116 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
    1. Artykuł na temat mediów społecznościowych wykorzystywanych przez instytucje kultury i organizacje pozarządowe; o ich roli, charakterze i sposobie podejścia do pracy z treściami tam publikowanych.

      Dwoma podstawowymi rolami mediów społecznościowych są: - przekazywanie treści, - budowanie społeczności.

      Dlatego istotnym elementem jest komunikacja z publicznością, do tego tak, często, jak często wymaga tego dane zagadnienie, a także bez zbędnego dystansu (zwracamy się "na ty"), czyli z naciskiem na społecznościowy charakter.

      Zatem rozmawiamy z ludźmi, jesteśmy blisko nich, tworzymy z nimi przyjazną przestrzeń do wspólnej dyskusji.

    1. Unfortunately, many graduate and professional students rely onreading strategies taught in high school or college for their academicwork. One example is taking notes only during lectures andhighlighting passages of academic texts

      It seems broadly true in the new millennium and potentially much earlier that students are not taught broader reading strategies within academic settings. The history of note taking strategies and teaching would indicate that this wasn't always true.

      In prior centuries there was more focus in earlier education on grounding in the trivium and quadrivium including rhetoric. These pieces and their fundamentals are now either glossed over or skipped altogether to focus more training on what might be considered more difficult and more important material. It would seem that educational reforms from the late 1500s shifted the focus on some of these prior norms to focus on other materials, and in particular reforms in the early 1900s (Charles William Eliot , et al) which focused on training a workforce for a more industrialized and capitalistic society weaned many of these methods out of earlier curricula. This results in students dramatically under-prepared for doctoral research, analysis, and writing.

    1. From thissmall beginning we have grown until now the Instituteowns two thousand acres of land, eight hundred of whichare cultivated each year by the young men of the school.

      It's interesting that these students work communal land owned by the school while Washington continues to express the importance of bending tot he will of a capitalist system.

    2. And just the same with theprofessional class which the race needs and must have, Iwould say give the men and women of that class, too, thetraining which will best t them to perform in the mostsuccessful manner the service which the race demands

      Is he saying that black people still need a professional class, but should go through the same mental training first as anybody who is in the working class too?

    3. these things, upon their elementaryside are absolutely vital to the worth and success ofhundreds of thousands of these people of theNegro race, and yet our whole educational systemhas practically ignored them.

      Doesn't this contradict what Washington just said on the previous page about not needing to teach or train in the subject of agriculture?

    4. I have not emphasized particularly in these pages thegreat need of training the Negro in agriculture, but Ibelieve that this branch of industrial education does needvery great emphasis.

      Why do they not need training in agriculture? Does he think this because their family members/ancestors may have taught them training in agriculture already? If so, I feel as though that might not be the case.

    5. Not only do the students receive instruction in thesetrades, but they do actual work, by means of which morethan half of them pay some part or all of their expenseswhile remaining at the school.

      Why don't more schools apply this technique? I feel as though students learn best when they are instructed and then can apply that instruction to real world situations.

    6. We began teaching wheelwrighting and blacksmithing ina small way to the men, and laundry work, cooking andsewing and housekeeping to the young women.

      Why are the domestic classes only offered to the women? I feel as though men and women could have benefitted from all of the classes the Institute had to offer, not just the ones that matched the stereotypical gender roles.

    7. these things, upon their elementaryside are absolutely vital to the worth and success ofhundreds of thousands of these people of theNegro race, and yet our whole educational systemhas practically ignored them.

      I wonder what the author means by this. The black race needs to know how agriculture works in order to have worth and success in the current world? The education system of the universities described above include agriculture therefore it is not being ignored.

    8. mental, moral and industrialeducation

      Could this be considered a liberal arts education? It is an education pulling from various categories that could make for a well-rounded person.

    9. side from the economicvalue of this work I cannot but believe, and myobservation conrms me in my belief, that as wecontinue to place Negro men and women of intelligence,religion, modesty, conscience and skill

      I wonder how many lives were completely changed and positively impacted by these programs.

    10. service which the race demands.

      I am confused by what Washington means when he says "the service which the race demands." Is he encouraging the stereotypical jobs for each race?

    11. I wasamazed to nd that it was almost impossible to nd inthe whole country an educated colored man who couldteach the making of clothing.

      Would that be because they were escaping the labor once forced upon their ancestors? Do those of color believe they have to do more than what their ancestors did in order to make up for what they were not allowed to do?

    12. hefourteen hundred and over young men and women whoattended the school during the last school year receivedinstruction — in addition to academic and religioustraining — in thirty–three trades and industries

      I wonder if there were women instructors for the classes dedicated to women's gender roles such as dressmaking or if males taught all the classes?

    13. Many a mother andsister have worked and slaved, living upon scantyfood, in order to give a son and brother a ’liberaleducation,’

      Why can't the sister and the brother both have an education?

    14. As a generation began to pass,those who had been trained as mechanics in slaverybegan to disappear by death, and gradually it began to berealized that there were few to take their places.

      I wonder if when this happened, Southern white men regretted their actions? They forced African Americans into accomplishing their physical labor instead of learning to do so themselves, so when slavery was abolished, there were few left to run the work on the plantations (many slaves left as their first act of freedom and the Southern white men didn't know how to do the work themselves).

    15. As a generation began to pass,those who had been trained as mechanics in slaverybegan to disappear by death, and gradually it began to berealized that there were few to take their places.

      I wonder why there were few people to replace those in the workplace that had passed away. Were they trained on just one skill instead of multiple leaving them with just one job focus?

    16. In all these works theNegro did most of the heavy work.

      I wonder why the white men did not help during this process. Slavery had ended but the black men were still the ones doing all of the hard labor work.

    17. young colored men andwomen were constantly being trained not only as farmersbut as carpenters, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, brickmasons, engineers, cooks, laundresses, sewing womenand housekeepers

      I wonder if my previous inference was right or if the slaveowners did in fact train their slaves for certain jobs.

    18. If, in too many cases, the Negro race begandevelopment at the wrong end, it was largely becauseneither white nor black properly understood the case.

      I wonder why in the forty years since slaves were freed nobody was able to understand or figure out how to properly begin development? Was it because the white race was used to being free while other races were not?

  2. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. every year there is asession of school.

      A singular session of school? Not week after week of school?

    2. there swept over me a suddenlonging to pass again beyond the blue hill, and to see the homes and the school of other days, andto learn how life had gone with my school-children

      If Du Bois longs for his little school, then why did he leave? Was it unsuccessful because the children had to work?

    3. lexandria was “town,”—astraggling, lazy village of houses, churches, and shops, and an aristocracy of Toms, Dicks, andCaptains.

      I wonder why town is put in quotations? Could it be because it isn't truly town if people of color felt unwelcome there?

    4. how“mean” some of the white folks were.

      I wonder why Du Bois put mean in quotation marks? Is it to emphasize that their discrimination and racism was much worse than mean, but that the statement is coming from an innocent child?

    5. The father was a quiet, simple soul, calmly ignorant, with no touch of vulgarity. The mother wasdifferent,—strong, bustling, and energetic, with a quick, restless tongue, and an ambition to live“like folks.”

      Would this be considered a reversal in gender roles during the time?

    6. “mean”

      this makes me question the author, were they not mean or is this a term used in place of another

    7. slow girl,

      I wonder if the author meant this in a degrading way.

    8. one half-witted girl.

      I wonder why the author described one girl out of the whole community as being half witted.

    9. Josie was dead

      I wonder what caused Josie to pass away. Was it sickness?

    10. these were the years that passed after I left my little school.

      I wonder what made the author leave the little school and small country town.

    11. The mass of those to whom slavery was a dim recollection of childhood found theworld a puzzling thing: it asked little of them, and they answered with little, and yet it ridiculedtheir offering

      I wonder how many slaves continued working for white men after they were freed from slavery because that's what they had always been used to.

    12. how“mean” some of the white folks were.

      I wonder why the author put mean in quotation marks. Discrimination and racism was present during this time so it wouldn't be uncommon for them to be mean.

    13. There came a day when all the teachers left the Institute and began the hunt for schools.

      When the teachers left the Institute to hunt for schools were they officially qualified teachers?

    1. Through the pressure of the money-makers,the Negro is in danger of being reduced to semi-slavery, especially inthe country districts

      Could this be due to Washington's emphasis on industrial education, preparing African Americans to do gritty physical labor in the country?

    2. The growing spiritof kindliness and reconciliation between the North and South after thefrightful difference of a generation ago ought to be a source of deep con-gratulation to all,

      Is a big part of this reconciliation between the North and South Washington's doing with the "Atlanta Compromise"?

    3. Mr. Washington’s programme practicallyaccepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races

      Does Washington do this because he knows it is not the right time to fight for civil and political rights with so many changes regarding race already happening?

    4. more advanced races are comingin closer contact with the less developed races, and the race-feelingis therefore intensified

      Was this new close contact between different races a contributor to the racism and prejudice that would soon intensify?

    5. If history and reason give any distinct answer tothese questions, it is an emphatic No. And Mr. Washington thus facesthe triple paradox of his career

      I wonder how Washington even came up with this idea after never haven seen it work successfully in the history of the world.

    6. Afterthe war and emancipation, the great form of Frederick Douglass, thegreatest of American Negro leaders, still led the host.

      When and how did the switch from Douglass as a leader to Washington occur?

    7. Mr. Washington has encounteredthe strongest and most lasting opposition, amounting at times to bit-terness, and even today continuing strong and insistent even thoughlargely silenced in outward expression

      Is Washington now not getting "feedback" or getting his own people to agree with him now?

    8. what can be more instructive thanthe leadership of a group within a group?

      Does this mean conversation between leaders and followers?

    9. Among his own people, however, Mr. Washington has encounteredthe strongest and most lasting opposition

      I wonder if this is because African Americans wanted to push for more civil and political rights, but Washington encouraged them not to for the time being?

    10. To-day he standsas the one recognized spokesman of his ten million fellows, and one of themost notable figures in a nation of seventy millions

      I wonder how Washington's voice was able to stand out among thousands of others and gain such a large audience?

    11. relentless color-prejudice is more often a cause than a result of the Ne-gro’s degradation

      Self inflicted?

    12. submission and silence as to civil and political rights

      Did Washington believe that African Americans should not push for their civil and political rights? Was this because he believed so much change was occurring already with abolition that it would be too much to push for more for the time being?

    13. Mr. Washington has encounteredthe strongest and most lasting opposition, amounting at times to bit-terness, and even today continuing strong and insistent even thoughlargely silenced in outward expression by the public opinion of thenation.

      I wonder why he faced opposition by his own people, did he go about it in a way that would only benefit some maybe?

  3. Aug 2022
    1. Posted byu/hog8541ss2 days agoUsing Notebooks With Your Antinet. .t3_wvn38a._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } How are you guys using notebooks along with your Antinet? What uses do you still find feasible for using them?

      reply to: https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/wvn38a/using_notebooks_with_your_antinet/

      Ross Ashby, a systems theorist like Luhmann, had a sophisticated hybrid notebook/index card system that some here might find an interesting and usable model, particularly if they're enamored of the notebook format. It's been digitized and is online for perusal: http://www.rossashby.info/

    1. Useful suggestions in regard tonote-taking will be found in Samuel S . Seward, Note-taking,Boston, 1910; and, especially for more advanced students, inEarle W. DOW, Principles of a note-system for hirton’calstudies, New York, 1924

      He's read Langlois/Seignobos and Bernheim, but doesn't recommend/reference them for note taking, but points to Seward and Dow instead.

      What are the differences between the four methods?

      Note that this advice is in 1931, a few years after Beatrice Webb's My Apprentice which has a section on note taking that prefers the first two without mention of the latter two.


      It would appear that Seward is the brother of William Henry Seward. see: https://hypothes.is/a/MwspfCBOEe2YCpesAgwiGQ

    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/events/2010/historical-hypermedia-alternative-history-semantic-web-and-web-20-and-implications-e.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/audio/2010-10-20-vandenheuvel_0.mp3

      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia

      t=540

      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL


      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA


      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence


      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.


      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

  4. Jul 2022
    1. AuthorW.H. Auden demystified both literature and criticismwhen he said, “Here is a verbal contraption. How doesit work?”

      Auden himself kept a commomplace book of his own notes which was published as A Certain World: A Commonplace Book #, so we can read some of his notes! :)

    1. https://niklas-luhmann-archiv.de/bestand/zettelkasten/zettel/ZK_2_SW1_001_V

      One may notice that Niklas Luhmann's index within his zettelkasten is fantastically sparce. By this we might look at the index entry for "system" which links to only one card. For someone who spent a large portion of his life researching systems theory, this may seem fantastically bizarre.

      However, it's not as as odd as one may think given the structure of his particular zettelkasten. The single reference gives an initial foothold into his slip box where shuffling through cards beyond that idea will reveal a number of cards closely related to the topic which subsequently follow it. Regular use and work with the system would have allowed Luhmann better memory with respect to its contents and the searching through threads of thought would have potentially sparked new ideas and threads. Thus he didn't need to spend the time and effort to highly index each individual card, he just needed a starting place and could follow the links from there. This tends to minimize the indexing work he needed to do regularly, but simultaneously makes it harder for the modern person who may wish to read or consult those notes.

      Some of the difference here is the idea of top-down versus bottom-up construction. While thousands of his cards may have been tagged as "systems" or "systems theory", over time and with increased scale they would have become nearly useless as a construct. Instead, one may consider increasing levels of sub-topics, but these too may be generally useless with respect to (manual) search, so the better option is to only look at the smallest level of link (and/or their titles) which is only likely to link to 3-4 other locations outside of the card just before it. This greater specificity scales better over time on the part of the individual user who is broadly familiar with the system.


      Alternatively, for those in shared digital spaces who may maintain public facing (potentially shared) notes (zettelkasten), such sparse indices may not be as functional for the readers of such notes. New readers entering such material generally without context, will feel lost or befuddled that they may need to read hundreds of cards to find and explore the sorts of ideas they're actively looking for. In these cases, more extensive indices, digital search, and improved user interfaces may be required to help new readers find their way into the corpus of another's notes.


      Another related idea to that of digital, public, shared notes, is shared taxonomies. What sorts of word or words would one want to search for broadly to find the appropriate places? Certainly widely used systems like the Dewey Decimal System or the Universal Decimal Classification may be helpful for broadly crosslinking across systems, but this will take an additional level of work on the individual publishers.

      Is or isn't it worthwhile to do this in practice? Is this make-work? Perhaps not in analog spaces, but what about the affordances in digital spaces which are generally more easily searched as a corpus.


      As an experiment, attempt to explore Luhmann's Zettelkasten via an entryway into the index. Compare and contrast this with Andy Matuschak's notes which have some clever cross linking UI at the bottoms of the notes, but which are missing simple search functionality and have no tagging/indexing at all. Similarly look at W. Ross Ashby's system (both analog and digitized) and explore the different affordances of these two which are separately designed structures---the analog by Ashby himself, but the digital one by an institution after his death.

    1. this is not to say that our inner life has some kind of a second grade um existence conventional reality is not 00:25:14 second level reality um because as the guardian and chandra kirti also emphasized we must remember that conventional reality dependent 00:25:26 origination is exactly the same as emptiness which is ultimate reality the only kind of reality anything that we ever encounter is going to have is conventional reality so when i'm talking 00:25:38 here about cognitive illusion i'm not arguing that the existence of our interstates um is illusory i'm arguing that the illusion is that we have immediate access to them as they are and 00:25:51 that their mode of existence um is um intrinsic existence so this allows us to understand the majority analysis of the most fundamental cognitive illusion 00:26:04 of all the illusion of the immediacy of our knowledge of our own minds and the givenness of our own interstates and processes our direct knowledge of them as the kinds of things they are independent of 00:26:18 any concepts that's the illusion that wittgenstein quine and sellers each in there worked so hard in the 20th century to diagnose and to cure but we can put this just as easily and maybe more 00:26:31 easily in the terms of second century indian madhyamaka the fundamental cognitive illusion is to take our mental states to exist intrinsically rather than conventionally and to take our knowledge of them to be 00:26:45 immediate independent of conventions this illusion is pervasive it is instinctive and it is profoundly self-alienating because it obscures the deeply conventional character of our own 00:26:57 existence and of our self-knowledge and this illusion is what according to buddhist philosophers lies at the root of our grasping of our attraction and diversion and hence at the root of the 00:27:09 pervasive suffering of existence

      This fundamental illusion of immediacy lay at the root of our ignorance in the world. We mistaken our mental states to exist intrinsically instead of conventionally. We don't think they depend on language, but they do, in a very deep way.

      From a Deep Humanity perspective, even our instantly arisen mental states are part of the symbolosphere..mediated by the years of language conditioning of our culture.

    2. he distinguishes three dimensions of dependent origination and this is in his commentary on the guardian of malama jamaica carica called clear words he talks about causal dependence that is every phenomenon depends upon causes and 00:16:19 conditions and gives rise to further causes and conditions um myriological dependence that is every phenomenon every composite phenomenon depends upon the parts that uh that it 00:16:31 comprises and every phenomenon is also dependent upon the holes or the systems in which it figures parts depend on holes holes depend on parts and that reciprocal meteorological dependence 00:16:44 characterizes all of reality and third often overlooked but most important is dependence on conceptual imputation that is things depend in order to be represented as the kinds of 00:16:57 things they are on our conceptual resources our affective resources and as john dunn emphasized our purposes in life this third one really means this um 00:17:09 everything that shows up for us in the world the way we carve the world up the way we um the way we experience the world is dependent not just on how the world is but on the conceptual resources 00:17:22 as well as the perceptual resources through which we understand the world and it's worth recognizing that um when we think about this there are a bunch of um contemporary majamakers majamikas we 00:17:34 might point to as well and so paul fireauben who's up there on on the left well really an austrian but he spent much of his life in america um willard van norman kwine um up on the right wilford sellers and paul churchland

      This is a key statement: how we experience the world depends on the perceptual and cognitive lens used to filter the world through.

      Francis Heylighen proposes a nondual system based on causal dependency relationships to serve as the foundation for distributed cognition.(collective intelligence).

      https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbafybeicho2xrqouoq4cvqev3l2p44rapi6vtmngfdt42emek5lyygbp3sy.ipfs.dweb.link%2FNon-dualism%2520-%2520Mind%2520outside%2520Brain%2520%2520a%2520radically%2520non-dualist%2520foundation%2520for%2520distributed%2520cognition.pdf&group=world

  5. Jun 2022
    1. The course Marginalia in Books from Christopher Ohge is just crying out to have an annotated syllabus.

      Wish I could follow along directly, but there's some excellent reference material hiding in the brief outline of the course.


      Perhaps a list of interesting people here too for speaking at https://iannotate.org/ 2022 hiding in here? A session on the history of annotation and marginalia could be cool there.

    2. Matthew Fay (Institute of English Studies, University of London)

      Online

      Short Bio

      Over the years, Matthew has turned his hand to several disciplines, from high school teaching to theatre directing, before taking the MA in the History of the Book at London University. He is now undertaking research for a PhD on an archive formed by his great-grandfather, Frank Fay (1870-1930), an Irish actor and producer, who collaborated with W. B. Yeats and Lady Gregory on the plays that were performed at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. Matthew is interested in the provenance of books and theatre history.

      Bibliography

      • Thesis: ‘The Fay Archive: Towards a Checklist and Copy-specific Analysis of Key Research Items by W. B. Yeats, J. M. Synge and Lady Gregory.’ (in progress)
    1. Around 1941, Barzun took on a larger classroom, becoming the moderator of the CBS radio program “Invitation to Learning,” which aired on Sunday mornings and featured four or five intellectual lights discussing books. From commenting on books, it was, apparently, a short step to selling them. In 1951, Barzun, Trilling, and W. H. Auden started up the Readers’ Subscription Book Club, writing monthly appreciations of books that they thought the public would benefit from reading. The club lasted for eleven years, partly on the strength of the recommended books, which ranged from Kenneth Grahame’s “The Wind in the Willows” to Hannah Arendt’s “The Human Condition,” and partly on the strength of the editors’ reputations.
  6. May 2022
    1. What is that tool under the pencil?

      Sorry, just seeing this now. It's assuredly a sliderule, which would have been a common tool for engineers and mathematicians of his era to have had. They became less common with the advent and proliferation of calculators.

    1. Is our personality inherited, or are we products of our environment? This is the classic debate on nature vs. nurture. Are we born with a given temperament, with a genetically determined style of interacting with others, certain abilities, with various behavioral patterns that we cannot even control? Or are we shaped by our experiences, by learning, thinking, and relating to others? Many psychologists today find this debate amusing, because no matter what area of psychology you study, the answer is typically both! We are born with a certain range of possibilities determined by our DNA. We can be a certain height, have a certain IQ, be shy or outgoing, we might be Black, Asian, White or Hispanic, etc. because of who we are genetically. However, the environment can have a profound effect on how our genetic make-up is realized. For example, an abused child may become shy and withdrawn, even though genetically they were inclined to be more outgoing. A child whose mother abused alcohol during the pregnancy may suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome, the leading cause of preventable mental retardation, even though the child was genetically endowed with the possibility of being a genius. So the best perspective may be that our genetic make-up provides a range of possibilities for our life, and the environment in which we grow determines where exactly we fall within that range.

      Our genetic make-up is pre-determined. Our external and even certain genetic mutations but the environment plays a huge role on how each of our personalities are shaped, validated, molded and how we perceive ourselves and accept ourselves.

  7. Apr 2022
  8. Mar 2022
    1. Users who expe rience empowering designs that are comprehensible, predictable, and controllable, may be inspired to pursue quality in their work products.

      This sounds a lot like the management philosophy of W. Edwards Deming who encouraged managers to empower workers to take ownership of their craft and work.

  9. Feb 2022
    1. You can look up for yourself some ofhis notes on their website.[12] Soon, you will be able to access thewhole digitalised slip-box online.

      For those interested in looking at a system in English but with a slightly different form, but ostensibly similar, try W. Ross Ashby's digitized note collection: http://www.rossashby.info/

      Perhaps not coincidentally, Ashby was a research colleague of Luhmann's.

  10. Jan 2022
  11. Dec 2021
    1. It’s not an accident or a misfortune that great-books pedagogy is an antibody in the “knowledge factory” of the research university, in other words. It was intended as an antibody. The disciplinary structure of the modern university came first; the great-books courses came after.

      It seems at odds to use Charles W. Eliot as an example here as his writings described by Cathy Davidson in The New Education indicates that Eliot was specifically attempting to create standards in education that are counter to Menand's argument here.

    2. The idea of the great books emerged at the same time as the modern university. It was promoted by works like Noah Porter’s “Books and Reading: Or What Books Shall I Read and How Shall I Read Them?” (1877) and projects like Charles William Eliot’s fifty-volume Harvard Classics (1909-10). (Porter was president of Yale; Eliot was president of Harvard.) British counterparts included Sir John Lubbock’s “One Hundred Best Books” (1895) and Frederic Farrar’s “Great Books” (1898). None of these was intended for students or scholars. They were for adults who wanted to know what to read for edification and enlightenment, or who wanted to acquire some cultural capital.

      Brief history of the "great books".

  12. Nov 2021
    1. it must be acknowledged that conservatism is never more respectable than in education, for nowhere are the risks of change greater.

      —Charles W. Eliot

      And here I thought I was original in thinking this... :)

    1. Item #51104 Marquis Fountain Pen at $5.00 eachItem #51110 Classic Impressions Fountain Pen at $6.00 eachOur minimum order requirement is $100 plus shipping and handling.Payment must be Check In Advance.Mondial is the Italian Company who makes the ink cartridges.

      I've got an old one of these A&W Marquis fountain pens that only takes ink cartridges kicking around in a drawer. I knew they were relatively inexpensive and likely a simple "student" pen, but didn't know they were so inexpensive.

    1. I have used the Oxford text of T. W. Allen, 2nd edition, and followed itexcept in a very few places

      The source of the translation of the Odyssey by Richmond Lattimore is the 2nd edition of the Oxford text of T. W. Allen.

  13. Aug 2021
    1. Thus, while diminishing our feeling of certainty as to what things are, it greatly increases our knowledge as to what they may be; it removes the somewhat arrogant dogmatism of those who have never traveled into the region of liberating doubt, and it keeps alive our sense of wonder by showing familiar things in an unfamiliar aspect.

      Task 3 What are central arguments or main points in the text? The main central points are that even though many practical scientific individuals struggle with believing and understanding Philosophy, it is crucial that Philosophy is taught to everyone so that they can have a better outlook and understanding of life and everything around them. How are the arguments or main points supported? Russel supports his main points by explaining the numerous ways that Philosophy benefits life. He explains in detail the way Philosophy interprets our view of the world and everything going on in it. Note any assumptions the author makes without evidence. Even just looking a the footnotes of this essay is enough to show that it was written based off of Russell's own interpretation of philosophy and how it is viewed by people who don't understand it. Most of what Russell says is assumptive and does not have evidence with the exception of some parts just being common knowledge. Re-read important passages and note sections of the text you can not make sense of. "All acquisition is an enlargement of Self., but this enlargement is best attained when not directly sought. It is obtained when the desire for knowledge is alone operative, by a study which does not wish in advance that its objects should have this or that character, but adapts the Self to the characters which it finds its objects." This part I struggled with just a bit, I understood the first part but when Russell goes further explaining how to obtain this knowledge it lost me just a bit.

  14. Apr 2021
  15. Jan 2021
    1. In sum, we have said that creatureliness is service. Further, that human creatures are to be servants-of-love, both to God and neighbor. Thirdly, that all specific divine norms ─ like justice and stewardship ─ are to be looked upon as expressions of love. We now see, fourthly, that the expressions of specific norms may well require certain organizations, like the state. Such organizations, fifthly, require a measure of power to achieve their tasks and offices

      From creatures of service, loving as service, justice as love, divine norms for social order as defining justice, and government for dispensation and organization of public justice.

    Tags

    Annotators

  16. Apr 2020
    1. Among the people who died from COVID-19 reported by the NHC, 11.8% of patients without underlying CVD had substantial heart damage, with elevated levels of cTnI or cardiac arrest during hospitalization.
  17. Dec 2019
    1. Shelley’s Poems.—“On Mutability.”

      In the Thomas copy, a note at the foot of the page attributes these lines as "Shelley's Poems. -- "On Mutability." The citation does not appear in the 1831 edition.

    2. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs.

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs.

    3. And the contortions that ever and anon conpulsvulsed & deformed his un-human features.

      This addition to the Thomas copy associates the creature with the "un-human," an early indication of revisions in 1831 that will make the Creature more monstrous and less compellingly human than he had been in the 1818 original.

    4. a disease that I regretted the more because I had hitherto enjoyed most excellent health, and had always boasted of the firmness of my nerves.my voice became broken, my trembling hands almost refused to accomplish their task; I became as timid as a love-sick girl, and alternate tremor and passionate ardour took the place of wholesome sensation and regulated ambition.

      This revision in the Thomas Copy adds a vivid account of Victor's symptoms as they seem to drain him of masculinity and make him quiver "as a love-sick girl." In 1831 Shelley rewrote this passage again without the gendered simile.

    5. The event of these enquiries interested my understanding, I may say my imagination, until I was exalted to a kind of transport. And indeed

      This brief addition in the Thomas Copy emphasizes the extent to which Victor's interest in human physiology carries away his imagination until he is "exalted to a kind of transport."

    6. ruled by different laws and in which numerous circumstances enforce a belief that the aspect of nature differs essentially from anything of which we have any experience.

      FIX

    7. Coleridge's Antient Mariner.

      In the Thomas Copy, the allusion to Coleridge, "but I shall kill no albatross" is not attributed in text, but rather added by hand as a citation at the bottom of the page: "x Coleridge's Ancient Mariner x"

    8. This letter ought to be re-written

      In the Thomas copy, a note at the bottom of the page stipulates: "This letter ought to be re-written". The first three paragraphs and the final paragraph were to be substantively rewritten in the 1831 edition.

    9. and this makes us all very wretched, as much so nearly as after the death of your dear mother.and this suspicion fills us with anguish. I perceive that your father conceals attempts to conceal his fears from me; but cheerfulness has flown from our little circle, only to be restored by a certain assuranance that there is no foundation for our anxiety. At one time

      This revision in the Thomas Copy removes a reference in Elizabeth's letter to the father's anguish over his wife's death, and instead it elaborates on his worry for Victor's emotional health. In a more fully rewritten version in the 1831 edition, Elizabeth no longer refers to Victor's mother or father.

    10. impossible:

      In the Thomas copy beneath the line "This manuscript will doubtless afford you the greatest <u>pleasure</u>," is written a the single word: "impossible." We cannot tell if this was Mary's comment or was put in by another reader.

    11. The appearance of the sky is indiscribably beautiful; clear by day, and illuminated at night by the Aurora Borealis w which spreads a roseate tinge over the heavens, & over the sea which reflects it’s splendour.

      Aurora Borealis or "northern lights" appear in the Arctic skies, a nighttime phenomenon caused by turbulence in the magnetosphere.

    12. I will relate to you an anecdote of his life, recounted to me by the parties themselves, which exemplifies the generosity, I had almost said the heroism of his nature.

      This small addition in the Thomas Copy softens Walton's initial impressions of his chief crewman. The 1831 edition makes a more substantive change by addressing Walton's sister more fully than in any of the 1818 edition's letters

      Interestingly, as the master is an "Englishman" the ready associations between Englishness and "heroism" and "generosity" are attributed to the master's "nature" in more modest terms, lending Walton's letter a slightly less chauvinistic air.

    13. When my father became a husband and a parent, he found his time so occupied by the duties of his new situation, that heAs my father’s age encreased he became more attached to the quiet of a domestic life, and he gradually

      This revised description of Victor's father in the Thomas Copy softens his character, and grounds him within a space of domestic affection that would be further emphasized in revisions to the 1831 edition of the text.

    14. and then he sits by himself, and tries to overcome all that is sullen or unsocial in his humour. These paroxysms pass from him like a cloud from before the sun, though his dejection never leaves him.Which veils his countenance like deep night—he neither speaks or notices anything around him, but sitting on a gun will gaze on the sea and I have sometimes observed his dark eyelash wet with a tear which falls silently silently in the deep. This unobtrusive sorrow excites in me the most painful interest, and he will at times reward my sympathy by throwing aside this veil of mortal woe, and then his ardent looks, his deep toned voice and powerful eloquence entrance me with delight.

      This substantial revision in the Thomas Copy removes a description of Victor's bouts of depression onboard the ship as "sullen" "unsocial" and as "paroxysms" that come on and pass away quickly. In its place Shelley writes a sentimental passage depicting Victor's mood as "unobtrusive sorrow" and a "veil of mortal woe." Elements of this revision survived in the longer addition to the 1831 version, such as Victor's tears.

    15. To V. Frankenstein.

      The 1818 edition's address-line to Victor is removed in the Thomas Copy and does not appear in the 1831 edition.

    16. had a refined mind; he had no desire to be idle, and was well pleased to become his father’s partner, but he believed that a man might be a very good trader, and yet possess a cultivated understanding.loved poetry and his mind was filled with the imagery and sublime sentiments of the masters of that art. A poet himself, he turned with y disgust from the details of ordinary life. His own soul mind was all the possession that he prized, beautiful & majestic thoughts the only wealth he coveted—daring as the eagle and as free, common laws could not be applied to him; and while you gazed on him you felt his soul’s spark was more divine—more truly stolen from Apollo’s sacred fire, than the glimmering ember that animates other men.

      This lengthy revision in the Thomas Copy removes the original description of Clerval as a relatively ordinary tradesman with an interest in poetry and the arts, and transforms him instead into a figure of tremendous romantic flair and verve.

      Where before he was described as "a good trader" with a "refined mind," Victor's recollection of him is now charged with profuse admiration, casting Clerval as "daring as the eagle and as free," "his soul's spark was more divine--more truly stolen from Apollo's sacred fire". He is a poet by nature, not a trader, and we now see him resisting his father's attempt to channel his abilities into narrow pursuits of profit. In the 1831 this revision is enlarged to put Clerval's passionate interests even more decisively in opposition to his father's wishes.

    17. you said your family was not sientific.

      In the Thomas Copy, at the bottom of this page, an unknown hand states: "You said your family was not scientific." If this notation is in Mary's hand, she may be speaking to her character Victor, noting a discrepancy in his account of their familiarity with the sciences.

    18. My father was pleased, and Elizabeth overjoyed. “My dear cousin,” said she, “you see what happiness you diffuse when you are happy; do not relapse again!”The affectionate smile with which Elizabeth welcomed my altered mood excited me to greater exertion; and I felt as I spoke long forgotten sensations of pleasure arise in my mind. I knew that this state of being would only be temporary, that gloom and misery was near at hand, but this knowledge only acted as a stimulant, and gave added a tingling sensation of fear, while the blood danced along my veins—my eyes sparkled and my limbs even trembled beneath the influence of unaccustomed emotion.

      Shelley's revision in the Thomas Copy turns the emphasis of this passage toward Victor's emotions and no longer refers to his father's response to him. When this part of the novel is more extensively revised in 1831, Victor is traveling without family and makes this journey with only his guides as company.

    19. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs.

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs.

    20. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs.

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs.

    21. I cannot help remarking here the many opportunities instructors possess of directing the attention of their pupils to useful knowledge, which they utterly neglect. My father looked

      This cancelled interpolation in the Thomas copy is oddly placed since it appears to refer to instructors other than Victor's father, the focus of this passage. FIX, unclear.

    22. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs.

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs. They remain separate in the 1831edition.

    23. Are we then near land, and is this unknown wast inhabited by giants, of which the being we saw is a specimen? Such an idea is contrary to all experience, but if what we saw was an optical delusion, it was the most perfect and wonderful recorded in the history of nature.

      This added text in the Thomas Copy is the only reference to the Creature as a "giant" in any version of Frankenstein. By the early nineteenth century giants were a distant figure of folklore rather than everyday experience, as Walton notes by thinking of the giant as an "optical delusion." The Creature in the novel measures at about eight feet tall.

    24. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs.

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs that were separate in 1818. They remain separate in the 1831 edition.

    25. No youth could have passed more happily than mine. My parents were indulgent, and my companions amiable. Our studies were never forced; and by some means we always had an end placed in view, which excited us to ardour in the prosecution of them. It was by this method, and not by emulation, that we were urged to application. Elizabeth was not incited to apply herself to drawing, that her companions might not outstrip her; but through the desire of pleasing her aunt, by the representation of some favourite scene done by her own hand. We learned Latin and English, that we might read the writings in those languages; and so far from study being made odious to us through punishment, we loved application, and our amusements would have been the labours of other children. Perhaps we did not read so many books, or learn languages so quickly, as those who are disciplined according to the ordinary methods; but what we learned was impressed the more deeply on our memories.badWith what delight do I even now remember the details of our domestic circle, and the happy years of my childhood. Joy attended on my steps—and the ardent affection that attached me to my excellent parents, my beloved Elizabeth, and Henry, the brother of my soul, has given almost a religious and sacred feeling to the recollections of a period passed beneath their eyes, and in their society.

      This revision is one of the most important in the Thomas Copy, indicating how Mary had begun rethinking the novel in substance as early as 1823. From the 1818 edition she eliminates a detailed, careful account of how Victor and Elizabeth were educated by their Enlightenment parents. The first version had made a special point of indicating how this family education was not inculcated by punishments, but presented to the children as an adventure in knowledge, as well as preparing Victor for the kind of rigorous study he would later undertake in the modern sciences. Instead of this pedagogical detail, Mary generalizes about Victor's happy childhood and replaces the details of education with the idea of a "religious and sacred feeling" that is inimical to the secular education described in 1818. While the cancelled text remains absent his section is expanded further in the 1831 edition.

    26. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs

      Despite the indication that two paragraphs should be joined in the Thomas copy, they remained separate in the 1831 revision.

    27. Our father looks so sorrowful: this dreadful event seems to have revived in his mind his grief on the death of Mamma. Poor Elizabeth also is quite inconsolable.”the sense of our misfortune is yet unalleviated; the silence of our father is uninterrupted, and there is something more distressing than tears in his unaltered sadness—while poor Elizabeth, seeking solitude and for ever weeping, already begins to feel the effects of incessant grief—for her colour is gone, and her eyes are hollow & lustreless

      This revision in the Thomas Copy removes another reference to the death of Victor's mother. Here it is replaced with a more evocative description of Elizabeth's grief. As it does elsewhere, the Thomas Copy identifies a place needing revision, but the 1823 changes are usually not carried over into the 1831.In this case, the father's grief is emphasized both here and in 1831 despite different language used in each text.

    28. Thomas copy: pencil mark joins paragraphs

      In the Thomas copy a pencil mark here joins these paragraphs.

    29. And the clouds were gathering on the ris horison, mass rising above mass, while the lightning they emitted shewed their shapes and size.

      This addition in the Thomas Copy intensifies the description of the storm as Victor arrives back in Geneva after learning of William's death.

    30. bad

      In the Thomas copy this passage, deleted in 1831, is tagged by Shelley in the margins as "bad".

  18. May 2019
  19. Mar 2019
  20. Nov 2018
  21. Feb 2017
  22. Aug 2016
    1. We can now begin to see that the reason for why Du Bois was marginalized, and why his influence has been obscured, is not just his skin color. It is also that he was intellectual insurrectionary – intellectually heterodox – challenging the hegemony of scientific racism upon which white sociology had been mounted at the time.

      Du Bois probably didn't gain much recognition on the work he did for Sociology because of his involvement in the Civil Rights movement. Go had said that he had dangerous ideas, which, at the time, he did. He was very involved in different groups that protested against the discrimination that was happening at the time. This is what he was more known for. Higher officials probably didn't want give more attention to Du Bois than he already had gained, so they didn't credit him for his work in Sociology.

  23. Apr 2016
    1. JAMES AND FUNCTIONALISM

      Covered in C&W

    2. covered in C&W

    3. HUMANISM

      C&W uses Humanistic Perspective after Psychodynamic and Behavioral

    4. BIOPSYCHOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY

      covered in C&W after sociocultural

    5. MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

      !! is this the same as Sociocultural Perspective - the term used in C&W?

    6. WUNDT AND STRUCTURALISM

      covered in C&W text

  24. Mar 2016
    1. The reality —as Obama learned in the aftermath of the attacks in Paris and San Bernardino, Calif. — is that impressive battlefield statistics and reasoned calls for restraint mean little in the climate of fear generated by terror strikes.

      This seems to be the crux of the matter: doing what is actually right and what feels good: Obama aspires to the former, Bush to the latter.

    1. When I was about 14 years old

      So the article talks about how people stereotype Mexicans.