98 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
    1. a book that was published in 1932. In this book, in explicit detail, are instructions that teach academics and researchers how to build their own Zettelkasten (aka, their own notebox system)

      Johannes Erich Heyde, Technik des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/wryt4t/the_secret_book_luhmann_read_that_taught_him/

  2. Aug 2022
  3. Jul 2022
    1. One must be able to add one's own private links to and from public information. One must also be able to annotate links, as well as nodes, privately.

      Annotations were part of the earliest vision of the World Wide Web

  4. Mar 2022
    1. En somme, les études sur la communication des élèves atteints d’autisme permettent de mettre en évidence l’importance d’un contexte riche en stimulations appropriées (sons et images), mais également une évidente « stabilité » de l’information à décoder, le suivi des émotions des personnages, le rôle de l’imitation dans les apprentissages. Ces résultats encouragent donc l’usage d’outils informatiques adéquats pour améliorer la communication sociale chez les enfants atteints d’autisme.

      L'association de deux sujets qui n'ont pas de corrélation vérifiéé, revient dans la conclusion en contradiction avec la conclusion de l'étude de Ramdoss, S et al.

    2. Nous allons montrer par une courte analyse de quelques études l’impact du travail éducatif informatisé dans l’apprentissage de la communication sociale chez des enfants atteints d’autisme.

      En contradiction avec l'hypothèse :

      Results suggest that CBI should not yet be considered a researched-based approach to teaching communication skills to individuals with ASD. However, CBI does seem a promising practice that warrants future research. Les résultats suggèrent que le CBI ne devrait pas encore être considéré comme un approche fondée sur la recherche pour enseigner les compétences en communication aux personnes ayant Troubles du Spectre Autistique. Cependant, le CBI semble être une pratique prometteuse qui justifie des recherches futures.

  5. Feb 2022
  6. Sep 2021
    1. Fundamentos pedagógicos. En el PEI de la institución pudimos identificar las tendencias pedagógicas del colegio universitario de socorro como lo son: el aprendizaje significativo- humanista y constructivista, al igual orientan contenidos al estudio del medio ambiente.

    1. (art. R. 421-20 du code de l’éducation)

      Le conseil d'administration est l'organe décisionnel de l'établissement. Il adopte le projet d'établissement, le budget et le compte financier de l’établissement ainsi que le règlement intérieur de l’établissement. Il donne notamment son accord sur le programme de l'association sportive, sur les principes du dialogue avec les parents d'élèves. Il délibère sur les questions relatives à l'hygiène, la santé et la sécurité. Il donne son avis sur les principes de choix des manuels et outils pédagogiques, sur la création d'options et de sections (art. R. 421-20 du code de l’éducation).

  7. Aug 2021
    1. RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-070628-20

      DOI: 10.7554/eLife.44431

      Resource: (ZFIN Cat# ZDB-ALT-070628-20,RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-070628-20)

      Curator: @scibot

      SciCrunch record: RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-070628-20


      What is this?

  8. Jul 2021
    1. RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20

      DOI: 10.7554/eLife.35796

      Resource: (ZFIN Cat# ZDB-GENO-120926-20,RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20)

      Curator: @evieth

      SciCrunch record: RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20


      What is this?

    2. RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20

      DOI: 10.7554/eLife.35796

      Resource: (ZFIN Cat# ZDB-GENO-120926-20,RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20)

      Curator: @evieth

      SciCrunch record: RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-120926-20


      What is this?

  9. Apr 2021
  10. Mar 2021
    1. Results for individual PALB2 variants were normalized relative to WT-PALB2 and the p.Tyr551ter (p.Y551X) truncating variant on a 1:5 scale with the fold change in GFP-positive cells for WT set at 5.0 and fold change GFP-positive cells for p.Y551X set at 1.0. The p.L24S (c.71T>C), p.L35P (c.104T>C), p.I944N (c.2831T>A), and p.L1070P (c.3209T>C) variants and all protein-truncating frame-shift and deletion variants tested were deficient in HDR activity, with normalized fold change <2.0 (approximately 40% activity) (Fig. 1a).

      AssayResult: 5.4

      AssayResultAssertion: Normal

      StandardErrorMean: 0.13

    2. A total of 84 PALB2 patient-derived missense variants reported in ClinVar, COSMIC, and the PALB2 LOVD database were selected

      HGVS: NM_024675.3:c.1846G>C p.(Asp616His)

    1. SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

      AssayResult: 95.47

      AssayResultAssertion: Not reported

      PValue: > 0.9999

      Comment: Exact values reported in Table S3.

    2. To this end, 44 missense variants found in breast cancer patients were identified in the ClinVar database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar) and/or selected by literature curation based on their frequency of description or amino acid substitution position in the protein (Supplemental Table S1).

      HGVS: NM_024675.3:c.3054G>C p.(Glu1018Asp)

    1. Source Data

      AssayResult: 100.97

      AssayResultAssertion: Not reported

      ReplicateCount: 2

      StandardErrorMean: 7.27

      Comment: Exact values reported in “Source Data” file.

    2. Source Data

      AssayResult: 87.96

      AssayResultAssertion: Not reported

      ReplicateCount: 2

      StandardErrorMean: 10.31

      Comment: Exact values reported in “Source Data” file.

    3. Source Data

      AssayResult: 82.83

      AssayResultAssertion: Not reported

      ReplicateCount: 2

      StandardDeviation: 4.82

      StandardErrorMean: 3.41

      Comment: Exact values reported in “Source Data” file.

    4. We, therefore, analyzed the effect of 48 PALB2 VUS (Fig. 2a, blue) and one synthetic missense variant (p.A1025R) (Fig. 2a, purple)29 on PALB2 function in HR.

      HGVS: NM_024675.3:c.2120C>T p.(P707L)

    1. Most Suspected Brugada Syndrome Variants Had (Partial) Loss of Function

      AssayResult: 38.9

      AssayResultAssertion: Abnormal

      ReplicateCount: 27

      StandardErrorMean: 7.2

      Comment: This variant had partial loss of function of peak current (10-50% of wildtype) and a >10mV loss of function shift in Vhalf activation, therefore it was considered abnormal (in vitro features consistent with Brugada Syndrome Type 1). (Personal communication: A. Glazer)

    2. we selected 73 previously unstudied variants: 63 suspected Brugada syndrome variants and 10 suspected benign variants

      HGVS: NM_198056.2:c.2353G>A p.(Asp785Asn)

    1. Les nouvelles dispositions émanant du décret n°2019-906 prévoient que le Conseil d’Administration de l’établissement doit désormais établir, à partir des enquêtes trimestriellessur les sanctions, un rapport relatif au fonctionnement pédagogique et des conditions matérielles de fonctionnement dont une partie est consacrée au bilan des décisions rendues en matière disciplinaire, élaboré à partir du registre des sanctions de l’établissement, et des suites données par le chef d’établissement aux demandes écrites de saisine du conseil de discipline émanant d’un membre de la communauté éducative
  11. Feb 2021
    1. Supplemental material

      AssayResult: 86

      AssayResultAssertion: Normal

      Comment: See Table S3 for details

    2. Supplemental material

      AssayResult: 3.2

      AssayResultAssertion: Abnormal

      Comment: See Table S3 for details

    3. We analysed a total of 82 blood samples derived from 77 individuals (online supplemental table 3). These 77 individuals corresponded either to new index cases suspected to harbour a pathogenic TP53 variant or to relatives of index cases harbouring TP53 variants.

      HGVS: NM_000546.5:c.472C>T p.(Arg158Cys)

  12. Oct 2020
  13. Sep 2020
    1. “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden;(W) 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil,(X) for when you eat from it you will certainly die.”

      God instructed Adam and Eve to eat whatever they desired, though prohibited them to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. In Robin Wall Kimmerer's "Skywoman Falling", she explained how in Indigenous culture, they follow Original Instructions. These "instructions" are not rules but rather guidelines for each person. Kimmerer explains how during Skywoman's time, the first people's understanding of the Original Instructions were to care for the and have respect for hunted animals, value family, and hold respectful ceremonies for their beliefs.

  14. Mar 2020
  15. Feb 2020
    1. But, let’s be pragmatic for a second, the 80/20 rule states that you get 80% of the value from 20% of the work and a couple of simple tests are vastly better than no tests at all. Start small and simple, make sure you get something out of the testing first, then expand the test suite and add more complexity until you feel that you’ve reached the point where more effort spent on realism will not give enough return on your invested time.
  16. Jun 2019
  17. May 2019
    1. Sham surgery was performed on mice as described above except that the ovary and tubes after being delivered from the incision site were pushed back into the peritoneum in an intact state
    2. Sham surgery:
    1. Tryptic hydrolysis of restrictocin and the chimeric toxins was carried out at neutral pH in 25 mM HEPES, pH 7.4 containing 1 mM CaCh, 0.5 mM EDT A. For acidic pH, the buffer containing 200 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.2 and 1 mM CaCh was used. Trypsin diluted in 50 mM PBS, pH 7.4 was added to the protein and the samples were incubated at 37 °C for specified time periods. The reaction was terminated by the addition of SDS-PAGE sample buffer. The digestion products were analyzed on a 12.5% SDS-PAGE using Tris-Giycine buffer system and restrictocin containing fragments were detected by western blotting with anti-restrictocin antibodies.
    2. Trypsin Treatment
    1. The culture supernates containing the assiociated hCG heterodimer as described above, were tested for their ability to inhibit hCG induced testosterone production by Leydig cells. Leydig cell suspensions were prepared from NMRI inbred adult male mice essentially by the procedure of Van Damme et al., 1974 with modifications. The procedure has been described previously Pal, 1989 and involved the measu~ement of the testosterone produced by the Leydig cells following stimulation with culture supernate containing the associated alpha and beta subunits of hCG.
    2. Leydig cell bioassay.
    1. Throughoutthepresentwork,unlessotherwisegiven,thecontrolandexperimentalvaluesarethereplicatesofatleast6independentobservations.Thedataareexpressedasx±SE.StatisticalcomparisonsweremadebyStudents‘t’test(SnedecorandCochran,1967).Whereverneeded,estimatesofdegreesofstatisticalsignificantdifferencesbetweengroupsweremadebyanalysisofvariance.Allregressioncalculationsusedstandardprogrammesforlinearleastsquareregressionandcomparisonoftheslopesoftheregressionlineswereprepared.Correlationanalysiswasusedtorecordanyinteractionbetweentheparametersunderscrutinyandbodyweightofthefish.ThegeneralequationY-awborlogy=loga+blogwasusedtoshowvariousallometricrelationshipsbetweenbodyweightandO2uptakerate.WherevernecessarythedatawasalsosubjectedtocomputeranalysisusingaCompaq1702computerdevelopedbyWIPRO,Bangalore,India.
    2. Statistics
    1. high osmolarity conditions (Gowrishankar, 1989; Csonka, 1989) for β-galactosidase assay
    2. Assays for determination of β-galactosidase enzyme activity in cultures were performed as described by Miller (1992) after permeabilizing the cells with SDS/chloroform, and the activity values were calculated in Miller units, as defined therein. For determination of proU activity from a proU::lac fusion that contains the proUpromoter cloned upstream of the lacZYA genes (as in plasmid pHYD272), cultures used were grown in LBON or K-medium (low osmolarity medium) since proU is also induced under
    3. β-Galactosidase assay
    4. Enzyme assays
    1. Visible Spectrophotometer was from Shimadzu (Tokyo, Japan). 11Quant Microplate Reader was procured from Biotek Instruments Inc. (Winooski, VT). Gene Pulsar X Cell electroporator was purchased from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA) while the cuvettes for electroporating cells were obtained from BTX Harvard Apparatus Inc. (Holliston, MA). BD Calibur flow cytometer was purchased from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA). Hu 13 Midi DNA gel electrophoresis apparatus was procured from Scie Plas (Cambridge, UK). Protean II and III polycacrylamide gel system and Mini Transblot cells were procured from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA). Electrophoresis Power supply EPS 500/400 was purchased from Pharmacia Biotech-AB (Uppsala, Sweden). Peltier Thermal Cycler -200 was purchased from MJ research (Waltham, MA). UVP Gel Doc-It System was purchased from UVP Bio Imaging Systems Inc. (Upland, CA). JEOL JEM-2100F field emission transmission electron microscope at the Advanced Instrumentation facility, Jawaharlal Nehru University was used to capture images. GC-MS was performed with an Agilent 7890A gas chromatography instrument coupled to an Agilent 5975C mass spectrometer and an Agilent ChemStation software (version G1701EA, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) A HP-5MS capillary column (30m x 0.25mm i.d) coated with 0.25 11m film 5% phenyl methyl siloxane was used for separation
    2. Forma II Series water jacketed C02 incubator for cell culture was purchased from Thermo Fischer Scientific Inc. (Waltham, MA), BOD incubator for Leishmania cultures was obtained from Jeiotech (Korea) while 37°C incubator for bacterial cultures was purchased from Thermotech Instruments (P) Ltd (Raipur, India). Gyratory incubation shaker (Ecotron) was purchased from Infors-HT (Bottmingen, Switzerland). Optiphot fluorescence microscope, Nikon E600W upright fluorescence microscope and Nikon confocal microscope C1 were from Nikon (Tokyo, Japan). FluoStar Optima and FluoStar Omega fluorescence readers were purchased from BMG Lab technologies Inc. (Offenburg, Germany). UV-160A UV
    3. Instrumentation
    4. Densitometry: Densitometry was performed using Labworks™ Image Acquisition and Analysis Software, UVP Biolmaging Systems, UVP Inc. (Upland, CA).
    5. followed by several washes with PBS-Tween (50mM PBS containing 0.1 %v /v Tween 20) to remove any traces of acetic acid. Blocking: Nonspecific sites were blocked by incubating the membrane with 3%w /v milk protein (prepared in PBS-I) at 4°C overnight. Subsequently excess blocking reagent was washed off by three washes of PBS-T, each for 15 min at RT on a shaker incubator set at 60-80rpm. Incubation with primary antibody: Appropriate primary antibody dilutions (usually 1:20,000; Table 3.8) were prepared in 0.1% PBS-T or 1% blocking reagent. Blots were incubated with primary antibody for 1hr at RT on a shaker set at 30-40rpm. Unbound primary antibody was then washed off by three washes of PBS-T, each for 15 min at RT on a shaker incubator set at 60-80rpm. Incubation with Secondary antibody : Corresponding secondary antibody dilutions (usually 1:20,000; Table 3.8) were prepared in 0.1% PBS-I or 1% blocking reagent. Blots were incubated with secondary antibody for 1hr at RT on a shaker set at 30-40rpm. Unbound secondary antibody was then washed off by three washes of PBS-T, each for 15 min at RT on a shaker incubator set at 60-SOrpm. Detection by Enhanced Chemi-Luminescence or ECL: In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, horseradish peroxidase catalyses the oxidation of cyclic diacylhydrazides such as luminal. Following oxidation, luminal is in an excited state which decays to the ground state by emitting light. ECL reagents from EZ-ECL kit (Biological industries) were used according to manufacturer's instructions. Briefly, equal volume of ECL solution A (Luminal) and B (Hydrogen peroxide) were mixed and incubated with the membrane for approximately 5 min. Excess solution was drained off and the membrane enclosed in between two sheets of transparencies taking care to remove any air bubbles trapped in between. These were then placed in an X-ray film cassette and exposed to a sheet of X-ray film under red safety light. Depending on the antibody used, exposure times varied. Subsequently the X-ray film was transferred to developer followed by fixer solutions. Excess fixer was washed off with running water and the film air-dried.
    6. Transfer of protein onto nitrocellulose membrane: Protein resolved by PAGE were transferred onto Hybond nitrocellulose membrane (Amersham, Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden) at SOV for 2.5 hours at 4°C in chilled transfer buffer (192mM glycine, 25mM Tris Base pH 8.3, 20%v lv methanol). Visualisation of protein bands transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane: Following transfer, the membrane was stained with amido black (0.1 %w lv amido black in 7%v lv acetic acid) for 30-60 s at RT. To destain, the membrane was washed in excess amounts of 7% vI v acetic acid. This was
    7. Western Blottin
    1. Cells grown to log-phase in YPD medium were spotted on CAAmedium and overlaid with a nitrocellulose filter. Cells were allowed to grow at 30 ̊C for 18-20 h. After incubation, the filter was washed with water to remove cells and membrane-bound CPY was detected by immunoblotting withpolyclonal anti-CPY antibody (Thermo Scientific) at a dilution of 1:15,000
    2. Carboxypeptidase Ysecretion assay
    1. The reaction mixture was then placed on a thermo-cycler with the required cycling conditions for amplification of the desired gene, as described in Table 2.7. The amplified products were purified by PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and either quantified by spectrometry or separatedby agarose gel electrophoresis.Table2.7:Cycling conditions for PCR
    2. The PCR amplification of desired genes werecarried out using Taq polymerase reaction kit obtained from Fermentas.Typically, a reaction mixture containing primers with plasmid containing geneof interest or c-DNA was prepared as described in Table 2.6. Table2.6: Various components of PCR reaction mix
    3. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    1. and A190middle (557-1100 a.a)fragments were amplified from the plasmid pRS314RPA190gifted byDr. Herbert Tschochner with primers containing BamHI and XhoI (Table 2.4).The mutant versions of A34 and A190 fragments were generated by overlap extension PCR based method. p416GPD GST-RPA43 used in ChIPwas generated by extracting the GST-RPA43fragmentsfrom pYesGex6p2 GST-RPA43by restriction digestion with HindIII and XhoIfollowed by ligation into p416GPD. Clones were verified by bacterial colony PCR, sequencing and western blot. For colony PCR a small amount of bacterial colony was taken with the help of tooth pick and touch the bottom of the 0.2 mL PCR tube to which PCR reaction mix was added and performed PCR
    2. The nomenclature system for RNA Pol I subunits, gene and protein name is given in Table 2.4 and The S.cerevisiaeRNA Pol I subunits Uaf30, A34.5, A43 full length and fragmentsof A135 (1-112 a.a) and A190 (1101-1664 a.a) were PCR amplified from genomic DNA of the wild-type strain using high fidelity DNA Taq polymerase, with primers carrying restriction sites for BamHI and NotI or BamHI and XhoI (Table 2.4). Amplified fragments were cloned downstream of the GAL4promoter in the pYesGex6p2 plasmid (Werneret al., 2010).These plasmids were generated by a colleague,Mr. Unnikannan CP,in the laboratory. Fragments and mutant versions of full length RNA Pol I subunits A34.5 and A43 weregenerated using above plasmids as templates (Table 2.3).A190 N-terminal (1-556 a.a)Calculation of adjusted input-Volume of cell lysate: 500 uL-Volume set aside as input: 10 uL, eluted into a final volume of 40 uL-Volume of lysate taken for IP: 490 uL; eluted into 100 uL after IP, of which 90 uL was eluted into a final volume of 40 uL. Therefore, volume of lysate for IP corresponds to (90/100)*490 = 440 uL (approx. 500 uL)1μLof input sample, and 3 μLof immunoprecipitated sample was taken from40μLof eluted volumes, for q-PCR reaction.The input sampletaken for q-PCR = 1/40x10 uL= 0.25 uLThe immunoprecipitated DNAtaken for q-PCR = 3/40x 500=37.5uLTherefore, the Ct values obtained for input samples (Ct input) were from 0.25 μL out of 37.5 uLoftotal lysateAdjusted Ct=[Ct(Input)-log2(input dilution factor)]The dilution factor forinput sample was 37.5/0.25 = 150Adjusted Ct = [Ct(Input)-log2(150)] = Ct(Input)-7.23Table. 2.6 The gene name and correspondingprotein name for RNA Pol Isubunits.RPA represents RNA polymerase I and protein name starts with A which represents that the subunit is present in RNA pol I
    3. Cloning of S.cerevisiaeORFs
    1. HCT116 cells stably expressing NT or shRNA against IP6K1were grown to subconfluence. Logarithmic phase monolayer cultures were harvested by trypsinization, cell number was determined using a hemocytometer,and resuspended in complete DMEM. Before injection, cells were washedand resuspended in PBS at 2×107cells/mL. Approximately 2×106 cellswere injected subcutaneously into either flank of 6 week old female homozygous Foxn1nuathymic nude mice(n= 8 mice) and tumor size was monitored every 3 days for a period of 4 weeks. Mice were euthanized 4 weeks after injection and tumors were surgically excised and weighed
    2. In vivoxenograft model
  18. Dec 2018
    1. The guaranties of the Constitution will then no longer exist; the equal rights of the States will be lost. The slaveholding States will no longer have the power of self-government, or self-protection, and the Federal Government will have become their enemy.

      20 - The author expresses the South's fear of losing its autonomy.

    2. We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States.

      20 - The author claims that the Federal Government failed to keep the peace and has not defended all states equally.

    3. By this Constitution, certain duties were imposed upon the several States, and the exercise of certain of their powers was restrained, which necessarily implied their continued existence as sovereign States. But to remove all doubt, an amendment was added, which declared that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.

      20 - The author claims that states were given less power than what the Constitution stated they should have. He argues that the states should have more power as separate entities from the federal government.

    4. Thus were established the two great principles asserted by the Colonies, namely: the right of a State to govern itself; and the right of a people to abolish a Government when it becomes destructive of the ends for which it was instituted. And concurrent with the establishment of these principles, was the fact, that each Colony became and was recognized by the mother Country a FREE, SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATE.

      20 - The author cites the states' rights that were given to them by the Articles of Confederation to imply that they were violated when the federal government dawned new laws upon the states without their consent.

    5. declared that the frequent violations of the Constitution of the United States, by the Federal Government, and its encroachments upon the reserved rights of the States, fully justified this State in then withdrawing from the Federal Union;

      20 - The author states that the federal government has violated the constitutional rights of states and therefore they have no choice but to "withdraw" from the union.

  19. Jul 2018
    1. 14

      Step 20:

      Flip the frame over and align the legs with the frame as shown in the graph.

      Step 21:

      Insert the legs into the frame.

    Tags

    Annotators

  20. Jun 2018
    1. In this kind of situation one might well ask: why continue to make the 80 per cent of products that only generate 20 per cent of profits? Companies rarely ask these questions, perhaps because to answer them would mean very radical action: to stop doing four-fifths of what you are doing is not a trivial change.

      Relevant on larger scale of global economies.

    2. There are two routes to achieving this. One is to reallocate the resources from unproductive to productive uses, the secret of all entrepreneurs down the ages. Find a round hole for a round peg, a square hole for a square peg, and a perfect fit for any shape in between. Experience suggests that every resource has its ideal arena, where the resource can be tens or hundreds of times more effective than in most other arenas. The other route to progress—the method of scientists, doctors, preachers, computer systems designers, educationalists and trainers—is to find ways to make the unproductive resources more effective, even in their existing applications; to make the weak resources behave as though they were their more productive cousins; to mimic, if necessary by intricate rote-learning procedures, the highly productive resources. The few things that work fantastically well should be identified, cultivated, nurtured and multiplied. At the same time, the waste—the majority of things that will always prove to be of low value to man and beast—should be abandoned or severely cut back.
    3. Certainly, the principle brings home what may be evident anyway: that there is a tragic amount of waste everywhere, in the way that nature operates, in business, in society and in our own lives. If the typical pattern is for 80 per cent of results to come from 20 per cent of inputs, it is necessarily typical too that 80 per cent, the great majority, of inputs are having only a marginal—20 per cent—impact.
    4. Both phenomena help to show how the universe abhors balance. In the former case, we see a natural flight away from a 50/50 split of competing phenomena. A 51/49 split is inherently unstable and tends to gravitate towards a 95/5, 99/1 or even 100/0 split. Equality ends in dominance: that is one of the messages of chaos theory. The 80/20 Principle’s message is different yet complementary It tells us that, at any one point, a majority of any phenomenon will be explained or caused by a minority of the actors participating in the phenomenon. 80 per cent of the results come from 20 per cent of the causes. A few things are important; most are not.
    5. Related to the idea of feedback loops is the concept of the tipping point. Up to a certain point, a new force—whether it is a new product, a disease, a new rock group or a new social habit such as jogging or roller-blading—finds it difficult to make headway. A great deal of effort generates little by way of results. At this point many pioneers give up. But if the new force persists and can cross a certain invisible line, a small amount of additional effort can reap huge returns. This invisible line is the tipping point.
    6. We can see positive feedback loops operating in many areas, explaining how it is that we typically end up with 80/20 rather than 50/50 relationships between populations. For example, the rich get richer, not just (or mainly) because of superior abilities, but because riches beget riches. A similar phenomenon exists with goldfish in a pond. Even if you start with goldfish almost exactly the same size, those that are slightly bigger become very much bigger, because, even with only slight initial advantages in stronger propulsion and larger mouths, they are able to capture and gobble up disproportionate amounts of food
    7. At the heart of this progress is a process of substitution. Resources that have weak effects in any particular use are not used, or are used sparingly. Resources that have powerful effects are used as much as possible. Every resource is ideally used where it has the greatest value. Wherever possible, weak resources are developed so that they can mimic the behaviour of the stronger resources.
    8. Why should you care about the 80/20 Principle? Whether you realize it or not, the principle applies to your life, to your social world and to the place where you work. Understanding the 80/20 Principle gives you great insight into what is really happening in the world around you.
    9. The reason that the 80/20 Principle is so valuable is that it is counterintuitive. We tend to expect that all causes will have roughly the same significance. That all customers are equally valuable. That every bit of business, every product and every dollar of sales revenue is as good as another. That all employees in a particular category have roughly equivalent value. That each day or week or year we spend has the same significance. That all our friends have roughly equal value to us. That all enquiries or phone calls should be treated in the same way. That one university is as good as another. That all problems have a large number of causes, so that it is not worth isolating a few key causes. That all opportunities are of roughly equal value, so that we treat them all equally. We tend to assume that 50 per cent of causes or inputs will account for 50 per cent of results or outputs. There seems to be a natural, almost democratic, expectation that causes and results are generally equally balanced. And, of course, sometimes they are. But this ‘50/50 fallacy’ is one of the most inaccurate and harmful, as well as the most deeply rooted, of our mental maps.
    10. The key point is not the percentages, but the fact that the distribution of wealth across the population was predictably unbalanced.
    11. In business, many examples of the 80/20 Principle have been validated. 20 per cent of products usually account for about 80 per cent of dollar sales value; so do 20 per cent of customers. 20 per cent of products or customers usually also account for about 80 per cent of an organization’s profits. In society, 20 per cent of criminals account for 80 per cent of the value of all crime. 20 per cent of motorists cause 80 per cent of accidents. 20 per cent of those who marry comprise 80 per cent of the divorce statistics (those who consistently remarry and redivorce distort the statistics and give a lopsidedly pessimistic impression of the extent of marital fidelity). 20 per cent of children attain 80 per cent of educational qualifications available. In the home, 20 per cent of your carpets are likely to get 80 per cent of the wear. 20 per cent of your clothes will be worn 80 per cent of the time. And if you have an intruder alarm, 80 per cent of the false alarms will be set off by 20 per cent of the possible causes. The internal combustion engine is a great tribute to the 80/20 Principle. 80 per cent of the energy is wasted in combustion and only 20 per cent gets to the wheels; this 20 per cent of the input generates 100 per cent of the output!
    12. The 80/20 Principle asserts that a minority of causes, inputs or effort usually lead to a majority of the results, outputs or rewards. Taken literally, this means that, for example, 80 per cent of what you achieve in your job comes from 20 per cent of the time spent. Thus for all practical purposes, four-fifths of the effort—a dominant part of it—is largely irrelevant. This is contrary to what people normally expect.
  21. Jun 2017
  22. Mar 2017
  23. Aug 2015
    1. Ich habe mal versucht, ein bisschen rauszukriegen, ob denn diese 20 Prozent in der Praxis erreicht werden. Das scheint unterschiedlich zu sein. Aber zum Beispiel beim größten deutschen und auch weltweiten Internetknoten, dem DE-CIX in Frankfurt, liegt die regelmäßige durchschnittliche Auslastung unter 20 Prozent, sodass man davon ausgehen kann, dass der Bundesnachrichten-dienst den DE-CIX komplett überwachen dürfte.
    2. Das G-10-Gesetz sagt, dass die Telekommunikations-überwachung sich maximal auf 20 Prozent der Übertragungskapazität des jeweiligen Übertra-gungswegs beziehen darf.
  24. Jan 2014
    1. An effective data management program would enable a user 20 years or longer in the future to discover , access , understand, and use particular data [ 3 ]. This primer summarizes the elements of a data management program that would satisfy this 20-year rule and are necessary to prevent data entropy .

      Who cares most about the 20-year rule? This is an ideal that appeals to some, but in practice even the most zealous adherents can't picture what this looks like in some concrete way-- except in the most traditional ways: physical paper journals in libraries are tangible examples of the 20-year rule.

      Until we have a digital equivalent for data I don't blame people looking for tenure or jobs for not caring about this ideal if we can't provide a clear picture of how to achieve this widely at an institutional level. For digital materials I think the picture people have in their minds is of tape backup. Maybe this is generational? New generations not exposed widely to cassette tapes, DVDs, and other physical media that "old people" remember, only then will it be possible to have a new ideal that people can see in their minds-eye.