131 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The question I would like to put forth to this conference, to the delegates of other countries here present is that why have you not rec-ognized us as sovereign people before? Why did we have to travel this dis-tance to come to you? Had you not thought that the U.S. government in its deliberate and systematic attempt to suppress us, had you not thought that was the reason that they did not want to recognize us as sovereign people?

      Here is the original question again, but elaborated.

    2. Why Have You Not Recognized Us as Sovereign People Before?”

      Is this question answered in the passage?

    3. terminate

      Possible rhetorical response to termination policy, which was opposed by Indian movements. Taking the term termination and cleverly re-applying it, transforming the concept.

    4. we are united by blood

      Reminds me of blood quantum racial thought, but applied to pan-Indian movement, and more broadly applied outside the United States! Inclusive, rather than exclusive.

    5. I have a message of Panama. “The Indian women of Panama greet our inseparable companions in the struggle, in the Indian movement that are present here today to question and to achieve positive acts for our nations.

      Using a current event as an example to prove their point. Linking current issues to American history to influence policy decisions.

    6. We are undergoing a modern form called sterilization, which has been going on for hundreds of years, to totally exterminate the Red man.

      Explicitly framing the issue of sterilization as being consistent with an underlying motivation of genocide, based on a persistent dynamic of Native American destruction that predates the use of the term genocide, but fits the definition.

    7. sterilization abuse to sovereignty, genocide, and global indigeneity.

      I wonder if framing the problem as human rights issues is related structurally in any way to post-Vietnam war era rhetoric about the Nigerian civil war...

    8. Consider how Sanchez, who became a tribal judge on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation

      Interesting position title, about self-determination through governance of tribes by members, for positions such as judges.

    9. Women of All Red Nations (WARN)

      This, as well as DRUMS, are examples of creative acronyms that are easily recognizable and gain media attention in this era. One negative example coined by opponents is CREEP, for re-electing Nixon.

  2. May 2019
    1. Just over half of the state’s tribes operate casinos, but only 16 are full Vegas-style resorts. And 47 of the state’s 109 tribes have no casinos at all, with some reservations still struggling to provide running water and electricity. “Not all tribes are rich from gaming,” Vialpando said.

      Wow, this is some important context... the industry is unequally distributed and doesn't help the less fortunate tribes!

    2. Two centuries of slaughter, land theft and discrimination have left California’s Native Americans with lower median incomes and education levels coupled with higher rates of poverty and unemployment than the general population.

      The 'plight' rhetoric.

    3. might give Native Americans an unfair advantage in the market.

      Same rationalization as in some of the readings!

    4. “It’s a long pattern in this state,” Vialpando said. “There’s a history of marginalizing tribes. There’s a history of not wanting to engage with tribes.”

      In this context, the Tribes being unfairly barred from this new market is not so surprising, but how is this implemented, and by whom?

    5. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel opened the Mountain Source cannabis store about two weeks ago, in the front part of a failed casino that tribal leaders abandoned in 2014.

      Casino failed, locals had to adapt.

    6. a building that once let visitors try their hand at slot machines and poker tables is now a shop that sells cannabis flower and marijuana-infused truffles.

      Gambling -> Marijuana

    7. are being shut out In a state where weed is legal, groups hope for equal footing.

      This is interesting, and highly unexpected! Tribes not allowed to grow, but the rest of the state IS!

    8. new gambling fo

      Example of gambling linked to marijuana as a concept of tribal different legal restrictions to federal law.

    1. In short, the Indians ask for assis-tance, technical and financial, for the time needed, however long that may be, to regain in the America of the space age some measure of the adjust-ment they enjoyed as the original possessors of their native land.

      The wording here is not entirely clear to me... what is "Some measure of the adjustment they enjoyed?"

    2. We insist again that this is not special pleading. We ask only that the United States be true to its own traditions and set an example to the world in fair dealing.

      Here is the problem! "We ask" Instead of "We demand"

    3. Consider whether the following excerpts from the Declaration of Indian Purpose should be read as blatantly milquetoast or latently radical and how the authors attempted to transform Indian politics into a Cold War imperative.

      This document is a criticism of the Declaration of Indian Purpose, and seeks to re-analyse and re-examine how Indian Interests and rhetorical/political strategies have evolved in the past 20 years.

    4. Challenges came from conservatives who feared its critical edge would be seen as un-American and ardent nationalists who believed that it did not go far enough in demanding sovereignty.

      Calling out the opposition and it's motivation. Explaining where the challenges for Native Americans are coming from, and posturing politically.

    5. Declaration of Indian Purpose’

      Framing this 1961 document in relation to the previous 1944, canonizing these with a shared Native American History within an explicitly recognized narrative. This is the framework that the author chooses to present this message.

      https://americanindianmovementehs.weebly.com/ "The Declaration of Indian Purpose is a book concerning the founding of the National Congress of American Indians in 1944. - 64 Indian tribes met in Chicago to emphasize "the right to choose their own way of life" and "the responsibility of preserving their precious heritage."

    1. The drums of our eternal people will sound once more forever across our lands.

      They mention brain-washing-Uncle-Tomakawkification ostensibly a reference to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, or more specifically the characterization of portrayal of Blacks in media as a caricature of white stereotypes typical of blackface minstrelsy, at the expense of Black interests, in order to appeal to white audiences. Appropriating this to the stereotypical portrayal of Native Americans as savage, or primitive, but then they mention recognizable 'stereotypes' such as ancient wisdom, drums, sacred hoops, mother earth, tree of peace... At first glance this segment may appear to be a contradiction, but it is a self conscious reclamation of these: they take these universally recognized symbols of colonialism and elimination, and re-brand them to represent an enduring authentic Nativism, rejecting the negative stolen usage,

      http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/interpret/exhibits/tomming/tomminghp.html

      " In the novel Tom is not an "Uncle Tom," which the dictionary defines as a black person who abjectly sells out the interests of his race to curry favor with the white power structure. Malcolm X's speeches and his Autobiography are probably most directly responsible for giving the term the rhetorical force it has today."

    2. or die, or

      How accurate is this assessment? What basis or evidence is there that the Indian organizations failed? Were these not the organizations that EMPOWERED movements such as the United Indians of All Tribes in the first place? From a historical perspective, this seems to be the trend, but at the time, perhaps this was not what was perceived...

    3. While President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support for self-determination in March 1968,

      Vietnam War era president, Kent State Massacre, Kennedy Assassination; great social anxiety and fear of civil unrest, tumultuous time in American society and media-coverage of fears in America at the time.

    4. The occupation of Alcatraz has seen the beginnings of a concept of unity long dreamed of by all our people.

      Pan Tribal/Pan Indian Rhetoric. By taking the initiative, they seek to garner support from the momentum of the already growing Pan-Indian movement. Much of this momentum was hard won by political maneuvering and legal battles, and peaceful protesting such as civil disobedience through fishing. But this decisive, militant action is an expression of that prevously gained power, and a great risk!

      "Pan-Indigenousism, formerly Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations."

  3. Apr 2019
    1. Federal Indian policy during the period from 1870 to 1900 marked a departure from earlier policies that were dominated by removal, treaties, reservations, and even war.

      What caused this departure? Was it just that this was the next phase? Previous violence had effectively advanced the agenda to this point to allow 'mopping up' and consolidating the gains that had been won?

    2. On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts.

      It might be a good idea to follow the link and read the Dawes act, just to get some perspective on what was the contents of this document. [http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=50&page=transcript)]

    1. The dismemberment of tribal land bases has created an enormous range of obstacles to economic development in tribal communities, including those within the Cherokee ation, and has squandered human potential and caused suffering on an immeasurable level.

      This poetic description of 'dismemberment' is quite graphic and evokes images of slaughter and mass graves such as at wounded-knee. The act of land-redistribution was one of violence and it resulted in destroyed lives and culture as well as somewhat 'indirectly,' the literal death of inhabitants from economic factors as well as increase in crime, violence, alcoholism... I need to take a break and go to work, my objectivity is slipping, and emotion is powerful, but not the best historical lens, especially in an academic setting.

    2. Allotment resulted in impoverishment and marginalization, and if desperation was reason to assimilate, then it sometimes caused that, too, although to a much smaller extent than its champions had predicted.

      It is the isolation from traditional social networks and economic systems such as Buffalo that accomplishes this. I just thought of how I will go to food-service work in an hour and administer 'Buffalo Sauce' and the thought and association made me sick. That people's livelihoods were destroyed so they would be replaced by making practically extinct a magnificent species. And now I use that word every work-day in the context of a pungent smelling, spicy, cowboy/country-western themed hot-sauce condiment.

    3. the federal govern-ment sought to compel American Indian people to accept Christianity, the English language, market-oriented agriculture conducted through nuclear family units, Anglo-American social organization, and, even-tually, American citizenship.

      Here the wall of separation between church and state is explicitly broken. The reason is apparent: the federal government seeks allies among a variety of institutions to aid in the ultimate elimination of native peoples, and total control of land and residents.

    4. t was this extended network of relationships and the obligations and hospitality associated with it that brought Lewis Sourjohn to the Chewey area, that account for John and Dora Wolfe's decisions, and that enabled annie to survive the loss of her husband and her farm without ever being destitute or homeless.

      Here is an effective form of collective resistance that allowed individuals such as Nannie to survive. Without this network, she very well may have perished in this harsh environment, no matter how independent she was. No person survives as an island, which is why Allotment policies seek to isolate and control Native peoples made dependent.

    1. To many Cherokees, the old Cherokee Female Seminary building that now stands on the campus of Northeastern State University in Tahlequah remains a symbol of adaptation and progress in a changing, and often inhospitable, world. To others, it remains a symbol of that inhospitable world.

      Both perspectives are authentic, and neither are mutually exclusive. This is a complex and problematic topic, perhaps it is best that it remains uncomfortable, unsettled, and unsettling, especially in an academic context.

    2. In light of the reverence that progressive tribal members felt for the Cherokee Female Seminary and considering the reason for its establishment, it is little wonder that the 211 girls who graduated from the seminary and, to a lesser extent, those who did not gradu-ate but used their seminary education to obtain degrees from other institutions were considered the creme de la creme of the Cherokee Nation.

      Elevation in social hierarchy becomes equated not with resistance or talent within a traditional Cherokee context, but in the context of white cooperation and submission, with real economic incentives for following the program. Within Cherokee society this restructures the social hierarchy, and alters fundamentally the character and beliefs of the new generation of leaders. This creates division and social upheaval within the community.

    3. Two Scenes in Indian Land," Na-Li de-scribes a "wild and desolate" estate of a Cherokee family, composed of "whooping, swarthy-looking boys" and plaited-haired women, all of whom "bear a striking resemblance to their rude and uncivilized hut."

      Here wildness and skin color are consistently connected, but also notice evidence of equating the state of the hut to the inhabitant, compared to the whitewashed houses mentioned in the lecture, with pine floors...

    4. Unsure whether the Cherokees could obtain a high level of civilization by themselves, he asserted that "intermarriage will accomplish the purpose quickly.

      The Cherokee identity is one that is meant to be eventually erased, so hypodescent is treated differently than that of African slaves. Blackness was considered a badge of slavery, so it was carefully portrayed as a contagious quality that one drop would grant an identity, so that it would persist despite intermixing and create a perpetual stock of potential slaves. This attitude persisted in the South even after slavery was abolished. The Cherokees were meant to eventually disappear, so in this case, whiteness was portrayed contagious in at least the sense it would 'erase' the Cherokee identity, if not enough to make them 'equal.'

    5. A Wreath of Chero-kee Rose Buds, girls complained in an editorial about the Townsend, Massachusetts, female seminary's paper, the Lesbian Wreath, which referred to the Cherokee girls as their /1 dusky sisters. "23 A popular practice of the Cherokee seminary's paper was to tell anecdotes and stories in which appearance, particularly blue eyes, featured promi-nently. For example, one story tells of the consequences that young "Kate M.11 faced after plagiarizing a poem for literature class. "Fun and abundance," student Lusette writes, "peeped from her blue eyes ... and the crimson blush stole upon her cheeks." In the same issue, author Inez writes about what her schoolmates might be doing in four years. One student is described as a /1 fair, gay, blue-eyed girl, 11 and another is a "fairylike creature with auburn hair.11

      Here the physical features between Anglo Americans and Cherokees are juxtaposed, and are tied to an essentialist view where the physical characteristics are ranked on a hierarchy that encompasses linked traits such as intelligence, morality, civilization, and spiritual purity. Having Cherokee students write material such as this promotes an internalization of racism, and a normalization of accepting their place within this hierarchy. Ostensibly there would be resistance to this, but resistance would be punished, and acceptance would be rewarded, leading 'clever' Cherokees to follow the least path of resistance and receive praise and be rewarded for submission, while the 'stubborn/backwards' Cherokees would 'fail to learn the truth' and be punished. This suggests an Orwellian dynamic of indoctrination and psychological manipulation.

    6. 68 Colonialism and Native Women was probably because girls of one family attended school together, which helped to alleviate homesickness. Some were even adopted into the "big happy seminary family, 11 a phrase used by a mixed-blood (one-thirty-second Cherokee blood) to refer to the upper echelons of the student hierarchy.16 Because of interruptions such as the Civil War, the destruction of the school by fire, smallpox epidemics, and alternate educational opportunities, not one student, not even a grad-uate (many of whom enrolled for more than ten semesters), remained in the seminary from first grade through graduation.17 Full-bloods who enrolled in the common schools usually learned to speak

      It is important to put into context that the real destruction of Native Peoples was far reaching, and that the Boarding School institution did not exist in a vacuum. The real tragedy was a multifaceted, expansive process of genocide, elimination, and replacement... not just allotments and re-education. Context matters to view the Boarding School institution as an agent of cultural violence.

    7. 4 With the National Council advocating white education, the traditionalists were continually pressured to adopt a different culture if they wanted to attend the seminary.

      Here is a good explicit example of how race and culture are tied together in 19th and early 20th century racial paradigms.

    8. a mixed-blood senior responded to the administration's concerned query "Full-blood girls to do Shakespeare? Impossible!" by saying, "You don't know [teachers] Miss Allen and Miss Minta Foreman!" implying that these instructors were indeed miracle workers.

      The internalization of white racism by mixed-blood students represents one of the major consequences of the divisive nature of the boarding school dynamic. In-group/out-group division as different categories are arranged in proximity to whiteness, creating conflict to promote white interests and gain allies in Native destruction and subjugation in the late-game/end-game strategy.

    9. I haven't got but 2 letters frame home and one frame you and I have writen 6 letters since I have been here and this is the 7 I aint rooming with no body yet here is the picture of the jail house.

      A sense of entrapment, definite negative feelings, and involuntary attendance. This is someone who HAS to be here, they don't want to be.

    10. The establishment of the Cherokee seminaries created a tremen-dous amount of pride among many Cherokees, but not all tribespeo-ple liked the idea of the expensive schools.

      This is an interesting way to phrase it. Did it create pride among many Cherokees, or just a select few? The narrative the federal government and the institution, and Indian Affairs would want to portray certainly suggests this, but is it wise to use this type of language today off hand, and is it historically accurate?

    11. Women such as Belle Cobb, Rachel Caroline Eaton, and Nannie Katherine Daniels went on to graduate from universities (Cobb earned her medical degree in 1892,

      These names may be useful to remember for researching primary history documents.

    12. -Qua-Tay, seminarian, 1855

      The seminarian perspective is one that can be viewed as problematic or controversial, because it is wrong to deny their experiences and their unique perspective of individuals benefiting from boarding schools, but it is even worse to deny the tragedy and the cultural destruction inflicted by this institution.

  4. Mar 2019
    1. Learn why Hybrid App Technologies is the right choice in 2019 and which hybrid apps are making huge a name this year? Begin your business startup with the best Hybrid mobile app solution.

      Learn why Hybrid App Technologies is the right choice in 2019 and which hybrid apps are making huge a name this year? Begin your business startup with the best Hybrid mobile app solution.

  5. Oct 2018
  6. Sep 2018
    1. man

      Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

    2. Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

  7. Jun 2018
    1. Digital Writing

      Is the phrase "digital writing" as fraught as "digital native"? Or has it morphed into just plain writing? I still find myself bridging the gap analog -digital gap. For example, a summer goal is to make annotation of pdf's as close to paper as I can. I invested in a reMarkable tablet to make this happen. Do I consider it "digital writing"--yes and no. It is the merging of digital and analog. I do it so as to have less friction and quicker feedback with students. None of this matters if students can't take in the feedback or if my feedback sucks, but that is another pedagogic and compositional concern.

  8. Mar 2018
    1. young activists can feed a constant conflict over racist Native-American sports mascots, even as actual Native Americans, when surveyed, consistently say that they do not care about the mascots, and instead are far more concerned about poverty, addiction, and violence in their communities.

      Accusations of "cultural appropriation" serving to distract from more difficult challenges.

  9. Dec 2017
    1. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.

      In this phrase, Jefferson talks about the importance of education and advancement by using the native Americans as an example. He describes them as barbaric and is basically making fun of their ideology to worship their ancestors and their traditional ways. This is not the first time Jefferson expressed his views of Native Americans in such a negative light. For my Art Inside/Out Engagement course, I am doing a project on the Declaration of Independence. The quote that my group decided to use was “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” The discrimination against Native Americans is engraved in the Declaration of Independence of the United States and in the Rockfish Gap Report of the University of Virginia.

  10. Sep 2017
    1. encounter we make, relationship we build, or key-stroke on our technological device builds a network.

      This is what is called 'native data'; data that is built through everyday behaviors.

  11. May 2017
    1. The native peoples and their land were, and to some extent continue to be, under siege.

      Here Berger is making a reference to the history of Indigenous peoples in Canada and how they have been affected through the degradation of nature around them. The history of white people bringing disease and other hardships to indigenous people is a well documented one. But the less talked about part is how modern technologies affect on the environment has affected them. Andrew Stuhl writes, "the number of reindeer in Barrow- the largest town in the region with a population of 1,200 Inuit- had dropped from an estimated 35,000 in 1935 to 5,000 in 1940." This dramatic decrease in reindeer population had a lasting effect on the Inuit population as they eventually had to negotiate with the Canadian government to get reindeer herds as a means of subsistence. As technology advanced, over fishing and whaling practices in the 1980s and 1990s drove some species of fish to near extirpation from the Arctic. Furthermore climate change is having a profound effect on indigenous populations in the more recent past. The raise of temperature is creating less sea ice and making the migrating patterns of whales and caribou less predictable. This causes it to be more difficult for Inuit hunters to track and capture their food. All of these things put together shows how white people's affect on the environment has made life harder for the indigenous populations of the Arctic. Ford, James D.1, james.ford@mcgill.ca. "Indigenous Health and Climate Change." American Journal Of Public Health 102, no. 7 (July 2012): 1260-1266. Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed May 8, 2017). Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic science, colonialism, and the transformation of Inuit lands. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    2. National Parks Act

      In this section, Berger talks about how he believes that there should be an amendment to allow for the creation of wilderness parks. The Berger Inquiry was first published in 1977 and by "1988 amendments also enabled the Governor in Council to give legal recognition to wilderness zones within parks, heightening the level of protection on these lands by prohibiting any activities that are 'likely to impair the wilderness character of the area." The National Parks Act has been an evolving document and has changed throughout its history. The first national park in Canada was established in 1885 which was Banff National Park but the National Parks Act was not passed until 1930. This act allowed for Canadian Parliament to create designated areas as national parks where industrial development and activities like hunting would be restricted. As of 2000 there was over 68,327,742 hectares of land designated as a national parks which is about 6.84 of the land in Canada. While this is a good percentage, there has been a push to add more national parks in different areas of the country. There was a proposal to add over 15,000 square kilometers and establish five new regions to the national marine conservation areas. In general, Canadians care about their national parks and "this significance has been reflected in the additions to the amount of area protected and changes to legislation and policy over the last decade." Dearden, Philip, and Jessica Dempsey. "Protected areas in Canada: decade of change." Canadian Geographer 48, no. 2 (July 20, 2004): 225-239. Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed May 8, 2017).

  12. Apr 2017
    1. qualified voters

      "Qualified voters" meant almost exclusively white men. As the former colonies began the process of writing state constitutions, debates over who should be included as a "qualified voter" often divided conventions. Vermont and Pennsylvania had two of the most liberal constitutions. Vermont permitted all men, regardless of color, to vote, while Pennsylvania permitted all white men to vote regardless of income. Other states, like Maryland, had much more restrictive qualifications for voting and required that free white men also hold property.

    1. a continent—of at least one eighth part of the habit- able globe

      The colonists believed they had a right to continued westward expansion, and were frustrated at Britain's attempts to slow westward expansion and protect Native American land.

    1. which hath stirred up the In- dians and Negroes to destroy us

      The charge that the British Crown had induced Native Americans to attack colonists was later repeated in the Declaration of Independence.

    1. The buffalo herds, estimated to number about 75 million, were reduced in only a few decades to a few hundred survivors

      American buffalo also known as bison were at one point the thought to be the most abundant mammal living in North America. They have been reported to grow up to 6 feet tall and weigh over 2000 pounds. Buffalo, in the wild, are indigenous to the Great Plains region of North America but lived all throughout the continent all the way into Canada and Alaska. This massive animals played an essential role in for many Native American populations throughout history. In the 19th centuries mass hunting of these animals began with the use of horses and rifles. Before this hunting it was reported that one would be able to see entire parries filled with millions of these animals. Over the course of the century, reckless hunting of bison led to a massive collapse of their population. There was many different reasons for their hunting ranging from sport hunting, to killing them to hurt the Native American populations that heavily relied upon them. The American Buffalo has become a symbol of conservation and there has been an ongoing effort to try and rebuild their populations. Recently they were named as the official mammal of the United States as "the bison is North Americas largest land animal the embodiment of American strength, resilience and the nations pioneer spirit.” Many national parks including Yellowstone have protected bison populations that have been steadily growing over the last decades.

      "American bison designated national mammal of U.S." St Louis Post-Dispatch [MO], November 24, 2016, A17. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 10, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=CJ471488256&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0..

  13. Mar 2017
    1. Metis

      The Metis are a group of aboriginal people in Canada who trace their descendants back to the First Nations and European settlers. In the early part of European expansion into Canada the Metis were a tribe of aboriginal people that lived in the North Western part of Canada. The Metis people today are an interesting group because most of them are not direct result of intermarriage between European and First Nations people. The Metis primarily live in the Western Part of Canada and today there are about 500,000 people considered part of the Metis community. They represent about a third of the aboriginal people in Canada today. However, because of assimilation of Metis into European Canadian populations, many people can trace their ancestry back to some aboriginal past. Much of this interaction occurred in the mid 20th century with the fur trade as many European Canadians interacted with Metis tribes. Because of this, today it is hard to define someone who has a clear legal or moral ability to call themselves Metis because of the extensive assimilation into the Euro-Canadian culture. Unfortunately, "a universal consequence of the meetings of people is the rise of a mixed population whose social status is ambiguous..." This is partially true for the Metis today because there it is hard for the Canadian government to discern what people are Metis. When Berger refers to the Metis in this report he is most likely talking about a tribe of aboriginal people who identify themselves as Metis.

      Berry, B. (1968), GENERAL AND ETHNOLOGY: Metis of the Mackenzie District. Richard Slobodin. American Anthropologist, 70: 373–374. doi:10.1525/aa.1968.70.2.02a00330

    2. This is what their claims are about, and this is why they say their claims must be settled before a pipeline is built.

      In this statement, Berger is expressing the perspective of the native culture that has not been treated as owners of their ancestral land. Even though land claims are rarely perfect, Berger argues their importance in improving social inequalities. As a whole, the native populations aren’t opposed to the creation of a pipeline, however they are demanding respect in these decisions that will vastly impact their land (132). Until this point the native populations have been viewed from a largely colonialist viewpoint. Starting in the mid 19th century with the Hudson’s Bay Company wanting to “tap the value of the arctic and drain it via the Mackenzie river” (18). After the fur traders, whaling boats harvested the abundance of the Mackenzie delta from the north (31). Continuing on, the imperial mindset brought forth Reindeer as a “solution” and apology to the native people (78). After this rich history of white subjugation, it is obvious why the paramount issue at the time of this document was not the creation of the oil pipeline, but instead government agreements to settle land claims and ownership. In stating “This is what their claims are about”, Berger is arguing for the crucial impact in continuing to develop these large projects on other people's land without their consent. Due to the extensive environmental considerations as well as the mass amount of infrastructure needed for this project, the Canadian government would be entering a new stage of colonialism if they were to follow through with this project without consultation of the local populations.

      Annotation drawn from Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. University of Chicago Press, 2016, 132

    3. The native economy refuses to die

      Way before white men ventured into the Arctic, the indigenous people had a perfectly functioning economy of their own. They did not need wages or paper money to do business. They relied on what the environment around them provided, working for food and trading furs. In the 1920s, when scientists and researchers began coming north it led to the introduction of reindeer husbandry as a way to feed the influx of people. This “did not work well with Inuit herders on the north slope, since their labors supported people who did far less work, but still paid through shares of meat and hides” (82). There was a divide between the reindeer community and the genuine Inuit which caused major strife in the economy. Many Inuit “pointed to fur trapping as offering more fulfillment and dignity [than herding reindeer], even though it required similar commitments of labor and time…The private fur trade thus remained an escape from state-sponsored colonialism” (82). However, despite their best efforts to stay true to their native economy, in the 1940s, “herding and harvesting reindeer appeared as more stable than animal life cycles and the global fur trade” (84). But this is not the farthest extent to which southerners took over the land and economy of the Arctic. “Even if Inuit did not imagine themselves within the world being created by southerners, they could hardly avoid participating in it. While the United States and Canada established an Arctic oil economy, the world Inuit had built deteriorated. In the 1950s, fur-bearing creatures became harder to find, markets for fur evaporated, and the Hudson’s Bay Company converted its Arctic fur posts from fur trade centers to retail outlets. For both outsiders and Inuit, the 1950s were a turning point, when the machines and methods of colonialism became the vehicles of cultural survival” (91). There was no longer a market that could support a lifestyle of only hunting and trapping. The indigenous people had to leave that way of life behind and take up wage jobs in the industrial system.

      Annotation drawn from Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    4. Now they recognize they are not essential

      In the late 1800s and early 1900s northern explorers depended on the indigenous people. The natives knew the land, the climate, and the wildlife. Because of their knowledge, the indigenous northerners served as local guides in this harsh and uninviting place. The native people also served as interpreters for researchers and were a lifeline for those that had little-to-no knowledge of how to survive in that kind of environment. However, they were not always seen as important figures. As southern technologies became more and more prominent in the far north, native peoples were pushed aside. “The airplane and helicopter strained relations among researchers and northerners. These technologies relieved field-workers from establishing extensive and regular relationships with locals as guides, interpreters, and informants. Permafrost scientists in particular could produce knowledge about the Arctic environment without Inuit expertise and apply that research in governmental construction projects without consulting locals” (108). The Inuits began to view the government scientists as pests, “they arrived in summer ‘in lusty swarm’ and were just as annoying” (108). Many researchers come during the warm months and gather information that allows them to cut ties to the indigenous people. The use of modern technology in the north forces Inuit to work menial jobs and completely change their way of life in order to survive in the modernizing landscape. While the industrial system has brought many valuable things to them, the Inuit are no longer needed or heard. If it is in the best interest of the oil industry, a pipeline would be built right over their homeland, even if they are still on it.

      Annotation drawn form Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    5. The native people have had some hard things to say about the government, about the oil and gas industry and about the white man and his institutions.

      It is no secret that there was a lot of tension between the oil and gas company and the indigenous people of Canada and Alaska. In the 1950's and 1960's there was extensive drilling in areas of Alaska and Canada. Almost all of these decisions were made without consulting with the native people living in these areas. The drilling and exploration of the oil and gas fields had severe impacts on the ecosystem in the region. These impacts included the destruction of habitats from marine and terrestrial wildlife. This created many problems for the Native people who relied on hunting and fishing for a living. The Native people felt slighted by the actions of the oil and gas companies who refused to recognize their claims to the areas. Much of this problem was related to the fact that the Canadian and American governments also did not recognize them as people with claims to the land. The "Inuit in Canada faced a federal government that developed some powers-- in this case, to the territorial rather than the state government-- but nevertheless disregarded Aboriginal rights in the pursuit of Northern development." This stance from the government without a doubt led to the same dismissive attitude from the big oil and gas companies. Eventually, in the 1960's the native groups began to take steps in getting themselves recognized by the government and oil industry. It was through the help of environmental agencies that the native people started to be known. Many environmental agencies made it clear that activities in the Arctic such as oil drilling is extremely detrimental to the ecosystem and that it should not be continued. Many native groups piggy-backed on this stance and made themselves heard on the topic. Through this act both the oil industry and government began to recognize them as a legitimate body.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

  14. Feb 2017
  15. Nov 2016
    1. The 1620 agreement (first called the Mayflower Compact in 1793) was a legal instrument that bound the Pilgrims together when they arrived in New England. The core members of the Pilgrims' immigrant group were Separatists, members of a Puritan sect that had split from the Church of England, the only legal church in England at that time. Others in the group, however, had remained part of the Church of England, so not all of the Pilgrims shared the same religion.

      The Mayflower compact was a signature sheet that would be used for the signers to go to America for religious freedom.

  16. Oct 2016
    1. Even people who believe in freedom frequently overlook our issues

      Without trying to detract from the point, I'd be interested in a viable call to action here. Police demilitarization is a good example of a call to action that has come out of #BLM. Regarding indigenous rights, should we be reconsidering the reservation system? Should we be seeking more complete integration, or the opposite, more complete separation?

      I confess that I've read woefully little about this and would love a gateway in.

    2. we are more likely to be killed by law enforcement than any other group

      This article seems to be the source of this statistic. As they note, it's a hard number to come by because the crime is neither well-covered in the media nor well-reported by the authorities. Regardless, though, given the centuries-long and wildly painful indigenous struggle in the US, this certainly deserves our attention.

  17. Mar 2016
    1. you don't have to teach the students how to use tech for their education. And, furthermore, it will never be possible to teach that faculty how to use that technology,

      While form experience I know they are both erroneous assumptions I can't remember who started it and whether it was based on any research.

      anyone has references?

      Note to self : Check for background.

    2. digital native

      an expression that never matched my experiences and still doesn't and therefore has always baffled and annoyed me, but I thought may be it was a cultural thing

  18. Feb 2016
    1. How did human beings arrive in the world? • How were animals helpful? • What did twins do to create the world?

      1) The humans fell from heaven and came into the world with animals. 2) Animals cared for the human when she was ill and gave her a place to stay until she was healed. 3) The twins traveled the world to create environments and climates that humans could live in. This lead to mountains, trees, lakes, forest, rivers, etc.

  19. Jan 2016
    1. The boy that remained in the lodge grew very rapidly, and soon was able to make himself bows and arrows and to go out to hunt in the vicinity. Finally, for several days he returned home without his bow and arrows. At last he was asked why he had to have a new bow and arrows every morning

      The boy had to teach himself how to use things. When we grow up we do not rely on our parents as much, we have to explore the world on our own.

    1. export books as apps

      On top of the whole debate between native apps and the Open Web, there’s a debate between apps and books. We might not reach the “Write Once, Publish Everywhere” dream, but there’s something to be said about having building blocks which are easy to adapt to different contexts.

  20. Dec 2015
    1. ClojureScript + React Native Resources for developers using ClojureScript to build React Native apps.

      ClojureScript + React Native

  21. Nov 2015
  22. Sep 2015
    1. While Penn never doubted that the English would appropriate Native lands, he demanded his colonists obtain Indian territories through purchase rather than violence.

      This could have helped avoid a lot of previous violence in other colonies.

    2. The English compounded their problems by attacking the powerful and neutral Narragansetts of Rhode Island in December 1675.

      What if they had called for peace instead?

    1. so that we, who hitherto have had possession of no more ground than their waste and our purchase at a valuable consideration to their contentment gained, may now by right of war, and law of nations, invade the country, and destroy them who sought to destroy us

      Nothing was gained by the attack. Only lives were lost, on both sides

    1. Some enslaved Africans, for instance, successfully sued for back wages.

      Did the slaves leave when they wanted too> what is a half freedom?

    2. Indian traders carried surplus products east along the Camino Real, the royal road that connected the western anchor of the mission system with St. Augustine.

      Trade and exchange

    1. would

      wish? I wish I had a husband?

    2. Fall of Man

      Ok, but also skeptical about using Christian tropes to define the story...

    3. And since that day the Indians, who should have been great, have become a little people. Truly it would have been wise and well for those of early times if they could have held their tongues.

      So somehow the inability to hold their tongues is involved with them being a "little people?" Confused about how colonialism and genocide figure in...

    4. do ye not know Katahdin by them?

      Ok, so she spills the beans. Is this a grave sin of some kind?

    5. Declare unto these people that they are not to inquire of thee who is the father of thy child;

      Why do you think Katahdin doesn't want anyone to ask, and doesn't want his wife to tell, about the fact that he is the boy's father and her husband?

    1. their religion.

      their religion is a cult by whose definition?

    2. Then I ate this medicine and everything changed.

      holy magic medicine!

    3. one leading to a hole in the earth and the other extending up above.

      heaven & hell?

    4. The coffin will be set before you and then you will see your body.

      a near-death experience that gives you a new perspective on life

    5. Bring whatever desires you possess along with you and then come and eat or drink this medicine. This is life, the only life. Then you will learn something about yourself, so come.

      he's preaching

    6. It is a cure for all evil.

      do they basically worship this "medicine"?

    7. ill

      he is using "ill" for being physically, mentally, and spiritually unwell

    8. now for the first time one was cured.

      he's becoming a kind of religious healer

    9. Indian doctors and then I tried all of the white man’s medicines,

      if he isn't white, why is he referring to Nat. Am. as Indians? Does he mean actual Indians from India?

    10. Winnebagoes

      his people

    11. “If I take this road I am likely to meet some people, but if I take the other road, I am not likely to meet anyone.”

      for some reason this line reminds me of "The Road Not Taken"

    12. “If I take this road I am likely to meet some people, but if I take the other road, I am not likely to meet anyone.”

      for some reason this line reminds me of "The Road Not Taken"

    13. “Let us eat peyote again to-night.”

      he's hooked!

    14. I saw a man with horns and long claws and with a spear in his hand.

      the devil?

    15. “All right, I’ll do it.”

      didn't take much convincing

    16. If only some of my own people were here!

      own people? His name is John, so is he white?

    17. the younger members who have been strongly permeated with Christian teachings translate the prayer into, “God, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.”

      interesting that Christian influences literally changed the meaning of the words of the Peyote baptism to its younger members

    18. by John Rave

      the leader

    19. parts of the Bible

      Does the Peyote religion have ties to Christianity?

    20. asking forgiveness

      forgiveness for what? their "sins"?

    21. member of the cult

      why is it considered a cult?

    22. Christmas

      was Christmas a significant holiday/day for the Peyote?

    1. Since that time white men have come to America.

      How does it change the story of European colonization and genocide if it is recast this way?

    2. He wished to have his mother christened. It was done. They called her Molly. 

      Hmm. Ok, so why does he want his mother Christened? To understand this, I think we need to understand the history of the tribe, paticularly at the time that this story is being written down.

    3. They put him into a great cannon and fired it off. They looked into the cannon, and there he sat smoking his stone pipe, knocking the ashes out.

      I love this.

    1. proper remedy.

      Always intrigued by how these stories don't work out in the way that we are accustomed, with no final moral, no full explanation of the metaphor, no tying up of threads...

    2. beginning to be cramped for room.

      A metaphor for colonization by the Europeans?

    1. When the Spaniards saw that some of these had escaped, they sent a ship to find them, and it voyaged for three years among the islands searching for those who had escaped being slaughtered

      Seems like a waste of time to be searching for them, but I can only think that they were viewed as valuable slaves.

  23. Aug 2015
    1. But disease was deadlier than any weapon in the European arsenal. It unleashed death on a scale never before seen in human history.

      Even if the Europeans had come over bringing peace, disease would have killed the Native Americans

    2. They were not quite Indios, or Indians, but their lack of limpieza de sangre, or “pure blood,” removed them from the privileges of full-blooded Spaniards

      The Spaniards completely took control.

    3. Motives were plain: said one soldier, “we came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”

      Would God be happy with this statement?

    4. The Indian population collapsed. Within a few generations a whole island had been depopulated and a whole people exterminated.

      Utter destruction.

    5. Columbus described them as innocents.

      so he saw them as an easy target to get what he wanted

    6. Meanwhile, kinship bound most native North American people together.

      Family was very important to them

    7. 1. What were the variety of exchanges that occurred in Native American Societies? What role did giving play in establishing status and obligation? The exchanges between Native American Societies was about trading goods, resources, marriages between two different community lines, different ideas, religious ideas. It expanded resources and alliances - both in political and religious perspectives. The role of exchanges established status and obligation, in a way that if your tribe was able to provide the most useful resources - you would be higher than others. Also, it gives the opportunity to establish obligation unto other communities if it was necessary. 2. What developments occur in Europe that helps set the foundation for European exploration and empire building?

      1. Massive growth in population after the epidemic that killed half the population within the area. 2. With the population growth, there was a growth of economy and high demand of the necessities of living. 3. From the growing demand of goods, led to ship building and navigation so merchants could expand their variety with what they were able to trade. 4. Trade led to the establishment of higher regions, and also people who want to establish their own hierarchy in their own regions. 5. As monarchies were made, communities had gained the amounts of necessities allowing exploration, trade between farther regions as well as producing routes for transportation as well as trade. 3. What was Portugal's intent in slave? What role do the Portuguese come to play in the trade of African slaves? African slaves were around before Portugal had began using slaves, going back to Muslim using them during the crusade. Due to sugar plantations being grown from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, there was a growing need of labor. After seeing an exchange of slaves between their source and another slave trader, the Portuguese soon became another main source of slaves as well.
    8. 2. The First Americans
    9. everything.

      Study Questions for this section:

      What were the three major crops developed in the Americas? What impact did they have?

      What were the major differences between Native American and European peoples?

    1. Seneca Creation Story

      This Seneca story was recorded by Jeremiah Curtin, a white man fluent in the Seneca language. In 1883, 1886, and 1887, Curtin spent many hours talking with Seneca men and women on the Cattaraugus reservation in New York state. The largest of the five tribes of the Iroquois confederacy, the Seneca had inhabited much of central New York in the sixteenth century, but by the mid-seventeenth century they had moved west to Lake Erie and south into Pennsylvania. Curtin recorded this tale in the Seneca language, and it was subsequently translated into English by I. W. B. Hewitt. Source: Jeremiah Curtin and I. W. B. Hewitt, “Seneca Fiction, Legends and Myths, Part 1,” Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 32 (1910–11 [1918])

      I would like you to read it as an origin story. That is, think about it as it explains the creation of humanity.

      What is the relationship between humanity and nature? What structure do you think society will take based on this origin story? These are questions I want you to think about and seek the answers to while you do this reading

  24. Jul 2015
    1. “And if people take the time to do that and they reach out to us, or they do the research themselves, it’s actually a very accurate depiction of friendly wrestling matches that took place back in those days.”

      Denial isn't just a river in Egypt.

    2. But the preservation argument is one that keeps popping up

      Interesting. Need to look into how historical preservation is used to perpetuate oppression.