398 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2013
    1. Antithesis implies contrast of sense
    2. Appropriateness. An appropriate style will adapt itself to (1) the emotions of the hearers, (2) the character of the speaker, (3) the nature of the subject.


    3. Style, to be good, must be clear; it must also be appropriate, avoiding both meanness and excess of dignity

      Balanced. It must understand its purpose and fulfill it tastefully

    4. Style. It is not enough to know what to say; we must also say it in the right way
    1. His idea of justice seems situated very much in circumstance, not Truth

    2. Particular law is that which each community lays down and applies to its own members: this is partly written and partly unwritten. Universal law is the law of Nature.
    1. The above are the motives that make men do wrong to others; we are next to consider the states of mind in which they do it, and the persons to whom they do it.

      Straying into psychology

    1. Thus every action must be due to one or other of seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reasoning, anger, or appetite.
    2. Let us first decide what sort of things people are trying to get or avoid when they set about doing wrong to others.

      Motive. It's amazing how many of these ideas seem common sense just because our society takes them for granted today. Aristotle seems to have influenced how we think today

    3. Law" is either special or general. By special law I mean that written law which regulates the life of a particular community; by general law, all those unwritten principles which are supposed to be acknowledged everywhere.

      Here he sets up legislative law versus social laws and norms.

    1. That which most people seek after, and which is obviously an object of contention, is also a good; for, as has been shown, that is good which is sought after by everybody, and "most people" is taken to be equivalent to "everybody."

      opposite of Plato/Socrates. Popular opinion is good and right. I wish I were as optimistic

    2. Now the political or deliberative orator's aim is utility: deliberation seeks to determine not ends but the means to ends, i.e. what it is most useful to do. Further, utility is a good thing.

      We should seek to produce something with rhetoric. It is not just hot air, but useful and effective

    1. Those in power are more ambitious and more manly in character than the wealthy, because they aspire to do the great deeds that their power permits them to do. Responsibility makes them more serious: they have to keep paying attention to the duties their position involves. They are dignified rather than arrogant, for the respect in which they are held inspires them with dignity and therefore with moderation -- dignity being a mild and becoming form of arrogance.

      Characteristics of the powerful

    1. Wealthy men are insolent and arrogant; their possession of wealth affects their understanding; they feel as if they had every good thing that exists; wealth becomes a sort of standard of value for everything else,

      He sounds a little bitter. Maybe he needs to read his own section on envy. Also, he needs to qualify his claims. I can give one example of a well rounded, generous, and well respected millionaire--like Bill Gates--and it hurts his entire argument

    2. no education in riches

      Gaining the wealth wasn't an education in riches? This seems paradoxically elitist, reminding me of the wealthy classes in England who turn up their nose at new wealth

    1. They have neither that excess of confidence which amounts to rashness, nor too much timidity, but the right amount of each. They neither trust everybody nor distrust everybody, but judge people correctly. Their lives will be guided not by the sole consideration either of what is noble or of what is useful, [1390b] but by both; neither by parsimony nor by prodigality, but by what is fit and proper.

      He sets up this need for balance which seems rational, but he doesn't describe how to obtain it or which amount of rashness and timidity is correct

    1. He categorizes and classifies these things in such a detached, scientific way, but he doesn't tell us how to use or apply them

    1. power

      Fear seems almost always linked with power, an uncontrollable power

    2. we do not fear things that are a very long way off: for instance, we all know we shall die, but we are not troubled thereby, because death is not close at hand

      I would disagree. Death is a great motivator. Plus, we never know how near it is or when it will come which makes it that much more persuasive.

    1. Moreover, anger can be cured by time; but hatred cannot. The one aims at giving pain to its object, the other at doing him harm
    2. Things that cause friendship are: doing kindnesses; doing them unasked; and not proclaiming the fact when they are done, which shows that they were done for our own sake and not for some other reason.

      I really like this idea, but how does the friendship form if our actions are always anonymous?

    3. Man, he really puts into practice the idea that rhetoric is talking about any topic imaginable!

    1. Consequently we do not get angry with any one who cannot be aware of our anger, and in particular we cease to be angry with people once they are dead, for we feel that the worst has been done to them, and that they will neither feel pain nor anything else that we in our anger aim at making them feel.

      I disagree completely. Sometimes anger only intensifies with death or through grieving

    2. As to the frame of mind that makes people calm, it is plainly the opposite to that which makes them angry, as when they are amusing themselves or laughing or feasting; when they are feeling prosperous or successful or satisfied; when, in fine, they are enjoying freedom from pain, or inoffensive pleasure, or justifiable hope.

      Frame of mind for calmness, seems more believable and characteristic

    3. Also towards those who admit their fault and are sorry: since we accept their grief at what they have done as satisfaction, and cease to be angry

      He has a very forgiving view of human nature. What about grudges?

    4. it is plain that we feel calm towards those who do nothing of the kind, or who do or seem to do it involuntarily.

      Is this really true? Where does annoyance come into play? Do we really feel calm around those who hurt us unintentionally?

    1. The persons with whom we get angry are those who laugh, mock, or jeer at us, for such conduct is insolent

      The persons who the anger is directed at. Why aren't those that cause the pain included?

    2. it is plain that the more we are under these conditions the more easily we are stirred.

      It's conditional, emotions must be gauged by the speaker and they must understand the context

    3. (1) The frame of mind is that of one in which any pain is being felt.

      Frame of mind of angry person. Couldn't this also be said of sorrow and any number of emotions?

    1. good sense, good moral character

      Are these the only three? Do these ideas still hold today? What about power, wealth, status, education, labels, etc.

    2. the emotion of anger: here we must discover (1) what the state of mind of angry people is, (2) who the people are with whom they usually get angry, and (3) on what grounds they get angry with them. It is not enough to know one or even two of these points; unless we know all three, we shall be unable to arouse anger in any one.

      The only way to control emotions is through knowledge and study

    3. There are three things which inspire confidence in the orator's own character -- the three, namely, that induce us to believe a thing apart from any proof of it: good sense, good moral character, and goodwill

      how to build ethos/components of character

    4. he must also make his own character look right and put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind

      How do we make this happen when audiences are so varied?

    1. of all syllogisms, whether refutative or demonstrative, those are most applauded of which we foresee the conclusions from the beginning, so long as they are not obvious at first sight

      Is this just human nature? Do we really like anticipating endings? Is that why mystery novels and scary movies are so predictable? Or do we like to be surprised, to see unexpected things?

    2. There are two kinds of enthymemes: (a) the demonstrative, formed by the conjunction of compatible propositions; (b) the refutative, formed by the conjuction of incompatible propositions.

      We can either argue for and built arguments or critique and tear down ideas

    3. The four general lines of argument are: (1) The Possible and Impossible; (2) Fact Past; (3) Fact Future; (4) Degree.

      Lines of argument

    4. (1) make his own character look right and (2) put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind. As to his own character; he should make his audience feel that he possesses prudence, virtue, and goodwill.
    1. Wealth as a whole consists in using things rather than in owning them; it is really the activity -- that is, the use -- of property that constitutes wealth.

      Definition of wealth as an activity, we are only wealthy through spending--an interesting idea. Then I know a lot of wealthy people, don't mind their credit card debt

    2. That happiness is one or more of these things, pretty well everybody agrees.

      Well of course. Could he make the definition much broader?

    3. For all advice to do things or not to do them is concerned with happiness and with the things that make for or against it; whatever creates or increases happiness or some part of happiness, we ought to do; whatever destroys or hampers happiness, or gives rise to its opposite, we ought not to do.
    1. ways and means, war and peace, national defence, imports and exports, and legislation.

      It's limiting, but sadly, true

    2. reasoning.

      But is the abstractness associated with words really a lesser knowledge? It may be less precise, but that also might create more options

    3. but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledg

      A dig at rhetoric, a lesser art or knowledge

    1. show that the good or the harm, the honour or disgrace, the justice or injustice, is great or small, either absolutely or relatively; and therefore it is plain that we must also have at our command propositions about greatness or smallness and the greater or the lesser -- propositions both universal and particular.

      There are degrees of goodness and justice, relativity

    2. it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speech's end and object.

      Demonstrates the importance of audience

    1. The "example" has already been described as one kind of induction;

      It seems synonymous with evidence

    2. Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples:

      Sounds about in line with all of the papers I've had to write. They are either constructive from evidence to form a conclusion or general ideas applied to the particular

    3. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      Qualities of a good rhetorician

    4. his character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion he possesses

      this is true often times with movie stars, sports figures, etc.

    5. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself

      Are there really only three appeals, or do we fit everything else into these three labels because Aristotle laid it out that way?

    6. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us

      encompasses all, used in all we do

    1. it is not the function of medicine simply to make a man quite healthy, but to put him as far as may be on the road to health; it is possible to give excellent treatment even to those who can never enjoy sound health
    2. And if it be objected that one who uses such power of speech unjustly might do great harm, that is a charge which may be made in common against all good things except virtue, and above all against the things that are most useful, as strength, health, wealth, generalship.
    3. For argument based on knowledge implies instruction, and there are people whom one cannot instruct. Here, then, we must use, as our modes of persuasion and argument,

      Rhetoric also seems to counteract instruction and learning, set up as a false knowledge

    4. Home | Book I | Book II | Book III | Index | Bibliography Book I - Chapter 1 [1354a] Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic. Both alike are concerned with such things as come, more or less, within the general ken of all men and belong to no definite science. Accordingly all men make use, more or less, of both; for to a certain extent all men attempt to discuss statements and to maintain them, to defend themselves and to attack others. Ordinary people do this either at random or through practice and from acquired habit. Both ways being possible, the subject can plainly be handled systematically, for it is possible to inquire the reason why some speakers succeed through practice and others spontaneously; and every one will at once agree that such an inquiry is the function of an art. Now, the framers of the current treatises on rhetoric have constructed but a small portion of that art. The modes of persuasion are the only true constituents of the art: everything else is merely accessory. These writers, however, say nothing about enthymemes, which are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, but deal mainly with non-essentials. The arousing of prejudice, pity, anger, and similar emotions has nothing to do with the essential facts, but is merely a personal appeal to the man who is judging the case. Consequently if the rules for trials which are now laid down some states -- especially in well-governed states -- were applied everywhere, such people would have nothing to say. All men, no doubt, think that the laws should prescribe such rules, but some, as in the court of Areopagus, give practical effect to their thoughts and forbid talk about non-essentials. This is sound law and custom. It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it. Again, a litigant has clearly nothing to do but to show that the alleged fact is so or is not so, that it has or has not happened. As to whether a thing is important or unimportant, just or unjust, the judge must surely refuse to take his instructions from the litigants: he must decide for himself all such points as the law-giver has not already defined for him. Now, it is of great moment that well-drawn laws should themselves define all the points they possibly can and leave as few as may be to the decision of the judges; and this for several reasons. First, to find one man, or a few men, who are sensible persons and [1354b] capable of legislating and administering justice is easier than to find a large number. Next, laws are made after long consideration, whereas decisions in the courts are given at short notice, which makes it hard for those who try the case to satisfy the claims of justice and expediency. The weightiest reason of all is that the decision of the lawgiver is not particular but prospective and general, whereas members of the assembly and the jury find it their duty to decide on definite cases brought before them. They will often have allowed themselves to be so much influenced by feelings of friendship or hatred or self-interest that they lose any clear vision of the truth and have their judgement obscured by considerations of personal pleasure or pain. In general, then, the judge should, we say, be allowed to decide as few things as possible. But questions as to whether something has happened or has not happened, will be or will not be, is or is not, must of necessity be left to the judge, since the lawgiver cannot foresee them. If this is so, it is evident that any one who lays down rules about other matters, such as what must be the contents of the "introduction" or the "narration" or any of the other divisions of a speech, is theorizing about non-essentials as if they belonged to the art. The only question with which these writers here deal is how to put the judge into a given frame of mind. About the orator's proper modes of persuasion they have nothing to tell us; nothing, that is, about how to gain skill in enthymemes. Hence it comes that, although the same systematic principles apply to political as to forensic oratory, and although the former is a nobler business, and fitter for a citizen, than that which concerns the relations of private individuals, these authors say nothing about political oratory, but try, one and all, to write treatises on the way to plead in court. The reason for this is that in political oratory there is less inducement to talk about nonessentials. Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues. In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests. There is no need, therefore, to prove anything except that the facts are what the supporter of a measure maintains they are. In forensic oratory this is not enough; to conciliate the listener is what pays here. It is other people's affairs that are to be decided, so that the judges, intent on their own satisfaction and listening with partiality, surrender themselves to the disputants instead of judging between them. [1355a] Hence in many places, as we have said already, irrelevant speaking is forbidden in the law-courts: in the public assembly those who have to form a judgement are themselves well able to guard against that. It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion. Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated. The orator's demonstration is an enthymeme, and this is, in general, the most effective of the modes of persuasion. The enthymeme is a sort of syllogism, and the consideration of syllogisms of all kinds, without distinction, is the business of dialectic, either of dialectic as a whole or of one of its branches. It follows plainly, therefore, that he who is best able to see how and from what elements a syllogism is produced will also be best skilled in the enthymeme, when he has further learnt what its subject-matter is and in what respects it differs from the syllogism of strict logic. The true and the approximately true are apprehended by the same faculty; it may also be noted that men have a sufficient natural instinct for what is true, and usually do arrive at the truth. Hence the man who makes a good guess at truth is likely to make a good guess at probabilities. It has now been shown that the ordinary writers on rhetoric treat of non-essentials; it has also been shown why they have inclined more towards the forensic branch of oratory. Rhetoric is useful (1) because things that are true and things that are just have a natural tendency to prevail over their opposites, so that if the decisions of judges are not what they ought to be, the defeat must be due to the speakers themselves, and they must be blamed accordingly.

      But if men tend toward the truth and speakers can convince men to the contrary, isn't rhetoric more hurtful that useful?

    5. The true and the approximately true are apprehended by the same faculty; it may also be noted that men have a sufficient natural instinct for what is true, and usually do arrive at the truth.

      Different from Plato. Insists there are half truths and men are drawn towards it naturally

    6. Hence it comes that, although the same systematic principles apply to political as to forensic oratory, and although the former is a nobler business

      Why? Why does he place one above the other when both are good for particular circumstances? Where is his evidence to support these claims?

    7. It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.
    8. Accordingly all men make use, more or less, of bot

      Rhetoric is necessary. It surrounds us and is used by all

    1. The "non-technical" (extrinsic) means of persuasion -- those which do not strictly belong to the art of rhetoric. They are five in number, and pertain especially to forensic oratory: (1) laws, (2) witnesses, (3) contracts (4) tortures, (5) oaths

      Persuasion is out of the rhetoricians control. Other factors always play into persuading others

    2. Law is either (a) special, viz. that written law which regulates the life of a particular community, or (b) general, viz. all those unwritten principles which are supposed to be acknowledged everywhere.

      Law versus norm or social expectation

    3. seven causes of human action, viz. three involuntary, (1) chance, (2) nature, (3) compulsion; and four voluntary, viz. (4) habit, (5) reasoning, (6) anger, (7) appetite

      7 causes for action

    4. entails a consideration of degree

      Not all things are Truth and untruth, varying degrees of life, complex

    5. Political (1) exhortation and dehortation, (2) future, (3) expediency and inexpediency; B. Forensic (1) accusation and defence, (2) past, (3) justice and injustice; C. Epideictic (1) praise and censure, (2) present, (3) honour and dishonour
    6. it must adapt itself to an audience

      This seems to align more with Isocrates, that rhetoric depends on context and takes into account the audience

    7. (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos )
    8. Definition of rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
    9. It is a subject that can be treated systematically

      He seems to treat it as a scientific thing

    10. Its possible abuse is no argument against its proper use on the side of truth and justice.

      Much like medicine, science, and any other art, rhetoric can be misused, but then do we consider all things that can be used for bad purposes bad in themselves?

    1. I marvel at men who felicitate those who are eloquent by nature on being blessed with a noble gift, and yet rail at those who wish to become eloquent, on the ground that they desire an immoral and debasing education. Pray, what that is noble by nature becomes shameful and base when one attains it by effort?

      Rhetorical question, appeals to American ideals

    2. But I do hold that people can become better and worthier if they conceive an ambition to speak well,137 if they become possessed of the desire to be able to persuade their hearers, and, finally, if they set their hearts on seizing their advantage—I do not mean “advantage” in the sense given to that word by the empty-minded, but advantage in the true meaning of that term;138 and that this is so I think I shall presently make clear.
    3. rivate or to public affairs; nay, they are not even remembered for any length of time after they are learned because they do not attend us through life nor do they lend aid in what we do, but are wholly divorced from our necessities.

      Rhetoric helps us in all aspects of life unlike geometry, life shaping tool

    4. We ought, therefore, to think of the art of discourse just as we think of the other arts, and not to form opposite judgements about similar things, nor show ourselves intolerant toward that power which, of all the faculties which belong to the nature of man, is the source of most of our blessings. For in the other powers which we possess, as I have already said on a former occasion,125 we are in no respect superior to other living creatures; nay, we are inferior to many in swiftness and in strength and in other resources; but, because there has been implanted in us the power to persuade each other and to make clear to each other whatever we desire, not only have we escaped the life of wild beasts, but we have come together and founded cities and made laws and invented arts; and, generally speaking, there is no institution devised by man which the power of speech has not helped us to establish. For this it is which has laid down laws concerning things just and unjust, and things honorable and base; and if it were not for these ordinances we should not be able to live with one another. It is by this also that we confute the bad and extol the good. Through this we educate the ignorant and appraise the wise

      The good of rhetoric, a blessing which enables society and creates possibility

    5. But as a symptom, not only of their confusion of mind, but of their contempt for the gods, they recognize that Persuasion is one of the gods, and they observe that the city makes sacrifices to her every year,121 but when men aspire to share the power which the goddess possesses
    6. irritated, jealous, perturbed in spirit, and are much in the same state of mind as lovers ar

      power of love again applied to effects of rhetoric (Gorgias)

    7. First of all was Solon.

      Appeal to powerful authority figures

    8. No, it is evident that these students cross the sea and pay out money and go to all manner of trouble because they think that they themselves will be the better for it and that the teachers here are much more intelligent than those in their own countries. This ought to fill all Athenians with pride and make them appreciate at their worth those who have given to the city this reputation.

      Appealing to patriotism, national identity, and authority figures

    9. These charges are of two kinds. Some of them say that the profession of the sophist is nothing but sham and chicane, maintaining that no kind of education has ever been discovered which can improve a man's ability to speak or his capacity for handling affairs, and that those who excel in these respects owe their superiority to natural gifts; while others acknowledge that men who take this training are more able, but complain that they are corrupted and demoralized by it

      Charges against rhetoric

    10. first of all, have a natural aptitude for that which they have elected to do; secondly, they must submit to training and master the knowledge of their particular subject, whatever it may be in each case; and, finally, they must become versed and practised in the use and application of their art; for only on these conditions can they become fully competent and pre-eminent in any line of endeavor
    11. equire them to combine in practice the particular things which they have learned, in order that they may grasp them more firmly and bring their theories into closer touch with the occasions for applying the

      Relativity, trained to fit to particular

    12. physical training for the body, of which gymnastics is a part, and, for the mind, philosophy, which I am going to explain. These are twin arts—parallel and complementar

      Twin arts for two parts

    13. It is acknowledged that the nature of man is compounded of two parts, the physical and the mental

      Physical and mental main parts of body

    14. I seem to be unfortunate, and that these people appear to be boorish and churlish toward their fellow-citizens

      appeal to Pity

    15. I consider that this kind of life is more agreeable than that of men who are busy with a multitude of things, and that it is, besides, more in keeping with the career to which I have dedicated myself from the first

      Establishes his motivations as trustworthy

    16. Uses a quote so he doesn't have to say these things about himself, gives him more credibility, less prideful, more easily accepted from outside source

    17. for the power to speak in any set order has escaped me.

      Now pretends to have the same problem and Tim

    18. He was a good man and true, a credit to Athens and to Hellas, but he could not lower himself to the level of people who are intolerant of their natural superiors.

      Actually hurts rhetoricians shows that good true men can't defend themselves but those who bend the public to their needs do

    19. For if you please the people in Athens, no matter what you do they will not judge your conduct by the facts but will construe it in a light favorable to you; and if you make mistakes, they will overlook them, while if you succeed, they will exalt your success to the high heaven

      favor is more important than truth

    20. for he was by nature as inept in courting the favor of men as he was gifted in handling affairs.

      We cannot succeed despite out virtues if we cannot persuade, gain favor

    21. the force of his own character in order to win the good will of the rest of the world, believing that this is a greater and nobler kind of generalship than to conquer many cities many times in battle.

      Better to be inspired by admiration than by fear

    22. It is the ability to collect an army which is adequate to the war in hand, and to organize and to employ it to good advantage.
      1. Adequate force applied well
    23. First of all is the ability to know against whom and with whose help to make war;
      1. Know your enemy
    24. What, then, are the requisites of a good general and what ability do they involve?

      Qualities of a good leader

    25. The facts, then, about Timotheus I can put most concisely and in the most comprehensive terms by saying that he has taken more cities by storm than any other man has ever done, and I include all generals who have led armies into the field whether from Athens or from the rest of Hellas
    26. I am not guilty of corrupting my associate

      Men are in control of themselves and are honorable or not on their own account, not another's

    27. All these men were crowned by Athens with chaplets of gold,57 not because they were covetous of other people's possessions, but because they were honorable men and had spent large sums of their private fortunes upon the city.

      Not valued for virtues but for wealth. This seems to work against him. High connections

    28. yet not one of them will be found to have uttered a word of complaint about his sojourn with me

      Needs to qualify claims. Doesn't prove, just insists

    29. ans and counsels them to be of one mind among themselves?

      Tailors argument to audience, appeals to common ideals

    30. but that those discourses are better and more profitable which denounce our present mistakes than those which praise our past deeds, and those which counsel us what we ought to do than those which recount ancient history
    31. I am wont to deal with princes as well as with private men
    32. I detach one part from another, and breaking up the discourse, as it were, into what we call general heads, I strive to express in a few words each bit of counsel which I have to offer.4


    33. consider well whether I appear to you to corrupt the young by my words, or, on the contrary, to inspire them to a life of valor and of dangers endured for their country

      Either/or fallacy. Aren't there more options

    34. Developing this theme, I show that Athens has been author of all the advantages which the Hellenes now enjoy. Then, having concluded the account of these benefactions, and desiring to show more convincingly that leadership in the expedition is the right of Athens, I further try to prove that far greater honor is due to her for the perils she has faced in war than for her other benefactions.
    35. I shall present in evidence the actual words

      Insists that ultimate evidence is words, truth in words, yet he only gives part of his words. Misleading?

    36. For I ask you not only to show me no mercy, if the oratory which I cultivate is harmful, but to inflict on me the extreme penalty if it is not superior to any other.

      Assertive, persuasive, entirely invested makes the blame harder to inflict

    37. that while those who are thought to be adept in court procedure are tolerated only for the day when they are engaged in the trial, the devotees of philosophy are honored and held in high esteem in every society and at all times; that, furthermore, while the former come to be despised and decried as soon as they are seen two or three times in court, the latter are admired more and more as they become better and more widely known; and, finally, that while clever pleaders are sadly unequal to the higher eloquence, the exponents of the latter could, if they so desired, easily master also the oratory of the courts.

      Eloquence, tools good for every occasion, general, applied to everything. Linked to power

    38. First of all, then, you should know that there are no fewer branches of composition in prose than in verse.

      Beginning to define, categorize, and teach. Switch in tone

    39. Be assured, therefore, that you shall hear from me the whole truth, and in this spirit give me your attention.

      Building credibility, trying to appeal to truth, honesty, relate to audience

    40. whom he calls the teacher of other men, everyone would regard his power as irresistible.
    41. Then again you will find associated with them either men who are themselves in evil case or who want to ruin others, while in my company are those who of all the Hellenes lead the most untroubled lives.

      Defends himself based on past history and those he associates with, typical of a court case

    42. o judge me to be the kind of man which the accusation and the defense in this trial will show me to be; for if you decide the case on this basis, you will have the credit of judging honorably and in accordance with the law, while I, for my part, shall obtain my complete deserts.
    43. Here in the indictment my accuser endeavors to vilify me, charging that I corrupt young men30 by teaching them to speak and gain their own advantage in the courts contrary to justice, while in his speech he makes me out to be a man whose equal has never been known either among those who hang about the law-courts or among the devotees of philosophy; for he declares that I have had as my pupils not only private persons but orators, generals, kings, and despots;31 and that I have received from them and am now receiving enormous sums of money

      Shows how people view rhetoric and its link to corruption

    44. in a word, it smothers truth, and pouring false ideas into our ears, it leaves no man among our citizens secure from an unjust death

      Slippery slope fallacy. Motivating by fear

    45. it is not yet easy for the jury to decide from what the first speaker has said whether he has based his arguments on the truth; nay, they will be fortunate if they are able to draw a just conclusion from the arguments of both sides

      Shows that truth doesn't necessarily emerge from our judicial system.

    46. in order that if I shall appear to speak well, I may show that I am subject to the charges which he has made about my cleverness; while if it turns out that I speak less ably than he has led you to expect, you may think that mine is the weaker cause.

      The problem of rhetoric as a whole. There needs to be a balance.

    47. I consider that in all the world there are none so depraved and so deserving of the severest punishment as those who have the audacity to charge others with the offenses of which they themselves are guilty

      hypocrisy comes from hipocrisis which means actor, speech, mimesis

    48. But it occurred to me that if I were to adopt the fiction of a trial and of a suit brought against m

      Can fiction generate a "true image" or truth? What is the relationship between truth and fiction

    49. a true image of my thought and of my whole life; for I hoped that this would serve both as the best means of making known the truth about me and, at the same time, as a monument, after my death, more noble than statues of bronze

      Can we trust a "true image" of Isocrates if it is written by himself? Especially if his goal is to be remembered as noble and great?

    50. saying that it has to do with writing speeches for the courts,5 very much as one might have the effrontery to call Pheidias, who wrought our statue of Athena,6 a doll-maker, or say that Zeuxis and Parrhasius7 practiced the same art as the sign-painters

      effective metaphor. I like his sarcasm and high opinion of himself.

    51. novel and differen

      generating interest

    1. Life is too complicated for that, and no man can foresee exactly the consequences of his acts--the future is a thing unseen. All that education can do is to develop a sound judgement (as opposed to knowledge ) which will meet the contingencies of life with resourcefulness and, in most cases, with success
    2. I do think that the study of political discourse can help more than any other thing to stimulate and form such qualities of character.

      Discourse as a way to build virtue and character, a tool for good

    3. neglected all the good things which this study affords, and became nothing more than professors of meddlesomeness and greed
    4. But to choose from these elements those which should be employed for each subject, to join them together, to arrange them properly, and also, not to miss what the occasion demands but appropriately to adorn the whole speech with striking thoughts and to clothe it in flowing and melodious phrase(18) -- these things, I hold, require much study and are the task of a vigorous and imaginative mind:

      Elements of rhetoric--focus, organization, ornamentation, content He also shows great skill and imagination are involved

    5. For ability, whether in speech or in any other activity, is found in those who are well endowed by nature and have been schooled by practical experience.(17) Formal training makes such men more skilfull

      Natural ability, experience, and training all contribute to skill. It's complex, fed by many factors

    6. oratory is good only if it has the qualities of fitness for the occasion,(15) propriety of style, and originality of treatmen

      Qualities of good oratory

    7. For what has been said by one speaker is not equally useful for the speaker who comes after him; on the contrary, he is accounted most skilled in this art who speaks in a manner worthy of his subject and yet is able to discover in it topics which are nowise the same as those used by others.

      Rhetoric is subjective and liable to change due to our experiences, strengths, situations, etc.

    8. But I marvel when I observe these men setting themselves up as instructors of youth who cannot see that they are applying the analogy of an art with hard and fast rules to a creative process.
    9. More than that, they do not attribute any of this power either to the practical experience or to the native ability of the student, but undertake to transmit the science of discourse as simply as they would teach the letters of the alphabet,

      Rhetoric/discourse is not formulaic but requires experience and is subjective to the person who is using it

    10. that they are on the watch for contradictions in words(10) but are blind to inconsistencies in deeds

      places more importance on action than word

    11. they pretend to wisdom and assume the right to instruct the rest of the world

      This does raise an interesting point, what gives a person the right to teach? What qualifications/qualities matter most?

    12. But these professors have gone so far in their lack of scruple that they attempt to persuade our young men that if they will only study under them they will know what to do in life and through this knowledge will become happy and prosperous. More than that, although they set themselves up as masters and dispensers of goods so precious, they are not ashamed of asking for them a price of three or four minae

      Sounds just like college! except tuition is no trifling expense.

    13. since they pretend to search for truth, but straightway at the beginning of their professions attempt to deceive us with lies

      Seems to state the same ideas as Plato. Truth vs. rhetoric/appearance/deception

    14. f all who are engaged in the profession of education were willing to state the facts instead of making greater promises than they can possibly fulfill, they would not be in such bad repute with the lay-public.

      How true! Somethings just never change I guess:)

  2. caseyboyle.net caseyboyle.net
    1. Death, if I am right, is in the first place the separation from one another of two things, soul and bod

      Body and soul distinct and will be separate at death

    2. judged have their clothes on

      The relationship between appearance and deceit

    3. power and art have to be provided in order that we may do no injustic

      Relationship of power, art, and justice

    4. Listen to me, then, while I recapitulate the argument:—Is the pleasant the same as the good? Not the same. Callicles and I are agreed about that.

      Beginning of summary of argument. Repeated once more for good measure

    5. Listen to me, then, while I recapitulate the argument:—Is the pleasant the same as the good?

      Wait, now he is arguing with himself? Man, he is determined

    6. And 'lawful' and 'law' are the names which are given to the regular order and action of the sou
    7. 'Healthy,' as I conceive, is the name which is given to the regular order of the bod
    8. Do the rhetoricians appear to you always to aim at what is best, and do they seek to improve the citizens by their speeches, or are they too, like the rest of mankind, bent upon giving them pleasure, forgetting the public good in the thought of their own interest, playing with the people as with children, and trying to amuse them, but never considering whether they are better or worse for this?

      He doesn't make the claims, he forces his audience to

    9. I am contented with the admission that rhetoric is of two sorts; one, which is mere flattery and disgraceful declamation; the other, which is noble and aims at the training and improvement of the souls of the citizens, and strives to say what is best, whether welcome or unwelcome, to the audience

      Two types of rhetoric. It can be used either as a medicine or poison, has drastic effects

    10. works by experience and routine,

      He is using rhetoric in the way he defines it. He uses repetition to reinforce ideas, though with slight variations and from different angles. Often time this repetition uses logic, but it can also overlook it, bypass it as well

    11. Help me then to draw out the conclusion which follows from our admissions; for it is good to repeat and review what is good twice and thrice over, as they sa

      Repetition. It's importance to learning, seems central. He pulls Callicles in, tries to make him form the conclusions and feigns ignorance.

    12. Why, my friend, the inference is that the good is not the same as the pleasant, or the evil the same as the painful; there is a cessation of pleasure and pain at the same moment; but not of good and evil, for they are different

      Revealing distinctions, problem with synonyms. Again, relying on definition for argument

    13. Do you see the inference:—that pleasure and pain are simultaneous, when you say that being thirsty, you drink? For are they not simultaneous, and do they not affect at the same time the same part, whether of the soul or the body
    14. You talk about meats and drinks and physicians and other nonsense; I am not speaking of the

      Calls him out on his use of analogies

    15. using words which have no meaning and that you are explaining nothing?—will you tell me whether you mean by the better and superior the wiser, or if not, whom

      Arguments built around definitions, concerned with categorizing, defining

    16. Then not only custom but nature also affirms that to do is more disgraceful than to suffer injustice, and that justice is equality; so that you seem to have been wrong in your former assertion, when accusing me you said that nature and custom are opposed, and that I, knowing this, was dishonestly playing between them, appealing to custom when the argument is about nature, and to nature when the argument is about custom

      Proving the same point from many different angles. Repetition.

    17. Are the superior and better and stronger the same or differen

      Questioning synonyms, applicability. Showing the distinction in each category

    18. three qualities—knowledge, good-will, outspokenness, which are all possessed by you.

      three qualities balance the three evils. Flattery

    19. the study of philosophy too far

      Philosophy has a time and place and must be balanced with application. Compared to femininity, seen as soft, not a hard science or practical knowledge

    20. And this is true, as you may ascertain, if you will leave philosophy and go on to higher things: for philosophy,

      Critique of philosophy

    21. he would trample under foot all our formulas and spells and charms, and all our laws which are against nature: the slave would rise in rebellion and be lord over us, and the light of natural justice would shine forth

      Truth often stands in opposition or at odds to convention and social laws

    22. whereas nature herself intimates that it is just for the better to have more than the worse, the more powerful than the weaker; and in many ways she shows, among men as well as among animals, and indeed among whole cities and races, that justice consists in the superior ruling over and having more than the inferior.

      Survival of the fittest mentality. Justice means those rising due to their own merit

    23. Convention and natur

      convention vs. nature

    24. For the truth is, Socrates, that you, who pretend to be engaged in the pursuit of truth, are appealing now to the popular and vulgar notions of right, which are not natural, but only conventional

      Right and wrong are convention

    25. that the whole world should be at odds with me, and oppose me, rather than that I myself should be at odds with myself, and contradict myself.

      Unconcerned with public opinion/approval

    26. if there were not some community of feelings among mankind, however varying in different persons—I mean to say, if every man's feelings were peculiar to himself and were not shared by the rest of his species—I do not see how we could ever communicate our impressions to one another.

      Isn't that the point of communication, to express differing feelings in order to try and establish some understanding or middle ground?

    27. and you will certainly say, that you never heard a man use fewer words.

      concerned with showing off

    28. what was the nature, of the art, and by what name we were to describe Gorgias

      Socrates is searching for the definition/nature of rhetoric, to pin it down and understand purposes

    29. that he has attended more to the art which is called rhetoric than to dialectic.

      Rhetoric vs. Dialectic. Rhetoric seems more involved with the way one speaks in this instance while dialectic encompasses dialogue and seeking to understand principles to find truth--set in opposition to each other

    30. And our friend Gorgias is one of the best, and the art in which he is a proficient is the noblest.

      Circular, fails answering the question. His rhetoric appears to be empty, with little substance

    31. But now what shall we call him—what is the art in which he is skilled

      Concerned about labeling and defining skill sets

    32. put any question to him, and that he would answer.

      Improvising is a part of rhetoric. "Knowing how to answer about any given subject"

    33. exhibit

      Suggests showiness, false show but no substance

    34. Yes, that was our intention in coming.

      Setting, reasons, exposition

    1. as a connected whole. (4) The third step is: whenever you hear something, connect it with what you know already
    2. The greatest and fairest discovery has been found to be memory; it is useful for everything, for wisdom as well as for the conduct of life

      But can't memory prejudice us, become inaccurate, or narrow our perspective?

    3. And if he knows how to play the flute, he will always be able to play the flute, whenever it is necessary to do this. (9) And a man who knows how to give a judgment ought to have a right understanding of the just, because this is what cases are about

      False analogy. The metaphor doesn't cross over, too different. But even if it did, a flute player can't play every genre of music so he has limitations, just like a judge can't always be suitable and just.

    4. And, first of all, how will it not be possible for a man who knows about the nature of all things to act rightly in every case and (teach the city) to do so too?

      But action does not always follow knowledge. Let's forget that it's impossible to know the nature of all things, but even today, many know about the harmful effects of smoking and still choose to act contrary to that knowledge.

    5. We learn our words in this fashion and we don't know who our teachers are

      We learn through association/experience

    6. it is that wisdom and virtue can neither be taught nor learne

      Platonic. He is refuting common ideas of the time.

    7. Does he exist with respect to some particular thing, or just in general?" Then if someone denies that the man exists, he is mistaken, because he is treating (the particular and) universal senses as being the same. Because everything exists in some sense

      Universal vs. particular. Truth vs. truth

    8. For whenever anyone asks this question they answer that the two groups say the same things, but that the wise speak at the right moment and the demented at the wrong one

      The importance of timing/delivery

    9. As a result of the argument they say that if a thing comes to pass, the statement they make is true, but if it does not, then the statement is false.

      Too simplistic. What about things which can't come to pass or be proved?

    10. I would be the only person making a true statement since I am the only person who is one

      Speaker/context play an essential role in the meaning/truth of words.

    11. both expressed in the same words

      Gorgias, words are both a medicine and a poison.

    12. As for the poets, they write their poems to give men pleasure and not for the sake of truth.

      Why does he continually tag on references to poets?

    13. God does not stand aloof from just deceit, and There are times when god respects an opportunity for lies.

      Then does God lie and deceive man? How does this impact religion/power?

      Again, evoking higher powers to show it is the same at all levels.

    14. And to murder one's nearest and dearest is right: in the case of Orestes and of Alcmaeon, even the god answered that they were right to have done as they did.

      Good vs. greater good. Complicates morality.

    15. just

      Strange view of justice. It seems to be equated with right and conscience not the Christian definition.

    16. Take the example of parents: suppose one's father or mother ought to drink or eat a remedy and is unwilling to do so, isn't it just to give the remedy in a gruel or drink and to deny that it is in it

      Does the same go for rhetoric? Should we sugar coat topics?

    17. And they say that if a group of people should collect from all the nations of the world their disgraceful customs and then should call everyone together and tell each man to select what he thinks is seemly, everything would be taken away as belonging to the seemly things. I would be surprised if things which were disgraceful when they were collected should turn out to be seemly and not what they were when they came

      Twists/extends the same metaphor from earlier but using to explain an entirely different point

    18. wrong

      So what is the right time? He just explained that there is no single right, so how can we figure this out if it's all subjective?

    19. handsome

      So is it disgraceful to be ugly? He uses handsome/good/seemly/white/right/etc. as almost interchangeable or synonyms. Needs better distinctions.

    20. nothing is always seemly or always disgraceful

      No absolutes

    21. And I think that if someone should order all men to make a single heap of everything that each of them regards as disgraceful and then again to take from the collection what each of them regards as seemly, not a thing (would) be left, but they would all divide up everything, because not all men are of the same opinion.

      Individuality/variability even in the same society/ community.

    22. the Greeks regard these things as disgraceful and against the la

      Reveals law is separate from taboo. Society and law are 2 distinct governing forces.

    23. appears to be seeml

      Unconcerned with morality. Relativity.

    24. wicked

      Now he's switched to using wicked and admirable. Are these ideas interchangeable to him?

    25. to the Spartans

      Highlighting the societal/cultural nature of seemliness.

    26. And it is seemly to do good to one's friends but disgraceful to do so to one's enemies

      Christianity would disagree.

    27. Some say the seemly is one thing and the disgraceful another, and that as the name differs, so does the thing named, and others say that the seemly and disgraceful are the same

      IS the connection between good/seemly and bad/disgraceful conscious? It seems there should be a distinction because one is more general while the other is cultural/situational.

    28. distinguis

      Good and bad are distinct, separate though they can both be inherent in people or circumstances

    29. Reference to gods shows that this principle reaches every level. Even with gods there is no universal or absolute good/truth.

    30. This idea has important implications for community. It creates a circular and perpetual cycle of dependence.