22 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2021
    1. The courses span a suite of synthesis methods, including systematic review and systematic mapping, stakeholder engagement in evidence synthesis, and evidence synthesis technology.
  2. Nov 2020
    1. Single-strand binding proteins

      These bind to single-stranded regions of the DNA and during DNA replication they bind to newly formed DNA strands. They help keep the DNA strands in place as a framework for new DNA synthesis.

    1. The basic intuition is described well by the Shipman & Marshall paper: users enter information in a mostly informal fashion, and then formalize only later in the task when appropriate formalisms become clear and also (more) immediately useful.

      Incremental formalism

      Users enter information in an informal fashion. They only formalize later when the appropriate formalism becomes clear and/or immediately useful.

    2. It’s important to notice something about these examples of synthesis representations: they go quite a bit further than simply grouping or associating things (though that is an important start). They have some kind of formal semantic structure (otherwise known as formality) that specifies what entities exist, and what kinds of relations exist between the entities. This formal structure isn’t just for show: it’s what enables the kind of synthesis that really powers significant knowledge work! Formal structures unlock powerful forms of reasoning like conceptual combination, analogy, and causal reasoning.

      Formalisms enable synthesis to happen.

    3. I understand synthesis to be fundamentally about creating a new whole out of components (Strike & Posner, 1983).

      A definition for synthesis.

  3. Oct 2020
    1. messenger RNA (mRNA)

      This is a single strand on an RNA molecule that leaves the the nucleus of a cell in order to relocate to the cytoplasm. This is where the mRNA can help create the protein for the cell in a process known as protein synthesis. The mRNA takes in information passed into it by DNA and decode it for the ribosomes to make more protein for the cell to live on.

  4. Sep 2020
    1. Hennessy, E. A., Acabchuk, R., Arnold, P. A., Dunn, A. G., Foo, Y. Z., Johnson, B. T., Geange, S. R., Haddaway, N. R., Nakagawa, S., Mapanga, W., Mengersen, K., Page, M. J., Sánchez-Tójar, A., Welch, V., & McGuinness, L. A. (2020). Ensuring Prevention Science Research is Synthesis-Ready for Immediate and Lasting Scientific Impact [Preprint]. MetaArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/ptg9j

    1. Bringing the Author to Terms — In analytical reading, you must identify the keywords and how they are used by the author. This is fairly straightforward. The process becomes more complicated now as each author has probably used different terms and concepts to frame their argument. Now the onus is on you to establish the terms. Rather than using the author’s language, you must use your own. In short, this is an exercise in translation and synthesis

      [[translation and synthesis]] - understanding the authors in your own words, and being able to summarize their points without just copy-pasting. To be able to do this well, you really need to understand the authors ideas.

  5. Jun 2020
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  8. Dec 2019
    1. Like a centaur, the hybrid would have the strength of each of its components: the processing power of a large logic circuit and the intuition of a human brain’s wetware. The result: human-machine teams, even when they didn’t include the best grandmasters or most powerful computers, consistently beat teams composed solely of human grandmasters or superfast machines.

      This is what is most needed: the spark of intuition coupled with the indefatigably pursuit of its implications. We handle the former and computers the latter.

  9. Mar 2019
    1. This is Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive objectives. I selected this page because it explains both the old and new versions of the taxonomy. When writing instructional objectives for adult learning and training, one should identify the level of learning in Blooms that is needed. This is not the most attractive presentation but it is one of the more thorough ones. rating 4/5

  10. Feb 2019
  11. Sep 2017
    1. ynthesizing qualitative research enables reviewers to ask questions that inform the development of, or the implementation of, interventions. For example, in the context of intervention evaluation, they can help define relevant and important questions, help determine appropriate outcome measures by looking at “subjective” outcomes, look in detail at issues concerning implementation or the acceptability or appropriateness of an intervention, identify and explore unintended consequences, contribute to service delivery and policy development by describing pro-cesses and contexts, and inform and illuminate quantitative studies, for example, by contributing to the design of struc-tured instruments, assessing the fairness of comparisons in experimental studies, or unpacking variation within aggre-gated data (Davies, Nutley, & Smith, 2000).

      Summary of purposes of QES

    2. This article demonstrates the value of one relatively new approach, that of framework synthesis (Carroll, Booth, & Cooper, 2011; Thomas, Harden, & Newman, 2012). The distinguishing characteristic of this method is that it allows preexisting understanding (in the form of themes or categories) to be included in the analysis alongside (and combined with) con-cepts that emerge from the studies themselves (Dixon-Woods, 2011). This makes it particularly suitable for studies where a relevant related conceptual framework already exists, or where the findings from primary studies need to be explored in the light of perspectives of various stakeholders (e.g., practitioners, parents) in a structured and explicit way

      Justification and rationale for framework synthesis

    1. It is useful if interventions, and their evaluations, draw explicitly on existing social science theories, so that findings can add to the development of theory. However, evaluators should avoid selecting ‘off-the-shelf’ theories without considering how they apply to the context in which the intervention is delivered. Additionally, there is a risk of focusing narrowly on inappropriate theories from a single discipline; for example, some critics have highlighted a tendency for over-reliance upon individual-level theorising when the aim is to achieve community, organisational or population-level change (Hawe et al., 2009).

      Potential limitations of framework approach to synthesis

  12. Jan 2017
    1. The “can you hear me” con is actually a variation on earlier scams aimed at getting the victim to say the word “yes” in a phone conversation. That affirmative response is recorded by the fraudster and used to authorize unwanted charges on a phone or utility bill or on a purloined credit card.
  13. Dec 2016
    1. synthesis mapping,

      Synthesis mapping is concept/mind mapping 2.0. For subjects like biology, the ability to show connections between scale levels is an important skill for students to develop. Using this approach in teaching may help students understand the concept of emergent properties better.