with the area postrema to promote the area postrema’s excitation of the NTS (possibly complimenting excitatory glutamatergic vagal input to the NTS) or by directly exciting the NTS. When the NTS is excited by amylin (whether directly or indirectly), the NTS could then modulate the activity of the DMV, resulting in DMV-mediated reductions in gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. In support of this proposed pathway, gastric emptying is accelerated during hypoglycemia to increase the rate of glucose absorption to raise blood glucose to normal levels. Amylin-activated neurons in the area postrema have been shown to exhibit significant reductions in activity when exposed to low plasma glucose, which, through the same proposed pathway, would yield the increased rate in gastric emptying evident in hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia may also diminish these neurons’ responsiveness to amylin.

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    4. Due to its reliable (albeit reduced) incretin effect, GLP-1 signaling has received more attention than GIP as a viable target for the treatment of T2DM and certain related disorders. By potentiating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, impairing glucose-dependent glucagon secretion, and delaying gastric emptying, exogenous administration of GLP-1 can completely normalize blood glucose in T2DM patients. However, GLP-1 itself is not a practical treatment for T2DM and related disorders because of its short half-life.

      Consider moving this content into a sidebox.

    5. In addition to the roles of GLP-1 in regulating energy homeostasis at the level of the hypothalamus, another interesting hypothalamic effect of GLP-1R activation is to promote the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal portal system, at which point GnRH can stimulate gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary. This promotion of GnRH secretion is accomplished through an interesting signaling pathway. In GnRH neurons, there is continuous production of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, an endocannabinoid) by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) and a tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. The tonic retrograde release of 2-AG inhibits excitatory GABAergic inputs (GABA is usually inhibitory, but GABA is excitatory to GnRH neurons). GLP-1R activation on GnRH neurons increases the production of anandamide (another endocannabinoid). Anandamide in GnRH neurons activates TRPV1 receptors, leading to the inhibition of DGL. This prevents the production and tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. Furthermore, GLP-1R activation also increases the activity of adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased cAMP production, and the consequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA activates nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which produces nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is released as a retrograde signal to the excitatory GABAergic inputs, where it promotes GABA release. Thus, GLP-1R activation suppresses 2-AG-mediated inhibition of GABAergic excitation, while also promoting GABAergic excitation through retrograde NO signaling. Both of these effects of GLP-1R activation increase the excitatory GABAergic input to GnRH neurons, resulting in increased excitation of GnRH neurons.

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    6. The role of histamine in the stomach explains how antihistamines alter digestive processes: by blocking histamine-mediated excretion of hydrochloric acid.

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  12. Jul 2020
    1. BOX,G.E.P.andCOX, D. R. (1964). An analysis of transformations (with discussion).J. Roy.Statist. Soc. Ser. B26211–252.
  13. Dec 2019
    1. Paradise Lost

      PLACEHOLDER -- box-highlight

      couldn't find any extra-textual marks on this page pertaining to Paradise Lost.

    2. Coleridge's Antient Mariner.

      In the Thomas Copy, the allusion to Coleridge, "but I shall kill no albatross" is not attributed in text, but rather added by hand as a citation at the bottom of the page: "x Coleridge's Ancient Mariner x"

    3. This letter ought to be re-written

      In the Thomas copy, a note at the bottom of the page stipulates: "This letter ought to be re-written". The first three paragraphs and the final paragraph were to be substantively rewritten in the 1831 edition.

    4. If there were ever to be another edition of this book, I should re-write these two first chapters. The incidents are tame and ill-arranged—the language sometimes childish.—They are unworthy of the rest of the w booknarration.

      In the Thomas Copy, Mary's marginal note outlines her dissatisfaction with the opening chapters of the 1818 edition. Indeed, these chapters would be heavily augmented and revised for the 1831, presumably in accordance with Shelley's observations here.

    5. impossible:

      In the Thomas copy beneath the line "This manuscript will doubtless afford you the greatest <u>pleasure</u>," is written a the single word: "impossible." We cannot tell if this was Mary's comment or was put in by another reader.

    6. you said your family was not sientific.

      In the Thomas Copy, at the bottom of this page, an unknown hand states: "You said your family was not scientific." If this notation is in Mary's hand, she may be speaking to her character Victor, noting a discrepancy in his account of their familiarity with the sciences.

    7. bad

      In the Thomas copy this passage, deleted in 1831, is tagged by Shelley in the margins as "bad".

    1. Second, there are some fantastic projects out there like Create React App, preact-cli, nwb, and much more that avoid the boilerplate problem but at the expense of some other tradeoffs. Your configuration could be black-boxed and not able to be modified. They could force you to eject your configuration, making maintenance of the entire build dependency tree and configuration your responsibility again, and also preclude future configuration updates.
  14. Nov 2019
  15. Feb 2019
  16. Apr 2018
  17. Mar 2017
    1. Any communication between people about the same thing isa common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing.Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially inthe mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the conceptsin the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those inthe mind of another, there is no common model and no communication

      cf. Wittgenstein Beetle in a Box

    1. What I do know is that I get the very distinct feeling that certain systems I use are not convivial. Google+, Facebook, WordPress, Twitter while full of humans, feel closed, feel like templates to be filled in not spaces to be lived in. Hence, the need for outsiders more than ever to raise the question especially in this week of connected courses where we are talking about the why of why.

      Absolutely.

      Very much depends from which perspective we are looking.

      This is absolutely key.

    2. System B is oppressive, closed, degenerative, and exhausting.
    1. Mia talked about translating meaning through boxes, inside boxes.

      Key. translation of meaning through boxes, inside boxes

  18. Jan 2017
    1. An anomaly is thus a mere difference in degree for which the norm will serve as metric.

      Normal is a powerful, potent, and potentially pernicious black box. And it is frequently a black box deployed against rhetoric.

  19. Jun 2016
    1. reate a note by selecting some text and clicking the button

      This is not a test

  20. Apr 2016
    1. According to Stemler, consistency estimates of interrater reliability assume that it is not necessary for judges to share a common meaning of the rating scale, so long as each judge is consistent in their classifications.

      Wittgenstein's beetle in a box

  21. Feb 2016
  22. Jan 2016
    1. the internet has become essential to our everyday life

      What if we had pockets of non-Internet connectivity, though? A mesh network doesn’t necessarily need to have nodes on the Internet. For instance, a classroom could have a “course in a box”, with all sorts of resources provided on local network, but without a connection to the whole Internet… So many teachers keep complaining about their students’ use of the Internet that they end up banning devices. But what if we allowed devices and even encouraged them, as long as they’re not on the Internet? WiFi connections tend to be spotty, to this day, and some classes are cellular deadzones. A bit like Dogme 95, getting used to sans-Internet connectivity could help us “get creative”. What would we do if we were to do a tech-savvy course on the proverbial “desert island”, without Internet?