27 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2018
    1. Kern 2006 Chapelle recommends the interactionist approach to SLA (see Pica, 1994) Egbert and Petrie (2005): expand the theory from the interactionist to sociocultural perspective.

      "Sociocultural theory, like interactionist SLA, emphasizes the importance of learner interaction, but it is interested less in negotiation evoked adjustments in input than in the social and cultural situatedness of learner activity, learners’ agency in co-constructing meanings (as well as their own roles), and the importance of mediation by tools and signs."

      Systemic-functional linguistics framework for CMC; Anthropology; Semiotic theory; Plass cognitive theory while inputting the language with multi-media;

    1. 2009 Chapelle C.A. Four general approaches: cognitive linguistic; psycholinguistic; human learning; social context Problems in the four categories.

  2. Oct 2018
  3. allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. Canton

      Voyage of the Empress of China, 1784. See this site for a detailed history of early US-China trade.

      A passage in Chapter 1 of Moby Dick describes a vigorous trade with the far East: “Posted like silent sentinels all around the town, stand thousands upon thousands of mortal men fixed in ocean reveries … some looking over the bulwarks of ships from China.”

      However, trade between China and the U.S. commenced in 1784, just after the Treaty of Paris was ratified; by 1799, when Benito Cereno is set, it would still have been a relatively young trading relationship, especially considering the lengthy sea voyages required.

      Principal commodities exchanged included the items mentioned by Capt. Delano (silks, sealskins, coin (specie), as well as ginseng tea, porcelain "China ware," lead, and cotton goods.<br> A.D. Edwards, Empress of China at Mart's Jetty, Port Pirie, 1876

      -- Robert Bennet Forbes, Remarks on China and the China Trade. Samuel N. Dickinson, printer, 1844.

    1. Howcanabuildingresemble,reflect, mirror, orrepresentabody? WhatdoesitmeantosaythatPalladio’sarchitecturewasbasedon thehuman body? Atitssimplest,thepropositionisthatwhenyoulookatoneofhisbuildings,beitsecularlikeVillaBarbaroorreligiouslikeIIRedentoreinVenice,youarelookingatanimageofthehumanbody.

      Through discussions in Thesis Prep I, the idea of reflexivity came about. While everyone experiences spaces in their own way, it is interesting to take a moment and try to comprehend the composition of a space. Often, the design inspiration is overlooked when humans are experiencing spaces, but through being able to take time and try to understand it at a deeper level, it can be understand that some designed elements are modeled after the human body. This relates back to previous discussions about Le Corbusier's Radiant City and how environments were designed with the idea of proportions from the "ideal" human body.

    2. InVitruvius’stheory, andthuslikelyinJones’smind, architectureandmedicinewereconnectedinafundamentalway.

      Continuing today, individuals' minds, architecture, and medicine can still be considered connected. Everyone has their own experience within or around spaces, and the built environment or landscapes have health benefits, whether mentally of physically.

    3. A réévaluationofphenomenologywouldallowforreflectiononembodiedperception, bodilyexperience,andtheirrolesinunderstandingarchitecture.

      I would completely agree with this. The purpose of phenomenology is to feel connected with our surroundings, and perhaps, things that exist beyond our surroundings but are only experienced in being able to come into contact with something around us. Either way, if architecture were to hone in on the design of this spatial connection, the Vitruvius man needs to be update. In class, we had talked about the diagram not looking like any man, but an average depiction of man. This may have been fine to a hundred years ago, but our universal perceptions have changed. And thus, the universal base of design for phenomenology must change with it. Gender is more of a fluid subject, and is not defined/defining in how we operate. A reevaluation must include the groups left out by Vitruvius in order to seek this idea of the universal.

    4. UsingtheexampleofDS+R’sBrasserie restaurantinNewYork,LucasCrawfordeffectivelycutsthroughthelinkbetweenbodyandgenderbyshowinghowevensubtlechangesinarchitecturecanelicitmodesoftransembodimentthathave thecapacitytochangegender-basedarrangementsofbodiesandenvironments.

      (https://books.google.com/books?id=t82XCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT46&lpg=PT46&dq=ds+r+brasserie+washroom+trans&source=bl&ots=Qcjq32Go8Y&sig=TaXsfskr0QVXwFp_830qleFF7Gw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwir4sLgjJjeAhWRTt8KHcMLBsIQ6AEwAnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=ds%20r%20brasserie%20washroom%20trans&f=false)

      In the DS + R project, the design takes the notion of the washroom as a means to distort our perceptions around comfort, hygiene, and privacy. The discussion of gender bathrooms, especially in recent years, revolve around the notion that some may feel uncomfortable with a person they would claim is a different gender using the same space as them. In the DS+R project, there is no distinction of gender in the bathrooms, nor is their "privacy" in the bathrooms. The wall journey the two bathroom are opaque, stall have peeking holes, etc. all to give the user a sense of being uncomfortable. Though it is not actively charged with advocating for a side on this argument, the project does open the perceptions around this "comfortability" in washrooms. Why do we have? Why do we have a need to preserve it around the scope of being comfortable around our gender? Wouldn't someone just be as uncomfortable if a person of the same gender played a closer role in these "private" times in the washroom.

    1. The feedback loops that run between technologies and perceptions, ar-tifacts and ideas, have important implications for how historical change oc-curs.

      Feedback loops not only affect subjects at a given time. They also have the ability to affect history, or the future. The connections that interact with and between feedback loops distort or recreate information, which in turn affects the information, creating different outcomes. With the past, present, and future are all connection to each other, all information that is part of each directly effects the next time frame.

    2. The point was less to show that man was a machine than to demonstrate that a ma-chine could function like a man

      Man as a machine vs. machine functioning like man

      With the post human body, there is more of a focus on the machine like elements that are characteristics of living beings. With technology, there is a constant goal to create technology that best interacts with human beings. Technology, and machines made with technology, are creating a reliance on the machines, and how they can become human like by themselves, such as robots.

    3. We have only to recall Robocop's mem-ory flashes that interfere with his programmed directives to understand how the distributed cognition of the posthuman complicates individual agency. If "human essence is freedom from the wills of others,

      Not only is his mind not free, there is the sense the Robocop as a cop in general, is not free. His body is owned by the police, and does the bidding of justice. His actions are no longer his own, and are soley for the purpose of providing justice for the people. He is in an enslaved body that is far from being free.

    4. mind could be separated from body

      In one of the conversations that arose from our Thesis Prep discussion, it was confirmed by the majority of the class that the mind and the body are one in the same. They have a symbiotic relationship in which one informs the other, and when combined, provide us with the tools of creating experiences in space. This discussions connects how the body, as a relay system from our senses, sends reactions to the mind as to how we perceive our environments. When touching something that is course, our bodies react to a space being un-pleasurable. Our lives are reliant on this dialogue between the body and the mind, and to think that we could live without one of these components would just be incomplete living.

  4. Sep 2018
    1. Page 40:

      “For disabled people many dimensions of the built environment are disruptive and violent precisely because they buildings are underpinned by the embodied ideal of a body which fails to conform with the complexities of bodily interactions of space.”

      People aren’t disabled. Buildings are the devices that create the disabilities for people. (Marilyn Modinger quoting her friend from an institute driven on disability inclusion)

    2. Page 27:

      “Thus, such bodies are without sex, or gender, or class or culture. They are, in Ann Hall’s (1996) terms, objective entities to be dissected, manipulated, treated, and utilized as instruments and/or objects.”

      This would a fascinated way of perceiving other people today. It would eliminate our growing issues revolving around the ideas of race and gender in equality. By reducing the human race to our physicality is a more practical means of understanding how we collectively function. Through this focused lens, better design can then be more easily achieved in the elimination of other factors.

  5. Feb 2018
    1. National League Expansion

      The National League added two teams in 1993, the Colorado Rockies and the Florida (now Miami) Marlins. Although the CBA provided detailed procedures for how Major League players would be procured for these new teams, the inevitable impact on minor league structure was not considered or clearly articulated.

  6. Sep 2017
    1. he ball would expand almost instantly into a fireball the width of four football fields, incinerating essentially everything and everyone within
  7. Apr 2017
    1. a continent—of at least one eighth part of the habit- able globe

      The colonists believed they had a right to continued westward expansion, and were frustrated at Britain's attempts to slow westward expansion and protect Native American land.

  8. Mar 2017
    1. the northern frontier

      The Northern Frontier is a historical term which regards the arrival and exploitation of the Arctic region by outsider actors, or Tan’ngit, as a deterministic outcome of economic development. The notion of a predestined Arctic frontier therefore serves as a trend that significantly predates the Mackenzie Valley and Western Arctic gas pipeline and energy corridor proposal of 1977. Beginning in the 19th century, the arrival of imperial powers to the region sparked the beginning of a prolonged era of economic transformation and exploitation, fueled by the engine of an emergent capitalist economy and in the aura of colonial expansion. The establishment of industrial companies in the region, such as the Hudson Bay Company or the American Commercial Company, signified a physical presence in the region which symbolized a flag-staffing on the region. The economic trade among Inuit communities would be transformed as a result of this development. A primary example of this can be seen in the commercialization of the bowhead whale, which marked a significant advance for the drive of industrial development in the United States. The utility of whale products became widespread within metropolitan commerce, as “whale oil found its way to lighthouses, candle makers, and factory machines, while baleen formed corset stays and buggy whips”. This innovative process of commodifying the marine ecosystem of the Beaufort Sea attracted significant labor and capital investment, a development which culminated in the federal support of whale extraction from the region by the end of the century. The extension of the frontier moves beyond economic development as well. The emergence of scientific exploration in the region, often heralded for its “neutrality and objectivity”, served a particularly one-dimensional purpose in mapping the geography, ecology, and resource potential of the Arctic for imperialist powers. The historical basis of the Northern Frontier becomes important in understanding the cumulative experience of the indigenous communities upon the arrival of the pipeline and corridor proposal.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

  9. Feb 2016
    1. With these religious justifications, and with obvious economic motives, Spain’s rivals arrived in the New World.

      --Noted for the motives behind rivalry from the nations listed below

    1. From Mexico, Spain expanded northward. Lured by the promises of gold and another Tenochtitlán, Spanish expeditions scoured North America for another wealthy Indian empire.

      It's always interesting to see that the pattern in history was always to chase riches and are fueled by promises of resource, whether it be consumable resources or precious metals.

  10. Jan 2016
    1. What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      Sugar was becoming very popular in Asia and was quickly discovered by the Europeans. The Portuguese had to find new land to grow the sugar cane because it was required to have the right conditions to grow. This is when the Portuguese found the Guanches, an African tribe in order to take care of the sugar cane. This helped the Portuguese become very wealthy.

    2. Sugar, a wildly profitable commodity originally grown in Asia, had become a popular luxury among the nobility and wealthy of Europe. The Portuguese began growing sugar cane along the Mediterranean, but sugar was a difficult crop.

      The Portuguese found that sugar was a high profitable crop that they can get wealthy off of and decided to take action in the market with it. They enslaved Africans during the time they grew crops so they could make a higher profit in the business.

    3. Columbus described them as innocents. “They are very gentle and without knowledge of what is evil; nor the sins of murder or theft,” he reported to the Spanish crown. “Your highness may believe that in all the world there can be no better people … They love their neighbors as themselves, and their speech is the sweetest and gentlest in the world, and always with a smile.”

      Knowing the outcome, this quote looks much less like Columbus is holding the Arawaks in high regard, but more so confirming what Columbus later reports that "they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them".

    4. Spain, too, stood on the cutting edge of maritime technology. Spanish sailors had become masters of the caravels.

      Portugal advanced in maritime technology through use of caravels and astrolabes. What advancements in technology, aside from mastering the caravel, did Spain accomplish?

    1. There is continued interest in expanding access by identifying and addressing these specific barriers to access or access gaps. While open access has received most attention, other ideas explored have included increased funding for national licences to extend and rationalise cover; walk-in access via public libraries (a national scheme was piloted in the UK in 2014); the development of licences for sectors such as central and local government, the voluntary sector, and businesses (page 84)
  11. Oct 2015
    1. II. The Importance of Cotton

      Study Questions:

      What impact does the discovery of "petit Gulf" cotton and the invention of the cotton gin have on western expansion?

      How do advancements in transportation effect the production of cotton and its expansion?

  12. Apr 2014
    1. .

      also include: ", and a decentralized architecture that allows a user to publish in any of their preferred communities rather than a single monolithic publisher."

    2. The vast majority of the web is dark to interaction of any kind. When it does exist, usually it is in the form of the comment widget which restricts conversations to general discussions of the whole article, making targeted discussion of specific assertions or facts more difficult. As a consequence, traditional commenting leads to sprawling, lower quality discussions which are difficult to manage and awkward to navigate.

      Mention ability to follow a user or community contribution across multiple sites, not just isolated articles?