321 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2023
    1. One of the main purposes of the Freedmen’s Bureau, however, was to redistribute lands to formerly enslaved people that had been abandoned and confiscated by the federal government. Even these land grants were short-lived. In 1866, land that ex-Confederates had left behind was reinstated to them.

      I think this was very unfair the government gave land to newly freed people only to snatch it back to the original owners they had confiscated it from.

  2. Dec 2022
  3. Nov 2022
  4. Oct 2022
    1. Just as a breadcrumb here for future readers (I found this thread when I was searching), it seems Cuprite has support for non-headless now (via Ferrum). headless: false in the options does the trick. And thanks for your work on Cuprite.
    1. initial

      Change to "final" instead of "initial"

    2. Because the rate law is a power function we need to use logarithms to determine the order of reaction. First take the log of both sides

      In this example, should we first introduce a new reaction of a + b -->

    3. the power

      Sentence may need to be revised

  5. Sep 2022
    1. It is interesting to think that physical barriers can cause different phenotypes to form, which leads to speciation. I wonder if the opposite could happen when different species are brought close enough together and evolve to have similar traits that a advantageous to a common environment. After all, these species are meant to share common ancestor.

  6. Aug 2022
  7. Jun 2022
    1. We will continue to listen and work to make Hypothesis a safe and welcoming place for expression and conversation on the web

      What has been done to improve this situation since this post six years ago?

    1. I regularly check in on comments for this website and will generally respond!
    2. Although Hugo works with a number of commenting systems, I’ve chosen to use the social annotation software Hypothesis as the social layer on this website.


      Someone else using Hypothes.is as a commenting system in the wild.

  8. May 2022
  9. Apr 2022
  10. Dec 2021
    1. These case studies show that we cannot understand the mobility of gods simply in terms of the mobility of people.

      "The notion of «religious mobility» has also been proposed as a means of encompassing both religious change consequent on the mobility of people" from earlier in this article, pg 112. I feel this transition is a technique of writing the author implemented well. I did not think I would be introduced to a new concept and then read contradicting points. The author showed critical thinking and provided a solid argument.

    2. tendency to use modern Christianity as an analytical archetype or paradigm

      While Christianity is definitely a major religion both past and present, I think it is worth noting that Alexander the great ruled before it was invented, therefore making it obsolete to his part of history.

    3. sis came to be associated with human fertility, with healing, with the passage to the underworld and with travel by boat.

      Isis original Egyptian name is Aset, translating to "queen of the throne." This would definitely help spread her popularity. Perhaps she is nationally worshipped because every culture ties a significance to death and healing.

  11. Oct 2021
  12. Sep 2021
  13. fa21psy352.commons.gc.cuny.edu fa21psy352.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. Only recentlyhave we rediscovered the concept of the self, and too many of ushave still not absorbed James’s insights into the distinctionamong the material, social, and spiritual (conscious) selves (al-though few of us have had to contend with a Swedenborgianfather who rejected all notions of selfhood).

      This is surprising and perplexing to me because as early as Descartes he said and I quote "Cogito, ergo sum" meaning I think, therefore I am. Selfhood and consciousness shouldn't be a recently discovered concept.

    2. Wundt preached the inaccessibility ofthose phenomena to experimental and by implication ‘‘scien-tific’’ study.

      Yes! because the mind cant be experimented like other practical sciences, only through observation and studying can we learn more about the human mind.

    3. Henoted that whereas psychology must be based on the results ofethnology and anthropology, mental development may stillbe the same for different cultures or that similar cultures may,psychologically speaking, represent different stages of ‘‘mentalculture.’’

      I agree, from what i gathered in my past developmental psychology course we all share the same consensus that mental development is the same from culture to culture but the mental culture in other societies vary.

    4. He related the three broad topics Sprache, Mythus,and Sitte (language, mythology, and culture) to the individual-psychological aspects of representation, emotion, will, andhabit.

      Intriguing.. I can see where the connection is possibly being made, that language and culture have an impact on our psyche? Language can focus our aspect on specific aspects of the world and influences perception and culture effects us developmentally.

    1. Und dann kam die alte Großmutter auch noch lebendig heraus und konnte kaum atmen. Rotkäppchen aber holte geschwind große Steine, damit füllten sie dem Wolf den Leib, und wie er aufwachte, wollte er fortspringen, aber die Steine waren so schwer, dass er gleich niedersank und sich totfiel.

      Das Jäger ist der Held für die Großmutter und Rotkäppchen! Das ist sehr interessant.

    2. Komm, Rotkäppchen, da hast du ein Stück Kuchen und eine Flasche Wein, bring das der Großmutter hinaus; sie ist krank und schwach und wird sich daran laben.

      Ein Stück Kuchen und eine Flasche Wein ist zwei sehr fraglich Produkte zu einem kranken älteren Menschen bringen! Das ist nicht gut.

  14. Aug 2021
    1. The goal of this text is topresent a version of the history of psychologythat resists the traditional storylines of greatachievements by eminent people or schools ofthought that rise and fall in the wake of scientificprogress and that instead attempts to reveal thecomplex trajectory of psychology as a sociallyembedded set of theories and practices thatboth reify and reflect the contexts from whichthey arise and to which they return.

      This seems to be the key idea of the authors writing. Identifying that their approach to the history of Psychology will differ from the usual "traditional storylines" and to bring in a more complex, messy(?) and overlapping narratives that reflects the contexts that these psychological knowledge emerge from.

    2. he object of interest was notthe normally functioning, but the abnormallyfunctioning human mind.

      It seems like the different subject of study, in this case of "normally functioning" and "abnormally functioning" has shaped the models for experiments and the role expectations for observer and participant even though both models were developed in the same time period.

    3. How does the historian decidewho is, or was, important enough tobe included? That is, who should be at the center of the story,who should be at the periphery, andwho should be left out entirely?

      These are really great questions that are raised by the authors. Prior to this, I have not really considered or questioned who gets chosen to "represent" Psychology or why we are learning about them (e.g. Freud, Watson) over other theorists. This also relates to the reading by Conolly-Smith on Historiography which brings up the importance of questioning "who writes history, with what agenda in mind, and towards what ends?“ demonstrating that there is a purpose to the Psychological knowledge that gets recorded and remembered.

    4. What Morawski’s analysis demonstrates is notthat reflexivity renders experimentation impos-sible in psychology but that an understandingof its effects is sometimes required to make ourinterpretations of psychological data more mean-ingful.

      This is helping me with understanding some of my conundrum with the problems of not being able to replicate lab results of psychology experiments in the real world. Perhaps if more studies consider Morawski's consideration of reflexivity it can better help us with interpreting the results of our experimental studies?

    5. Psychology has been actively involved in creat-ing its own subject matter, has often changed thesubject matter that it has taken up in complexways, and has arguably created constructs thatwould (probably) never have existed without it.

      Ah! I'm guessing this is why Psychology moved from the study of observable behavior only in Behaviorism to the study of the mind in Cognitive psychology approaches? The object of study seem to have shifted quite drastically even as we recognize both as part of Psychology; seems like Psychology has a broad and/or ever-changing definition based on what is interesting to the psychologists at that time?

  15. Jun 2021
    1. Your attempt should work. There is a mismatch in column name in your query though. The query uses col2 but the table is defined with col1.

      I would actually lean towards making this a comment, at least the typo fix part. But if you remove the typo fix part, all that's left is "should work", which I guess should be a comment too since it's too short to be an answer.

  16. May 2021
    1. Componenet radial seismogram diperoleh dari seismogram dengan componenet s (Rayleigh Wave)



  17. Apr 2021
  18. Mar 2021
    1. Years ago, I helped build a storytelling platform called Hi (a simplification of its original name: Hitotoki, now shuttered and archived) and one of the things I’m most proud of our team having concocted is the commenting system. We had tens of thousands of users and almost no issues with harassment. You could comment on anyone’s story and your having commented would be public — a little avatar at the bottom of the page — but the comment itself would be private. This allowed folks to reap the public validation of engagement (“Whoa! So many comments!”) while simultaneously removing any grandstanding or attacks. It wasn’t quite messaging. It wasn’t quite commenting. It felt very much like a contemporary, lighter take on email, and in being so was a joy to use. Here’s what the bottom of an entry looks like: "Commenting" on Hitotoki

      I like the design and set up for this feature. Perhaps something for the IndieWeb to pick up? In some sense the implementation of Webmention-based likes, bookmarks, and facepiled mentions on my site is just this sort of design.

      The anecdotal evidence that there was little harassment is a positive sign for creating such a thing.

    1. Timezones and cultures: If you have a geographically dispersed set of learners, any synchronous events will introduce timezone bias; additionally people may have variant weekend days, national holidays, and other important days they cannot meet Families and busy people: If you teach mostly non-traditional students who have either jobs or families, their time may not be as flexible and they may struggle to commit to synchronous meetings. Recording meetings for them to watch later could work BUT they would have FOMO (Fear of Missing Out) and you would lose their active participation in those meetings Technical: If some of your learners have infrastructure issues (e.g., live in remote/rural areas or developing countries where bandwidth is low or unreliable) then audiovisuals will discriminate against them, more so if this is live audiovisual interaction. Even those with relatively stable infrastructure occasionally struggle with connectivity and/or with mic/headset working properly every single time they connect Language: If some learners are not native speakers of, or not fluent in, the language of instruction, then they may prefer the additional time needed to interpret and reflect before responding

      I guess there are some implicits here - i.e. that you are targeting the whole world equally. This is laudable but might not always be the case - this will then impact the technologies and approach one can take. It comes down to aims and objectives when one considers the audience. One size does not fit all.

  19. Jan 2021
  20. Nov 2020
    1. He said this to throw me off, but his deceit                                        370 could never fool me. I was too clever. And so I gave him a misleading answer:

      Another line of dialogue that would have had a god like Athena interject to suggest the use of cunning. In this case compared to the Iliad which gives us insight on how the author is different. Thoughts are described and this could be because the story revolves around Odysseus, a man who uses wit rather then strength which makes the author use more internal thoughts and explanations.

    2. As he spoke, our hearts collapsed, terrified by his deep voice and monstrous size. But still, I answered him and said:

      Compared to the Iliad this was the first case where emotions were used to describe a characters feelings before dialogue. This is usually done through the use of god characters.

    3. Resourceful Odysseus then replied to Alcinous:

      Epithets are often used with Odysseus and specifically when he is about to do an interaction with another character in the story.

    1. the number of daily visitors has averaged about 540.


    2. Some arts advocates have been encouraging politicians to allow museums to elevate their numbers, but there are no signs that the state plans to ease that restriction any time soon.

      I work at The High Line so this may be a bit different but this seems like a crazy thing to advocate for. Our capacity is 700 from beginning to end and even when it creeps up on 600 the pathways are uncomfortably full.

    3. And at the American Museum of Natural History, a visitor from Florida, Cheyenne Grant, 21, observed the emptiness: “It’s just us and the dinosaurs.”

      Interesting to see "visitor from Florida"

    1. the correction is appreciated, but please keep the reasoning behind the edit in the metadata text, or as a hidden comment in the source (using <!-- comment here --> syntax); putting it in huge bold print in the post itself can be considered defacement, and is probably why the initial suggestion was rejected.
  21. Oct 2020
    1. I just wrote a long, considered, friendly, and I hope helpful comment here but -- sorry, I have to see the irony in this once again -- your system wouldn't let me say anything longer tahn 1,500 characters. If you want more intelligent conversations, you might want to expand past soundbite.

      In 2008, even before Twitter had become a thing at 180 characters, here's a great reason that people should be posting their commentary on their own blogs.

      This example from 2008 is particularly rich as you'll find examples on this page of Derek Powazek and Jeff Jarvis posting comments with links to much richer content and commentary on their own websites.

      We're a decade+ on and we still haven't managed to improve on this problem. In fact, we may have actually made it worse.

      I'd love to see On the Media revisit this idea. (Of course their site doesn't have comments at all anymore either.)

    1. But note well, my friend, that all of these people are speaking to you with intelligence, experience, generosity, and civility. You know what’s missing? Two things: First, the sort of nasty comments your own piece decries. And second: You.


    2. Why can't there be more sites with solid commentary like this anymore? Do the existence of Twitter and Facebook mean whe can't have nice things anymore?

    1. Comments are enabled via Hypothes.is

      This may be the first time I've seen someone explicitly use Hypothes.is as the comment system on their personal website.

      I wonder if Matthew actively monitors commentary on his site, and, if so, how he's accomplishing it?

      The method I've used in the past as a quick and dirty method is Jon Udell's facet tool https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?wildcard_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fmatthewlincoln.net%2F*&max=100, though it only indicates just a few comments so far.

      Use cases like this are another good reason why Hypothes.is ought to support the Webmention spec.

    1. This week, host Bob Garfield did a piece ostensibly about the problems newspaper sites have with website comments. Unfortunately it just came out sounding like another old journalist kvetching about how everyone on the net is an idiot. You can listen to the story here.

      Here's the new link to the audio: https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/otm/episodes/131068-july-25-2008

      Here's the link to a version of the site in August 2008 with the commentary, which makes a fascinating rabbit hole to go down: https://web.archive.org/web/20080907233914/http://www.onthemedia.org/episodes/2008/07/25/segments/104537

    1. Another good time to slow people down is when they’re about to post something nasty online. Friction-positive design can help here, too. Civil Comments was an app you could apply to your comments section that forced commenters to rate three other comments before posting their own.
    2. Trisha Prabhu was fourteen years old when she was named a Google Science Fair Global Finalist for her ReThink plat-form, which, according to research she presented at the event, reduced teen hate-posting by 93 percent! How did she do it? Very simple. Let’s say you’re on a social media platform using the ReThink technology. You’re about to post a hateful mes-sage. ReThink catches it; when you hit “send,” a screen pops up that says:ReThink has detected that this message may be hurtful to others. Are you sure you want to post this message?93 percent of adolescents who saw that intervention didn’t post.
  22. Sep 2020
    1. I edited the post twice to remove the broken link /react-js-the-king-of-universal-apps/ (with the edit-comments clearly mentioning that it is a broken link), but the peers have rejected the edit both the times. Can someone guide me what's wrong in editing an answer and removing a broken link?
  23. Aug 2020
    1. program

      set of instructions

    2. The way of the program

      this is introduction. it gives the basics for programmers

  24. Jul 2020
  25. Jun 2020
  26. May 2020
    1. If there’s no equivalent for the Unicode code point you’re trying to represent in the encoding you’re trying to represent it in, you usually get a little question mark: ? or, if you’re really good, a box.

      Oh! So this is what I stumble into. Interesting!

    1. Problem-Solution PaperPresents a problem, explains its causes, and proposesand explains a solution

      I don't believe I've written anything like this in high school, so I have no experience with this type of assignment.

    1. Team Chat on any Webpage to Discuss Issues, Feedback: Inverse

      Am instalat extensia și mi-am făcut conturi cu dinu.laurentiu@gmail.com si laurentiu.test01@gmail.com. NU consider că extensia/aplicația este de păstrat... nu arată rău, dar nu aduce NIMIC ÎN PLUS FAȚĂ DE HYPOTHES.IS

  27. Feb 2020
    1. The comments on this piece are interesting and illuminating, particularly all these years later.

  28. Dec 2019
  29. Nov 2019
    1. nd in warfare as cowardly and effeminate men.

      Bravery, soldierliness and manliness seem to be recurring themes throughout this text

  30. Oct 2019
    1. To place Balbuena in his time, it is interesting to note that he was born within two years of Shakespeare, Galileo, and Michelangelo

      This is an interesting thing to think about in terms of contemporary history, as these figures are not often portrayed as being part of the colonial period

    1. ll prepared; six hundredweight of hardtack will be enough, but better have over that than under, and make it yourself, since you know how. And buy four cured hams from Ronda, and four cheeses; twelve pounds of rice; chickpeas and beans, rather too much than too little; all the spices; vinegar and olive oil, four jugs of each; jerked beef and mutton, plenty of it and well dressed; and as much linen and woolen clothing for you to wear as you can bring, because here it is very expensive.

      This paragraph demonstrates that the life in new land is still different from Spain, and those objects that people like in Spain are less prevalent or accessible in the new land, so the Spanish settlers have to import them back from the homeland. The economics were probably better in the new land but the overall level of comfort in the new place might not be as good as Spain.

    2. it would be a greater happi-ness to see you; yet you want to stay there in that poverty and need which people suffer in Spain.

      That sounds like people living in Spain was having a worse situation than people in the new land? Was Spain in some kinds of hardship at this moment, or was it because poor families tend to travel more to new land?

  31. Sep 2019
    1. That distance makes it safe for people to connect through weak ties where they can have the appearance of a connection because it’s safe.”

      I know that this is one of the main reasons people like using social media.

    1. Similarly, to focus on comparison, choose two subjects that seem at first to be unrelated.

      This will likely grab the readers attention and make them want to keep reading.

    1. you’ll probably want to go back to your readings and check your notes

      I know that in the past with writing essays, my notes have always helped me.

    1. less than a handful were women.

      I think that with programs like S.T.E.M. it's getting easier to involve all different types of students.

    1. enable or get sucked into their partner's addictions or narcissism.

      This reminds me of a few experiences.

    2. what-the-hell effect,

      Doesn't just happen to dieters. It can happen to anyone trying to better themselves like recovering alcoholics or smokes.

    3. 'd never do something like that."

      We never really know what we would do if we were ever put into a situation where we had to think on our feet.

    4. It's hard to let go of a fixed belief.

      If you have believed something your whole life, it would be very hard to try and think of it in a different way. One little thing is probably not going to change our minds.

    5. Similar tragedies play out time and again when people try to rescue companions.

      People don't really think about the consequences of their actions in the heat of the moment.

    6. there's a risk that in the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to overstep it.

      People think that there is no harm in overstepping the boundaries they set.

    7. "Don't use your intuition to convince yourself that things are going right, use it to alert you to potential problems,"

      Sometimes when something feels like it is right it might not always be right.

    8. It's easy to think: I'll just go over the redline a little bit. What difference will it make? The problem is that once we do, there are no more cues reminding us that we're heading in the wrong direction.

      That is like saying no to the cues that tell us right from wrong. Which then compromises the morals we choose/practice.

    1. Your brainstorming and prewriting assignments are important assignments

      I know that writing an outline for each essay really helps me gather all of my ideas.

    2. Why do we write?

      For someone writing a piece it could be about a passion. Or about someone or something they lost. Everyone has different reasons to why they write

    1. cause/effect relationship that the reader wasn’t expecting

      Usually in this type of essay, the reader doesn't realize the cause/effect until the end of the essay.

  32. Aug 2019
    1. The Plant Body

      This reading is an excellent example of how a seemingly simple plant is composed of a variety of complex categories and systems.

    2. three types

      I think the best way to go about remembering these 3 types are by breaking down the name itself. Apical derives from apex, which can refer to the farthest edge or tip of something (roots and stem tips). Lateral is a direction of movement, usually side to side (increased thickness). Intercalary refers to being inserted between other parts, areas/places, or things, in this case between leaf blades and nodes. Hope this helps.

    1. leaflets

      Many other plants, including the green elms on the DSU campus also have several leaflets coming off of a single stem-like structure to comprise a single leaf.

    2. plants have tissues that conduct food and water

      These plant tissues (vascular tissues) are also known as "TRACHEOPHYTES". These Vascular tissues are made up of two main tissues - The Xylem and Phloem.

    3. oxygen from photosynthesis

      Plants do not always carry "breathe'' out oxygen - sometimes they produce CO2. This is mostly at night as they need to break down carbohydrates to produce energy and also there is no sunlight during the night. With sunlight being one of the main components in the Photosynthesis process, plants cannot produce oxygen at night.

    4. Their seeds are not enclosed by a fleshy fruit

      I've also heard of gymnosperms being refered to as "naked seeded" plants since their seeds are open to air.

    1. Just by looking at the page you can see that it's not a normal check box. You are hiding the checkbox via CSS (opacity: 0) and replacing it with an image for styling reasons. Since the checkbox isn't visible Capybara can't find it. There are a couple of ways to deal with this, either find the element that contains the image being used as a replacement for the checkbox and click on that, or tell check/uncheck that it's allowed to click on the label if necessary to switch the checkbox
  33. Jul 2019
    1. I am a researcher working on topics related to subjective well-being (sometimes also called happiness).

      I should preface by saying that I have relatively modest training in statistics, and the arguments put forth in this paper are quite out of my depth. For example, I have not heard of things like first order stochastic dominance before reading this paper. I hope that by being open about things that I might be somewhat ignorant, this can be a path for me to develop a deeper understanding of the concerns raised in the paper.

      I think (which could well be wrong) the paper is saying that in an ordinal measure like happiness, groups and individuals differ in their 'standard' in reporting happiness (e.g., what it takes to push my happiness from 0 to 1 is different from what pushes your happiness from 0 to 1). This makes comparing 'latent' (or true level of) happiness across groups difficult, if not impossible.

      Put differently, if I report a 1 and you report a 0, I cannot be certain that I am happier than you. It could be the case that my standard for reporting a 1 is lower than you. The authors showed that by changing this standard around, inferences about 'true' happiness would change.

      I think this is an important point. I think happiness researchers have grappled with this to some degree (from a more abstract perspective; instead of the more statistical/mathematical perspective). E.g., A hypothesis about how people report life satisfaction is that they compare their life to an ideal life (here, the ideal life sets the standard; i.e., two people with the exact same life can have different levels of life satisfaction because they have different ideas about ideal life). Related research in social comparison could be interpreted as moving the standard for happiness higher (instead of lowering 'true' happiness). In contrast, things like gratitude may lead to higher happiness ratings because it lowers happiness standard (instead of increasing 'true' happiness). The set point hypothesis can be interpreted as 1) people fully adapting their 'true' happiness to baseline levels after experiencing major life events or 2) people create a new happiness standard after experiencing a major life event.

      This paper prompts me to think harder about happiness measures. It could well be the case that the standard people set for their happiness level (a cognitive process?) may be just as important as 'true' happiness itself.

  34. Jun 2019
  35. May 2019
    1. It’s a more Eastern idea that suffering is part of life.

      Note to self: try to find some good citation/literature on this

  36. Mar 2019
    1. It would be nice if comments and annotations could be voted by people, and have the possibility to sort them chronologically etc.

  37. Dec 2018
    1. It’s about doing the one little thing you can do, even if it’s useless: planting seeds in the midst of the apocalypse, spitting on a wildfire, bailing out the ocean with a bucket. Individual action is almost always pointless.

      I believe there are things which can be easily classified as "useless" and have absolutely no impact on the end result (see: a single vote in a normal election)

      On the other hand, there are things which do make a small contribution to the end result, even if it's very little. I don't like to call these "useless" because they do have an impact. These should be done even if the individual result is invisible.

      The examples shown here belong to the second category.

  38. Feb 2018
  39. Jan 2018
    1. hlachlne instruction would per- mlt each student to proceed at his orvn rate

      This may be true, but can a modern machine or AI, on its own, give a detailed and personalized explanation of why the student was incorrect? For instance, in terms of music, I do not believe a machine can explain the nuance and tone of a passage. It may be able to play a professional recording, but in my opinion, music-making, especially at an enriching, educational level, should be a creative process, not a reductive, emulative one.

      Furthermore, there is the problem of the expenses associated with these technologies. Let's say, in 2019, a machine or software is created that can grade music theory assignments with 99% accuracy. How long would it actually take for a significant number of schools to adopt such an AI? While wondering how great it would be to have such a device, it is simply not useful to pretend that it is already here.

      Beyond Scantron multiple choice graders or online assignments or videos, I rarely see machines that take the teacher's role. No machine could do everything a human teacher does in this day and age.

      Perhaps I extrapolated too much from this article. However, in my mind, when I see someone talk about "machine learning" or "machine teaching," I think of neural networking, big data, and Google Deep Mind.

    2. Programming Materia

      To create a music-teaching machine, expanding upon my first annotation, one would need it to understand the musical material. We would need complex, large-scale neural networking that can compare a student's playing to some model or professionally-done recording. With regard to my own philosophy, I think this would lead to a lack of uniqueness among young musicians. Additionally, this software would need to be easy for teachers to use without programming experience.

      In short, if we are to use machines to their full, modern capacity to inspire and guide young musicians, we would need:

      1. Neural networking software,
      2. A simple-to-use way for teachers to access or edit that software,
      3. recording equipment.

      Perhaps I extrapolated too much from this article. However, in my mind, when I see someone talk about "machine learning" or "machine teaching," I think of neural networking, big data, and Google Deep Mind.

    1. This type of reinforcement occurs frequently in the classroom.

      I see positive reinforcement very often. The directors often tell students when they are doing a good job, delegate solos to young artists, commend the ensemble for their work at the concert in front of the audience, and sometimes even let the band decide how a passage should be played. Much of a band, choir, or orchestra director's job is to give positive reinforcement. I'd even say that receiving this praise is the goal of some students for one reason or another.

    2. Obtaining a score of 80% or higher makes the final exam optional.

      Some of these examples can only be entertained in a music classroom fit for them. For instance, in an ensemble where the semester's concert is the final, this would not work. In other contexts, such as a general music, music theory, or music appreciation environment (or even ensembles that do have separate exams), I could see an optional exam, dropped poorest assignment, or homework pass being realistic.

      My point? I rarely see negative reinforcement in music classrooms; when I do see it, it serves a very specific purpose. While negative reinforcement is not common, it is useful, and I'd like to see good examples of it applied to a large classroom or ensemble rehearsal.

    1. The schoolsoften favor “covering the curriculum,” testing for isolated sets of skills andknowledge, and solo teaching, with limited use and understanding of newtechnologies

      It appear to me that as of 2018, Jacobs is ahead of this curve; to me, this curve has passed in teacher education. In terms of technology and new course material, I know we have had music education lectures and courses in the past on iPad ensembles, basic guitar performance, body percussion, and the pedagogy of pop music. In some other courses, we have networks of electric keyboards the instructor can listen to from their seat, and the Department of Bands has taken advantage of projectors and movies just like some major symphonies do.

    1. A common misconception regarding “constructivist” theories of know-ing (that existing knowledge is used to build new knowledge) is that teach-ers should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should alwaysallow them to construct knowledge for themselves.

      I'd say that this misconception can be falsified by simply stepping into a real teacher's classroom. I believe that there is a difference between pedagogy and execution, or an idea and its reality. I have had several of my own teachers fail to attempt this misguided approach with the students just more confused after the teacher prompts them. In all these cases, the instructor meant well and obviously intended for us to reach a certain conclusion, but nobody was able to get there on their own without direct instruction.

    2. Anunderstanding of veins and arteries does not guarantee an answer to thisdesign question, but it does support thinking about alternatives that are notreadily available if one only memorizes facts

      In a nutshell, this section provides an example of a subject that relies on intuitive thinking or additional knowledge to fill in the gaps between its parts. Knowledge does not arise in the form of lists; it could be said to be more like a web, or a mental internet of ideas.

  40. Oct 2017
  41. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. smooth/rough shiny/dull hot/cold soft/hard light/dark transparent/opaque up/down in/out sta bility/insta bili ty torwa rd/backwanl vertical/horizontal straight/curved or crooked light/heavy chin/thick dean/dirty

      The process of characterizing physical attributes is a very straightforward and seemingly uncreative, which may be unconventional for writers. Interestingly enough, computers thrive on performing logical tasks. In a TED talk in 2015, Fei-Fei Li talks about making computers able to understand images. Similar techniques have even been used to read people's dreams, where electrical signals are logged and arranged as an image, and a computer attempts to characterize what the person was "seeing". Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign took it a step further and wrote the paper "Describing Objects by their Attributes". In it they discussed how they were able to "develop computer vision algorithms that go beyond naming and infer the properties or attributes of objects".

      In the video, Fei-Fei Li explains the process her research team used to teach a computer how to recognize objects in images. This process was started by showing the computer gigantic amounts of processed images to allow it to train. At 7:35, SHEEEE mentions that thousands of employees worked together to organize and label over a billion images. This process reminded me of the metadata mentioned by Morna Gerrard in our visit to the Archives. Much like categorizing archives helps us identify the information we want, the categorization of images aids a computer to find what it is looking at.

      I think it would be interesting to have technology contributing in the first steps of Prowian Analysis, since their logical approach to solving problems might allow us to have more detailed and thorough descriptions. Perhaps one day, technology will be able to take it a step further and make assumptions about the meaning of physical attributes, allowing material culture to be partly automated.

      Paper: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

      Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40riCqvRoMs

    2. they cover over 150 years of American history,

      This text was written by two professors who specialize in American art and culture. Material culture is obviously not limited to studying American history, it can be applied anywhere. For example, Marianne Hulsbosch, Elizabeth Bedford, and Martha Chaiklin analyze the culture of different regions in Asia in their book called "Asian Material Culture" (link provided bellow). I would actually argue that material culture is not quite as useful for American history as it would be for others, since the history is relatively "new" and well-documented (if we exclude the limited artifacts that exist of Native American culutres). Material culture analysis is a very useful tool for studying ancient civilizations, which might not have documented every aspect of their lives and history, but have left behind relics and artifacts that showcase what their societies used and valued. By analyzing aspects of ancient objects, such as attention to detail in decoration or their physical condition, we can make conclusions about what life was like thousands of years ago.

      This image could be a prime example of history being discovered through material culture rather than the studying of texts. These dice could have been a very common recreational game in the lower classes of a civilization. Since the game was fairly known and popular only among the poor, the upper class scholars might have considered it unimportant to document this activity. Even though no text evidence would reference the dice, we would be able to utilize material culture to analyze the role of these artifacts in the ancient society. By noticing how frequently they appeared, the cheap materials used to make them, and the crude design work, historians could conclude that these artifacts were not a luxury product and were used by the common people.

      Image Source: http://www.judyhall.co.uk/miscellaneous/the-answer-will-be-found-in-a-basket-of-flint-ses-re-en-sesit-unbolting-the-door-of-concealed-things-divination-in-ancient-egypt

      Sources: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=290b1925-1046-44ec-9edc-49e64a048b24%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=297832&db=nlebk , http://www.reed.edu/humanities/110Tech/MaterialCulture.html

    1. We can u-;e this mode to communicate representations of how something look~

      What counts as a visual mode of communication can become a bit confusing in certain cases.

      For example, authors of fantasy fiction these days rely heavily on the reader to imagine visuals. They carefully describe physical objects and scenes, much like in Prownian Analysis or our descriptions of the AIDS Quilt panels, to cause the reader to "see" things that they might have never seen or imagined before. I realize that using writing would technically fall under the category of the linguistic mode of communication, but this descriptive writing exists to evoke our visual senses. These authors depend on us visualizing the worlds that they create to tell their story. If this communication uses our "visual-spatial intelligence" according to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, should it not be considered a mix of the visual and linguistic modes?

    2. The visual mode refers to the use of images and other characteris-tics that readers see

      I think that the importance that "other characteristics" can have as a visual mode is commonly overlooked. The layout of a webpage can communicate to the reader what to emphasize on, the color of an "Open/Closed" sign can communicate the status of a restaurant from beyond a legible distance, and the size of a specific visual object on a billboard can communicate what exact product is being advertised.

      A good example of the utilization of visual modes of communication without the direct use of an image is visual poetry. This type of poetry is known for having dominant visual elements. A common technique of achieving this is using the words of the poem to create the perception of a shape or image.

      This is a good example of a simple visual poem. The topic of the poem is coffee, hence the writer adjusted the layout of the text to create a shape. This shape is perceived by our minds as a coffee mug, even though there is no actual picture of one.

      On an interesting side note: the reason we are able to perceive this image is due to the Gestalt psychology. This is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology which studies the self-organizing tendencies of the human brain (especially with images). According to this psychological phenomenon, our mind is always trying to find patterns in the data it receives and many times organizes sets of randomness in order to perceive them as a whole. This is why the seemingly random positions of the words in the poem cause our mind to try to find a pattern in the darker areas of the poem's white background, eventually leading us to seeing a coffee mug.

      Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_poetry , https://www.britannica.com/science/Gestalt-psychology

      Image source: https://collaboems.wordpress.com/2012/05/28/visual-poetry-2/

    3. modes of communication

      Interestingly, these five modes of communication correlate to Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In 1983 he published the book "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," which outlined a model in which people's intelligence was not determined solely by their general ability (also known as IQ or the g factor). Gardner believed believed that types of intelligence were required to fulfill eight criteria:

      1) the potential for brain isolation by brain damage

      2) its place in evolutionary history

      3) the presence of core operations

      4) susceptibility to encoding

      5) a distinct developmental progression

      6) the existence of idiot-savants, prodigies and other exceptional people

      7) support from experimental psychology

      8) support from psychometric findings.

      (Gardner, 1999)

      He then proposed nine types of intelligence that would satisfy these criteria: musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential (The last one was added after the initial eight). The chart bellow shows the types of intelligence with visual queues and a simpler wordings.

      It is interesting that these modes of communication can associate to what Gardner would consider different functions of the brain (Linguistic mode of communication with verbal-linguistic intelligence, visual and spatial modes of communication with visual-spatial intelligence, aural communication with musical-rhythmic intelligence, and gestural communication with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence). Perhaps this indicated that by including multiple modes of communication in our writing for this class (or in any writing), we are able to target more parts of the brain and keep the audience more engaged. This would also mean that according to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, a multimodal text would have a broader appeal since people lacking on a certain type of intelligence would be able to understand the text through whichever mode of communication suits their strength and preference more. For example, a heavy text with many visuals would be more easy for "picture smart" people (as the graphic above would indicate) to connect with.

      Sources: Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.

      Image source: Linkedin Blog - https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/theory-multiple-intelligences-potential-applications-silva-fca-