225 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. May 2024
    1. I was in a vintage shop about 30 minutes from downtown Los Angeles earlier in the week and the proprietor had a mostly functioning 1950 Smith-Corona Sterling for sale for a roughly equivalent US $150. (One key was disconnected, but fixable, and some keys were sticky, the ribbon was disintegrating, it was incredibly dirty, with a case in very poor condition.) The Sterling was similar to the Silent, but without some of the extra bells and whistles. She wouldn't accept an offer of $40 for it, which I thought was a reach for the dreadful condition it was in. Her reasoning was that she was sure that someone (read: a sucker) would pay the $150 for it. At a yard sale it might be worth $5. Cleaned up a bit maybe $30. In online platforms they're going for a bit more, but you're also saving yourself some level of "shoe leather" in the work of searching for the exact model you want.

      I've been specifically watching this model and a few related ones for a few months, and machines of indeterminate condition (though in my experience they're usually reasonably functionable or easily fixable), like this go for about $50 on ShopGoodWill.com (as auction items). There are usually about 4-5 per week which come up as this was a popular model in the 50s. You can probably find similar prices on eBay, though sellers there usually have a little more information about the working condition. They're definitely common enough that you could easily wait for the exact color options and typeface (pica or elite) that you're looking for, and could also probably purchase two for the price he's asking (including shipping.) I've been watching for a similar mid-50s Smith-Corona Clipper with similar colors and elite type for a while and just bought one online last week for $35. Patience definitely pays off.

      I would only go as high as $150 on that machine if I knew it was well functioning and had a brand new platen in the last several years. You can tell him that most of the expensive machines in the range he's asking for are all fully functioning, have been well maintained and/or recently serviced, and often have new platens, rubber rollers, and feet replaced. He'll know that this isn't the case with his and may come down in price. They're likely pricing it based on other listings they see and not pricing it based on actual sales. If it's their only machine, wait things out until they see that there aren't any takers. If it's a vintage shop, simply move on.

      The Smith-Corona Silents from this time period are really spectacular and solid machines, so good luck in your search for the perfect one.

    1. Walter Wellesley “Red” Smith used a version of this quote by 1949. In April of that year the influential and widely syndicated newspaper columnist Walter Winchell wrote. Boldface has been added to excerpts:[1]1949 April 06, Naugatuck Daily News, Walter Winchell In New York, Page 4, Column 5, Naugatuck, Connecticut. (NewspaperArchive) Red Smith was asked if turning out a daily column wasn’t quite a chore. …”Why, no,” dead-panned Red. “You simply sit down at the typewriter, open your veins, and bleed.”

      via 1949 April 06, Naugatuck Daily News, Walter Winchell In New York, Page 4, Column 5, Naugatuck, Connecticut. (NewspaperArchive)

      https://quoteinvestigator.com/2011/09/14/writing-bleed/

    1. New 1964 Sears Cutlass Model advertised in February 1965. The faceplate of existing examples exactly matches other machines only offered between 1964-65 (Citation, Constellation), so it is presumed to be exactly contemporary. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona "New 5-Series", with custom shell.
    1. Most Smith-Coronas in the 40s and 50s have similar ribbon set ups. Hopefully this photo and description will help:

      (Alt Text) Smith-Corona typewriter ribbon thread sample. A view into the type basket with the hood of the typewriter raised showing the ribbon coming out of a spool on the left, through a black ribbon guide (which actuates the autoswitch when the eyelet at the end of a spool gets stuck between it and the spool) next to the spool cup, and then into the two metal guides of the ribbon vibrator on either side of the the typing point. A silver pen's tip is pointing to the ribbon guide next to the spool cup at about the point where an eyelet clipped onto the middle of the end of a length of a ribbon would trip the ribbon auto switch.

      If your ribbon auto-switch isn't working one can usually switch the direction manually with the ribbon reverse lever usually found on the front left side of most machines.

      To speed up changing the ribbon on many machines, it can often help to switch the color selector to the red setting and then simultaneously press the G and H keys gently so that they're stuck together almost at the typing point which will raise the ribbon vibrator and make accessing the slots for threading the ribbon easier. Once the ribbon is installed, release the G and H typebars and select the correct color setting for the portion of the ribbon you want to use.

  3. Apr 2024
  4. Mar 2024
  5. Feb 2024
    1. In 1894, she moved to Oxford andher days as a Dictionary contributor came to an end as she took up the post ofLibrarian of Manchester College, the Unitarian college that had opened itsnew buildings in Oxford the year before. The Unitarians and the college hadalways been radical – already co-educational before any other college – so theappointment of a female librarian was in keeping with its spirit. LucyToulmin Smith, with her extensive scholarship and networks, and from an oldUnitarian family, was the perfect candidate.
  6. Jan 2024
    1. Es ist noch unklar, ob die Rekordtemperaturen des vergangenen Jahres – vermutlich war es das wärmste seit 125.000 Jahren – Anlass zu einer Revision der zur Zeit benutzten Klimamodelle werden. Die Hypothese James Hansens, dass sich die Erhitzung der Erde beschleunige. wird von vielen Klimaforschenden nicht geteilt. Es gibt noch keine allgemein anerkannte Erklärung der Temperatur-Anomalien 2023. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/12/26/climate/global-warming-accelerating.html

      Infografik zu den monatlichen Durchschnittstemperaturen seit 1900: https://static01.nytimes.com/newsgraphics/2023-12-18-record-hot-year-embed/4055787d-f3af-401d-b252-1dfdff4811f4/_assets/chart_annotated-Artboard-945.png

  7. Nov 2023
  8. Oct 2023
  9. Sep 2023
    1. DCloyceSmithEdited: Mar 23, 2010, 12:22 pm It's a closely held secret: There is in fact no scheme to the color scheme. I can't speak for my predecessors, but I've "chosen" the colors for the last ten years, and the primary considerations have been (1) break up the colors for contiguous authors/titles when the volumes are alphabetized on the shelf (and try to keep additional tan volumes away from all those Henry James volumes), and (2) balance the collection as a whole. A couple of times, an author's son or daughter has specifically requested a cloth color, and of course I'll accommodate their decision. (And sometimes, the colors do pick themselves, like green cloth for the American Earth volume.)For the record, here are the color breakdowns through the Emerson volumes (not including the Twain Anthology and the Lincoln Anthology, when we used unique colors):Red -- 52 Blue -- 51 Green -- 48 Tan -- 50 (counting the Franklin as 2 volumes)David

      https://www.librarything.com/topic/87541

      No real rhyme or reason for Library of America book covers.

    1. The invisible hand is a metaphor used by the Scottish moral philosopher Adam Smith that describes the inducement a merchant has to keep his capital, thereby increasing the domestic capital stock and enhancing military power, both of which are in the public interest and neither of which he intended.[1]

      See invisible hand as a force that aids us in our life journey as a metaphor of Adam Smith his metaphor of the invisible hand

      • Joseph Campbell also coined this term somewhere, in his explanation of the hero’s journey
  10. Aug 2023
    1. Adam Smith stated the case long ago: "A man withoutthe proper use of the intellectual faculties of a man, is, ifpossible, more contemptible than even a coward, and seemsto be mutilated and deformed in a still more essential part ofthe character of human nature."

      This seems apropos to the situation in which I view Donald J. Trump.

  11. Jul 2023
    1. The second great separation followed the industrial revolution.
      • Second great separation
        • Industrial Revolution
          • The early enclosure movement during the 1600s
          • Prior to the enclosures, land was held in common for public use, not owned by individuals.
          • The rise of capitalism also occurred during this time.
            • Adam Smith wrote his landmark book, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776.
            • Land was privatized so the most efficient use of land could be determined
              • by market competition rather than
              • community consensus.
            • Labor then also had to be ​“commodified,” or bought and sold,
              • so non-farmers could work for wages and buy food and the other necessities of life they had been getting from the land.
            • With reliance on working for wages, buying, and selling
              • the necessity for personal relationships were diminished.
            • With the diminished necessity for personal relationships,
              • the social cohesion within families, communities and society began to diminish as well.
          • The persistence of chronic poverty and malnutrition, even during times of tremendous economic growth and individual wealth, are direct consequences of a growing sense of disconnectedness from each other that was nourished by the industrial era of economic development.
  12. Jun 2023
  13. May 2023
    1. 6N070 Smith Corona Clipper Typewriter Ribbon This is the ribbon you need for your Smith Corona Clipper typewriter.  1/2" nylon ribbon with eyelets on 2" diameter spools.  Available in vibrant colors and can be made in nylon, cotton, or silk.

      The replacement typewriter ribbon for my Smith-Corona Clipper is 1/2" nylon ribbon with eyelets on 2" diameter spools.

      https://www.ribbonsunlimited.com/category-s/5415.htm

  14. Apr 2023
    1. Friday<br /> 7 July <br /> 2017

      Lee,

      You are a wise and brave man. This 1930's era Smith- corona Clipper will last you for the ages..

      Happy to have served you...<br /> /s<br /> Tom Hanks


      Hanks wrote this letter to an interviewer who purchased one. Lost here on the viewer is the fact that the Clipper wasn't manufactured until 1946...

    2. This is what I would suggest: if you wanted the perfect typewriter that will last forever that would be a great conversation piece, I'd say get the Smith-Corona Clipper. That will be as satisfying a typing experience as you will ever have. —Tom Hanks on CBS Sunday Morning: "Tom Hanks, Typewriter Enthusiast" at 07:30

    1. My favorite is always changing. Any Smith-Corona Sterling or Silent is a gem. Any Hermes, either the green or tan, all work like lightning. I have a thing for my Olivetti Lettera 22’s, as they are masterpieces of design, the action is crazy fast and light, and the typewriter is in the Museum of Modern Art.

      —Tom Hanks in TribLive 2020-05-22 at https://web.archive.org/web/20200522085215/https://archive.triblive.com/aande/books/tom-hanks-on-his-love-of-typewriters-and-the-free-press/


      I've seen several sites and listings for Smith-Corona typewriters which mention this interview quote.

    1. The Clipper was named after Boeing's 314 Clipper- which although was retired by Pan-Am in 1946- still continued to represent a new era of elegant, luxurious travel, and which this typewriter is directly associated with.
  15. Mar 2023
    1. The human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI) [1–6]. The evolutionary transitions framework explains how new levels of biological organization (such as multicellularity, or eusociality) emerge from subsidiary units (such as cells or individuals) through the formation of cooperative groups [6–10]. First proposed by Maynard Smith & Szathmáry [3], evolutionary transitions are thought to unfold via a shift in the dominant level of selection from competitive individuals to well-integrated functional groups [8,11]. These transitions exhibit a common set of patterns, including new divisions of labour, the loss of full individual autonomy and reproductive control, and the rise of new routes of information transmission [6,7,10].

      Definition : Evolutionary Transition in Individuality - This is a very good definition of ETI - A new individual is a new level of biological organization - The new individual emerges out of an integration of subsiduary units as competitive individuals synergize and form well-integrated functional groups

  16. Feb 2023
  17. Jan 2023
    1. I have a bit of a soft spot for Niklas Luhmann ever since David Seidl introduced me to his ideas. I think it was at an EGOS conference in the early 2000s.

      https://petersmith.org/blog/2022/12/10/zettelkasten/

      Peter Smith was introduced to Niklas Luhmann at an European Group for Organizational Studies (EGOS) Conference in the early 2000s, ostensibly a business related group.


      I came across this via an IndieWeb reference and webmention.

  18. Dec 2022
    1. My freely downloadable Beginning Mathematical Logic is a Study Guide, suggesting introductory readings beginning at sub-Masters level. Take a look at the main introductory suggestions on First-Order Logic, Computability, Set Theory as useful preparation. Tackling mid-level books will help develop your appreciation of mathematical approaches to logic.

      This is a reference to a great book "Beginning Mathematical Logic: A Study Guide [18 Feb 2022]" by Peter Smith on "Teach Yourself Logic A Study Guide (and other Book Notes)". The document itself is called "LogicStudyGuide.pdf".

      It focuses on mathematical logic and can be a gateway into understanding Gödel's incompleteness theorems.

      I found this some time ago when looking for a way to grasp the difference between first-order and second-order logics. I recall enjoying his style of writing and his commentary on the books he refers to. Both recollections still remain true after rereading some of it.

      It both serves as an intro to and recommended reading list for the following: - classical logics - first- & second-order - modal logics - model theory<br /> - non-classical logics - intuitionistic - relevant - free - plural - arithmetic, computability, and incompleteness - set theory (naïve and less naïve) - proof theory - algebras for logic - Boolean - Heyting/pseudo-Boolean - higher-order logics - type theory - homotopy type theory

  19. Nov 2022
    1. Germany was able to memorialize the Holocaust more easily because there were almost no Jews left to deal with or confront in daily life as the memorialization was done. This is not the case with the descendants of slaves in America who are a sizeable portion of the population in the United States.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Morning Edition </span> in What the U.S. can learn from Germany on grappling with sins of the past : NPR (<time class='dt-published'>11/15/2022 08:31:18</time>)</cite></small>

  20. Aug 2022
  21. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. She checked herself just in time

      Mrs Smith stops herself from speaking badly of Elizabeth. This is so different from now; a friend would bitch about a friends sister. Mrs Smith is polite but is this really open and honest?

    2. I do know how to value your kindness in coming to me this morning. It is really very good of you to come and sit with me, when you must have so many pleasanter demands upon your time

      Does she know Anne at all? Has her experience at the hands of Mr Elliot made her question whether there is any real friendship?

    3. Everybody of any consequence or notoriety in Bath was well know by name to Mrs Smith

      Mrs Smith would have been a fan of gossip sheets like Lady Whistledown in the Bridgerton series

  22. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. I have had a longer acquaintance with your character than you are aware of

      He's referring to Mrs Smith here, completely unaware that Anne is in contact with her. The audacity to use her memory to his advantage when he doesn't care for her now

  23. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. I may not have many more visits from you

      Not sure if she's implying that Anne will move away when she marries or Mr Elliot will convince her to drop the friendship

  24. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. delighted Mr Elliot

      Oh the irony! He's the reason Mrs Smith is in financial straits. Mrs Smith returns the favour by bad mouthing him (quite rightly) to Anne. Having "no surname of dignity" means Mrs Smith could be anyone so Mr Elliot doesn't make the connection

    2. it is its weakness and not its strength that appears in a sick chamber: it is selfishness and impatience rather than generosity and fortitude, that one hears of

      I feel like Mrs Smith would enjoy reality TV

    3. here was that elasticity of mind, that disposition to be comforted, that power of turning readily from evil to good, and of finding employment which carried her out of herself, which was from nature alone

      Mrs Smith is naturally a positive person but, like Anne, employment and feeling useful helps her. Anne's reaction seems to indicate that she would not deal as well as Mrs Smith in the same circumstances and perhaps that Mrs Smith would have dealt better with a broken engagement

    4. useful and good to her

      She sounds just like Anne! Anne was grieving her mother and Miss Hamilton/Mrs Smith stepped into a mothering role a little.

    5. want of near relations and a settled home, remaining another year at school

      Note that Miss Hamilton's situation is like that of Harriet Smith in Emma, no relations and no where to go so they stay at school

  25. Jul 2022
    1. 18:07 - Adam Smith - The Theory of Moral Sentiments

      He felt, in the Theory of Moral Sentiment that human beings can control themselves. The Church used to be the moral constraint and there was a big debate about getting rid of it. Adam Smith disagreed. He had faith that the empathic side of human behavior would be present to balance out the self-interest side. He was not right about this, unfortunately.

      Our poorer living conditions provide the necessary conditions for inventing technologies that would alleviate our difficult life conditions. Progress has principally been about making our human lives more comfortable but beyond a certain threshold, self-interest started to runaway as technology allowed us to go far beyond survival.

    1. experiments in laboratories by the economistVernon Smith and his colleagues have long confirmed thatmarkets in goods and services for immediate consum ption -haircuts and hamburgers - work so well that it is hard to designthem so they fail to deliver efficiency and innovation; whilemarkets in assets are so automatically prone to bubbles andcrashes that it is hard to design them so they work at all.
  26. Jun 2022
    1. the institu-tions in force in China in the eighteenth century were much more inaccord with Smith’s ideas than those applied in the United Kingdom.

      Piketty suggests that eighteenth century China was a better example of economic liberalism in the vein of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776) than the United Kingdom was during the same period. He particularly points out lower taxes and balanced budgets in China, respect for property rights, better markets for labor and goods, competition, social mobility and freedom.

  27. Apr 2022
  28. Mar 2022
  29. Feb 2022
  30. Jan 2022
  31. Nov 2021
    1. The Ouroboros is a Greek word meaning “tail devourer,” and is one of the oldest mystical symbols in the world. It can be perceived as enveloping itself, where the past (the tail) appears to disappear but really moves into an inner domain or reality, vanishing from view but still existing.

      Mark Smith asked me if I was familiar with the term ouroboros. I replied, “No.” So he sent me this link.

      This symbolizes the cyclic Nature of the Universe: creation out of destruction, Life out of Death.

  32. Oct 2021
    1. w/ Jurgis Didžiulis, Mark Smith, Amanda Joy Ravenhill, Turquoise Sound, Tamas David-Barrett — 📡 Re&Co RADIO | a weekly transmission of regenerative thinking & musical co-creation |cross-disciplinary conversations, synesthesic jams, and other fluxus | 📡 KPCR.fm 🔴rec
    1. Yarrow Kraner

      Hatch

      Yarrow is the Founder of HATCH and H360.ai, is an Aspen Institute Fellow, RSA Fellow, and named 2015 top 100 creatives in the U.S. by Origins. He is a pioneer of social networking and has been building communities for twenty years.

      Shared by Mark Smith and Jurgis Didžiulis. We were chatting in the RE & CO Radio soundcheck room just before the live event in Clubhouse.

    1. Interview with Erik Adigard about our collaboration on the eleprocon epiphany since its inception back in 1979 and thoughts since then. Sitting outside the original Dolphin Farm Studio where genesis ignited.

      Each day, there seem to be so many epiphanies. That shift in awareness feels overwhelming. I’m not sure what to do with these realizations, as the next right thing is often uncertain and ambiguous. Charles Eisenstein is drawing me into an exploration of sacred economics.

  33. Oct 2020
    1. e Constitutional Convention. I t had begun i n Philadelphia on May 25, 1 787, months after Samuel S tan-hope Smith had addressed some of t he delegates on race.
    2. Scottish phi-losopher Adam Smith condemned England’s trade acts f or constrain-ing the “free” market i n his i nstant best seller, The Wealth o f Nations. To this f ounding father of capitalist economics, t he wealth of nations stemmed from a nation’s productive capacity, a productive capacity African nations l acked. “ All t he inland parts of Africa,” he scripted, “seem in all a ges of t he world to have been in the same barbarous and uncivilized state i n which we find them at present.” Meanwhile, Smith praised Americans for “ contriving a new form of government f or an extensive empire, which . . . s eems very likely to become, one of t he greatest and most f ormidable that ever was i n the world.” The found-ing fathers beamed reading Adam Smith’s prediction. J efferson later called Wealth o f Nations “ the best book extant” on political e conomy.

      Adam Smith apparently held racist ideas.

  34. Feb 2020
    1. might easily be known to be one of those who come there for no other Purpose

      This phrase describing the woman in the pit has a negative tone and gives a negative depiction of the woman. I believe the reason behind this is due to the views of Eliza Haywood, as well as the majority of people in the 18th century. The wording used in this phrase such as, "one of those who come there for no other Purpose", suggests that the woman in the pit has nothing better to do than "create Acquaintance with as many as seem desirous of it". This negative view of the woman in the pit is probably due to her choice of occupation. During the time, high class individuals were seen as being very prim and proper and therefore expected their fellow peers to be just as prim and proper as well. These masses seem to be trying to hold members of the lower class, such as the woman in the pit, to the same standards, therefore criticizing her actions as being improper by their standards

      Enlightenmens Source:Metaphor from the Theory of Moral Centiments

      The idea that the members of the high class held members of the lower class to similar standards to their own could be explained by Adam Smith in The Theory of Moral Centiments. Adam Smith explains that, "we value ourselves too much and other people too little". This quote would explain why people of high class would think of themselves as superior and better while looking at the lower class and thinking the opposite. This ideology would continue to an extent where these same people would start to expect the same standards from others around them.

  35. Dec 2019
    1. when they were unhappy, I felt depressed; when they rejoiced, I sympathized in their joys

      The eighteenth-century Scottish and British discourse of "sympathy" is especially vivid in the Creature's instinctive opening onto the emotions of others, echoing Adam Smith's arguments in The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759).

    1. Remarkably, studies receiving mainly public funding can, a quarter of a century on, still survive without making their data available in a useful way. In the UK a series of studies—the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (100), UK Biobank (101), and Born in Bradford (102), among others—have surely been exemplary in promoting data accessibility.

      Critical points!

  36. Nov 2019
  37. Oct 2019
    1. The annual festival, which takes place this Saturday, has grown to become one of the city's largest events, attracting about 100,000 people to the streets of Eastwood. Organisers say it is second only to the Royal Easter Show.

      Oooh yeah, so big that if a self-serving politician didn't convince you to regurgitate this story (to divert attention from a historical failure) the best coverage it could have enjoyed in the SMH would have been a reference in one of your crossword puzzle! In the end Granny Smith got some great free publicity, and the narcissistic politician who made sure you (and your readers) missed half the story, would be happy you saved them from being reminded about another of their many failed campaigns.

    2. Labor councillors are suspicious about Mr Booth's pageant. In 2014, then councillor George Simon - now assistant general secretary of NSW Labor - called for the "archaic" event to be killed off.

      This is a great example of the risks involved in using background paragraphs from incomplete coverage. George Simon will no doubt be over the moon that you've given him a plug, along with his courageous but failed efforts to kill off the event.

      It's likely you found your re-used paragraph in the story previewing George Simon's courageous failure. Unfortunately, The Hasbeen was MIA when the motion was shot down in flames.

      But your competitor - and also TWT competitor - News Ltd's (NDT) report on failed attempt to ban Queen Questl was there at the meeting in which the motion suffered a humiliating defeat.

      Even a niche womens issues publication, Womens Agenda, noted George Simon was branded a wanker for his bungled efforts..

      Nevermind, you're not expected to get everything right as a work experience student, but you'll be relieved to know someone in the former Fairfax - now Nine - publishing empire did.

      Watch and learn how the pros like Peter Munro do it. In his 'Six Degrees' column he mentioned Simon was chastised for his fruitless cruisade by Yellow Wiggle Emma Watkins.

      That was a report, of course, before Simon ended up with egg on his face, as was the earlier one selectively regurgitated.

      But surely you could have also regurgitated these John Booth pearlers from the same story:

      Mr Booth said contestants were judged on responses to questions about local knowledge, ambition and involvement in the community: "Beauty doesn't come into it - but we don't penalise them for being beautiful either.

      "They're trying to make it out as disparaging to women but it's politically correct rubbish. There's no swimsuit competition and most judges are women," Mr Booth said. "Two women's libbers [councillors] tried to [cut support for the contest] a few years ago but they got voted down 10-2."

      And on Simon's spectacular failure - one of many:

      "That nitwit?" Mr Booth said. "I'm thinking about mocking him up in a dress and Orphan Annie wig in our next edition. I haven't decided yet".

  38. Jul 2018
  39. Dec 2017
    1. Government

      With a government only a few decades old, I would be incredibly interested to know what they expected to teach students in this course. I wonder if they taught about the British government instead of the new American government. If they taught about the American government, I think it would be extremely difficult to have consistent teaching happening, since very little was solidified in our government during this time.

    2. 400 acres on the north fork of James River known by the name of Hart’s bottom purchased of the late General Bowyer 171 acres adjoining the same purchased of James Griggsby 203 acres joining the last mentioned tract, purchased of William Paxton 112 acres lying on the North river above the lands of Arthur Glasgow conveyed to him by William Paxton’s heirs. 500 acres joining the lands of Arthur Glasgow, Benjamin Cambden, and David Edmondson. 545 acres lying in Pryor’s gap conveyed to him by the heirs of William Paxton deceased. 260 acres lying in Childers gap purchased of William Mitchell 300 acres lying also in Childer’s gap purchased of Nicholas Jones 500 Acres lying on Buffalo, joining the lands of James Johnston

      I'm amazed that everyone was just as prepared to create our school in Lexington as they were in Charlottesville. They had such detailed plans, and individuals were fully prepared to give up their land in case Lexington was chosen to become our Grounds. I wonder how far ahead they planned in Lexington before settling on Charlottesville; did they have building plans and exact locations of dormitories prepared?

    3. Geography

      Although this is a common subject that all schools still teach, I'm sure the subject matter must have been very different. It's similar to how history classes change inevitably over time to constantly update with current events as well as new discoveries about previously "known" facts. Considering the Louisiana Purchase being only 15 years old at this point, geography must have been quite an important field of study. Today we learn from texts compiling ages of knowledge acquired over many lifetimes of contributing people. Perhaps "geography" was a skills-based class as opposed to a purely information-based one. Some people had to go out and chart good maps. If property lines were disputed a cartographer would have been sent in. Today the profession exists (with satellite and computer assistance), but is very different in main goals and intentions.

    4. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      I find this quote interesting for a few reasons. It seems as if it is just thrown regularly into the middle of a bunch of other facts. This shows how normal slavery is viewed during this time. This is also a fact lots of people try to avoid or forget about in Thomas Jefferson's, UVA, and America's history. All of these things have been heavily impacted and built by slavery. This is an important part of history that should be acknowledged and unforgotten.

    5. To enable him to calculate for himself, and to express & preserve his ideas, his contracts & accounts in writing. To improve by reading, his morals and faculties.

      I found these two lines very interesting fr a plethora of reasons. To start off, the line before says how the objects would benefit "every citizen". However, the article refers to every citizen as "him" or "himself". This shows the ideology of the people during this time period. It displays how men were only viewed as first class citizens and the only ones considered in the founding of the university. In addition, the last part of the quote mentions how the object would improve his morals. However, allowing slavery was an extremely immoral act. I find this quote interesting because of its display of the thoughts of women and slavery at the time.

    6. Latin

      Because it was impossible to highlight all the languages without highlighting other areas, I simply highlighted “Latin”, but I will be referring to all the languages listed, including Greek, French, and German. First, not surprisingly, all the languages listed have some sort of European and Western origin, except for Hebrew. However, although Hebrew originated in the Middle East, many Jews moved or fled to Europe during the diaspora, so Hebrew as a language is also tied to Europe. Secondly, I find it interesting that English is still referred to as “Anglo-Saxon” at this time. Lastly, I also find it interesting that both Latin and Greek were taught in the early 1800's, but now only Latin is taught in some schools, even though Latin is the dead language, not Greek.

    7. by law required at the tavern in Rockfish gap on the blue ridge

      I am curious about what kind of law mandated this very specific location for the meeting. What kind of circumstances would have led to this oddly specific legislation? Since new universities don't really get chartered anymore, are there any obsolete laws like this? It just sounds very weird that the Commissioners were mandated to meet at a specific tavern.

    8. Some good men, and even of respectable information, consider the learned sciences as useless acquirements; some think that they do not better the condition of men

      Although I do not specifically what the learned science means in this context and time, I assume that it has to do with the field of science (including disciplines such as Biology). This is interesting to me, because science is such a big part of our education nowadays. However, obviously during the early 1800's, many people, including educated men, did not believe in science or that science was necessary for students to learn. I assume instead they wanted students to learn more “relevant” fields, such as theology, philosophy, language, and commerce. Thinking about the lack of importance of science in this time, it’s amazing to think about how different people back then viewed the world.

    9. Encouraged therefore by the sentiments of the Legislature, manifested in this statute, we present the following tabular statement of the branches of learning which we think should be taught in the University, forming them into groups, each of which are within the powers of a single professor.

      In modern education, students are essentially encouraged to specialize within a particular field the moment they declare their major. This table shows how the Jeffersonian vision of education is incredibly well-rounded and encompasses every field present during the early 19th century. However, the College of Arts and Sciences at UVA still has general education requirements, and students are highly encouraged to explore different fields with a variety of classes in their first and second years. The New College Curriculum takes this initiative to an entirely new level, with classes in different areas that captivate the modern intellectual world, including poverty, extinction, and implications of art. These two curriculums serve as a testament to the original Jeffersonian vision of education, and allows current University of Virginia students to graduate with an education so broad and varied that graduates are far more well equipped for life beyond college.

    10. The board having thus agreed on a proper site for the University to be reported to the legislature, proceeded to the second of the duties assigned to them, that of proposing a plan for its buildings; and they are of opinion that it should consist of distinct houses or pavilions, arranged at proper distances on each side of a lawn of a proper breadth, & of indefinite extent in one direction at least, in each of which should be a lecturing room with from two to four apartments for the accommodation of a professor and his family: that these pavilions should be united by a range of Dormitories, sufficient each for the accommodation of two students only, this provision being deemed advantageous to morals, to order, & to uninterrupted study;

      This description of the general design of the Lawn exhibits Jefferson's idealized concept of how a university should be properly arranged; his firm convictions on the morals of education and his idea of professors and students living and learning together really set the University of Virginia apart from other universities of the time. Even in the present, I for one cannot name a single university that features something similar to the Lawn and rotunda, and the amount of thought regarding educational morals that went into their design. The University of Virginia stands out from its academic peers across the country in the foundations of its creation, and the continuation of the community of trust that seeks to live up to these values that Jefferson envisioned two hundred years ago.

    11. These innocent arts furnish amusement & happiness to those who, having time on their hands, might less inoffensively employ it; needing, at the same time, no regular incorporation with the institution, they may be left to accessory teachers, who will be paid by the individuals employing them; the university only providing proper apartments for their exercise.

      The study and appreciation of arts is just as important as other fields of study such as sciences and literature. As the document fairly states: "Arts furnish amusement and happiness." Arts give us an insight into the world beyond letters, numbers, and formulas, and it endows us with creativity and possibility. The education of arts should be mandatory, providing abundant resources to faculty and students who pursue it. From my own experience, a good education of arts teaches me to look at the world in an entirely different way.

    12. The Italian abounds with works of Very superior Order, Valuable for their matter, and still more distinguished as models of the finest taste in style and composition,

      It is sad to realize that Italian, a language that had "finest taste in style and composition," has become less and less popular nowadays. People may prefer to study Spanish and French because these two languages are more commonly used in the world. The less spoken languages such as Italian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew seem to be left unattended in a fast-developing world. Language is art, and the beauty of its style and composition is an invaluable treasure that human shall always embrace and not forget. Language speaks of its own culture and history.

    13. This degree of medical information is such as the mass of scientific students would wish to possess, as enabling them, in their course thro life, to estimate with satisfaction the extent & limits of the aid to human life & health, which they may understandingly expect from that art: and it constitutes such a foundation for those intended for the profession, that the finishing course of practice at the bedsides of the sick, and at the operations of surgery in a hospital, can neither be long nor expensive. To seek this finishing elsewhere, must therefore be submitted to for a while.

      This is certainly an interesting little tidbit of medical views at the time. Part of the purpose is to teach the students what medicine can do, something that I suppose not very many people at the time would know the exact extent of, either exaggerating or downplaying the uses of then-modern medicine. I also enjoy that they throw shade at any other institutions by saying that it would be both expensive and much longer to pursue a medical education at another institution. Pretentiousness is universal after all, I suppose.

    14. German now stands in a line with that of the most learned nations in richness of erudition and advance in the sciences

      German has had a troubled and war-torn past, but is now known for being a major scientific nation, partially out of necessity. I'm not sure about the sciences then, but a lot of philosophers and musicians at the time were German. In terms of military history, Germany wasn't exactly a hugely united country, torn with religious and political strife.It's almost odd that they were being praised for their scientific advances in a predominantly religious area. Calling it a country at this point would be a bit of a stretch.

    15. Some of these have rendered the elements themselves subservient to the purposes of man, have harnessed them to the yoke of his labours

      The sentence here regarding technology and its use to manipulate and claim land as resources instead of shared environments hints at sentiments that continue to fuel the debate on man’s role in exacerbating climate change and the degradation of the earth. While the document emphasizes the benefits of higher education on improving man as individuals prior to this point, this statement here presents a darker, more exploitative use of knowledge for gain. Undertones of submission and subservience to the human race further invoke a strong sense of superiority that inherently perpetuates dangerous rates of resource consumption of in order to maintain high standards of living without a thought for its cost to the environment. It is this fostered sense of entitlement that inherently proves destructive to man’s surroundings, solidified by the current state of the world and the earth.

    16. his would leave us then without those callings which depend on education, or send us to other countries, to seek the instruction they require.

      Even in the early beginnings of America, there existed a “take up the white man’s burden” mentality already brewing in the American citizenry, especially among the educated elite - seeing as education is still inherently more accessible to mainly a white populace (even by today’s standards). Illustrating the kindling of policies such as the Manifest Destiny, to “send us to other countries, to seek the instruction they require” invokes a certain sense of western superiority over other cultures, fueling a sense of responsibility to further westernize countries and peoples deemed “developing” or “third world”. Even in America’s origins as settlements rooted in imperialism and colonialism, the notion of spreading westernization, be it through colonies or missionaries, continues to maintain its relevancy within this document as well as tensions rooted in this notion still present globally.

    17. Spanish

      Spanish is one of the branched groups that was planned to be taught at the school from the beginning. Like many other schools, UVA now offers this school in other countries were students are able to have have the full experience of a different culture. It's a great opportunity for students to come out of their comfort-zone and gain skills that will make them a more well-rounded human being. Not only is Spanish the only language the is taught abroad, but their are a wide variety for various people to choose from.

    18. proceeded to the second of the duties assigned to them, that of proposing a plan for its buildings; and they are of opinion that it should consist of distinct houses or pavilions, arranged at proper distances on each side of a lawn of a proper breadth, & of indefinite extent in one direction at least, in each of which should be a lecturing room with from two to four apartments for the accommodation of a professor and his family: that these pavilions should be united by a range of Dormitories, sufficient each for the accommodation of two students only,

      Not only has the plan of the buildings, known as the pavilions located by the rotunda, shown to have an arrangement but I have also found it in old dorms. The way the buildings are structured and placed makes the quad the center of them all. This allows for all the people that are located in the dorms to have a centralized place where they can all come together and socialize. It is well known how old dorms are know to have a better sense of community. I wonder if new dorms are not as known for their sense of community because they were built later on and the people that made the plan didn't have the same goals in mind.

    19. fixing the number of professors they require, which we think should at present, be ten, limiting (except as to the professors who shall be first engaged in each branch) a maximum for their salaries, (which should be a certain but moderate subsistence, to be made up by liberal tuition fees, as an excitement to assiduity,)

      This section of text regarding professors' salaries is particularly intriguing because it discusses the fact that professors should be paid a moderate subsistence. If you look at the Cavalier Daily's report on salaries on some of our most distinguished professors are rather high and nowadays that is what I believe is what it takes to get some of the best minds to teach at our university and why the moderate subsistence clause of the Rockfish Gap Report is no longer relevant if we want to keep UVA's standing as one of the world's best universities. Professors want to teach at the universities that are the best deal for them which is why we can no longer just pay them just a mere living wage as in the time when this document was originally written.

    20. Ours on the same correct principle, should be adapted to our arms & warfare; and the manual exercise, military maneuvres, and tactics generally, should be the frequent exercises of the students, in their hours of recreation.

      The notion that the students of UVA in the early days should be preparing for military battle while they are in their hours of recreation. Nowadays these preparations would only be seen at traditional military academies like VMI and the Citadel. UVA is known for having ROTC programs but the amount of students that participate in them is not as high as it seems Jefferson wanted in the original proposal for the university.

    1. This degree of medical information is such as the mass of scientific students would wish to possess, as enabling them, in their course thro life, to estimate with satisfaction the extent & limits of the aid to human life & health, which they may understandingly expect from that art: and it constitutes such a foundation for those intended for the profession, that the finishing course of practice at the bedsides of the sick, and at the operations of surgery in a hospital, can neither be long nor expensive.

      The authors of the Rockfish Gap Report recognized the need to create curriculum that focused on the moral/ethical implications of medical practice. The fact that the "extent & limits" of the practice is emphasized here demonstrates that there is more to care than simply repairing the body on an anatomical level, thus prompting the need for a more compassionate kind of care. The initial purpose of UVA's medical curriculum was to create a more compassionate pool of health-providers, and this vision persists today in programs like the nursing school's Compassionate Care initiative. This fully aligns with Jefferson's belief that students should focus on their area of study from a micro and macro level, synthesizing knowledge of the hard sciences with philosophical and ethical inquiry.

    2. John Robinson of Rockbridge County, has executed a deed to the President & Directors of the Literary fund, to take effect at his death for the following tracts of Land, to wit

      The development of the University was an incredible feat that I am sure many wanted to be a part of. John Robinson likely hoped to do some good in death by having his final legacy be contributing his land and slaves for the university's use. Though Lexington was not chosen as the site for the University, Robinson's willingness to donate the wealth he accumulated throughout his lifetime to UVA demonstrates the human tendency to be a part of a cause greater than who they are individually, thus in a sense defying death.

    1. should be a lecturing room with from two to four apartments for the accommodation of a professor and his family: that these pavilions should be united

      That must have worked well. Putting families with possibly young children right next to students. In all sincerity, though, this arrangement seems like being a professor was a trade. Blacksmiths or tavern keepers lived in their place of business, and so are these professors. It shows just how evolved of a society we are that our professors are more than tradesmen, that they not only teach but are also participants in research institutions.

    2. each of these was unexceptionable as to healthiness & fertility. It was the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places: and the board,

      It is necessary to understand that cars and the like did not exist at this point in time. As such, keeping the university central to the state's educable population must have been the primary concern for the founders. Also, because I expect an intense amount of responses keying in to the "white" mention, I've said it a hundred times, but black people were not people in the eyes of whites at this point. It was not a good system, but that's a given from our perspective. To them, slavery was perceived as traditional and necessary. So when people say that this was unfair to black people, keep in mind that unfair is a standard in this world, and that slaves were struggling to keep their families intact and survive from day to day, not get a higher education.

    3. The considerations which have governed the specification of languages to be taught by the professor of Modern Languages were that the French is the language of general intercourse among nations, and as a depository of human Science is unsurpassed by any other language living or dead: that the Spanish is highly interesting to us, as the language spoken by so great a portion of the inhabitants of our Continents, with whom we shall possibly have great intercourse ere long; and is that also in which is written the greater part of the early history of America.

      I appreciate the fact that they mention the importance of learning other languages in order to advance as an individual as well as a member of the community. I think this section of the document is one that is still applied to the education at the University of Virginia today. For example, students in the College of Arts and Sciences are required to take a language course in their first year and I believe part of this is to make us more well-rounded individuals that are able to connect with multiple cultures and languages. UVA also has language houses meant to immerse certain students to a particular language that they are learning. This is significant to one’s development because studies have shown that bilingual people have more cognitive benefits such as multi-tasking and better attention span.

    4. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business. To enable him to calculate for himself, and to express & preserve his ideas, his contracts & accounts in writing.

      Upon reading this section of the Rockfish Gap Document, I noticed how there seems to be an emphasis on the individual. The use of phrases such as “for himself” and “ his own” exemplifies a common theory in economics derived from Adam Smith that when people work to benefit themselves, they indirectly benefit society. In the same way, the theory can be applied to education. However, there are pro’s and con’s to this mentality. In regards to the positive aspects of individualism, people feel more to express themselves, which allows for a more creative community. However, an emphasis on individualism can also be dangerous in that it can also lead to a selfish mentality, straying away from important values such as compassion and camaraderie. It is important to balance the concept of individualism with such values, which I think the writers of the Rockfish Gap Document tried to do. For example in the line that follows, they mention that it is imperative for one to “understand his duties to his neighbors and country,” allowing for an application of individual thinking.