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  1. Sep 2020
  2. Aug 2020
    1. So, if your goal is to let your app reach to every leading platform ASAP and also make use of every feature and hardware of trending smartphones, then React Native is undoubtedly the best hybrid app framework choice.

  3. Jul 2020
    1. Used by global platforms like Google, Bing and Twitter, AMP allows users a native-feeling experience across all platforms by defaulting to AMP pages when available.
    1. native advertising has won over some of the most established brands in news, with The New York Times and Time among those embracing the trend.
    2. “native advertising” has become a favourite buzzword. There is little consensus about the definition but it typically means paid ads that look much like the articles and videos they sit alongside.
    1. We all are familiar; nowadays, mobile and mobile applications are more predominant than ever. This extensive popularity has been gained with the fact that smartphones have become much cheaper and faster.
  4. Jun 2020
    1. The furries are kind of like the new age Native American where they have the spirit animal or connection, or like, they take on that personal animal. . . . And whatever you put on, [you] take on those characters [and] aspects, and, for some people with social stigma who can’t interact, they put on the suit and they’re a completely different person.

      Make note of Sarah Marie Henry's Furries, Fans, and Feminism: Querying and Queering of the Furry Fandom. Sarah Marie Henry made a very good point about the appropriation of Native American culture in the furry fandom, something that is not exactly the nicest thing to do. Traditions stay within certain groups for a reason. A direct quotation/reference may be impossible, as the only copy of this master's thesis is locked up in San Francisco State University, and there's a pandemic. 😕

    1. Here the diagnosis slips from requiring both being “less than 100% human” and “being 0% human” to only requiring the first criterion—being “less than 100% human.” The implications of this rhetorical slip are a vast shift in proportion, since it triples the number of furries who are potentially diagnosable as having species identity disorder (from 31 to 99 [or 46%] of the 214 furries who answered).

      I would argue that this is too loose of a definition. It does not simply refer to a physical body, which has pretty clear criteria for being considered 100% human. To be "less than 100% human" psychologically, while being a good basis for a disorder, does not adequately consider groups with a spiritual connection to animals, such as the Native American tradition of "spirit animals". This vague definition and exclusion of established cultural practices could prove harmful to the legitimacy of "species identity disorder".

    1. The California Coastal Commission protects, conserves, & restores the coast for current & future generations.

      Posts on replanting native flora.

  5. May 2020
  6. Apr 2020
  7. Mar 2020
  8. Feb 2020
    1. Today in this article, We are going to talk about a much-debated topic React Native vs Flutter. We will go through some points and know where React native is still better and where Flutter outmaneuver its nemesis.

    1. Social media research ethics faces a contradiction between big data positivism and research ethics fundamentalism. Big data positivists tend to say, ‘Most social media data is public data. It is like data in a newspaper. I can therefore gather big data without limits. Those talking about privacy want to limit the progress of social science’. This position disregards any engagement with ethics and has a bias towards quantification. The ethical framework Social Media Research: A Guide to Ethics (Townsend and Wallace, 2016) that emerged from an ESRC-funded project tries to avoid both extremes and to take a critical-realist position: It recommends that social scientists neither ignore nor fetishize research ethics when studying digital media.Research ethics fundamentalists in contrast tend to say,You have to get informed consent for every piece of social media data you gather because we cannot assume automatic consent, users tend not to read platform’s privacy policies, they may assume some of their data is private and they may not agree to their data being used in research. Even if you anonymize the users you quote, many can still be identified in the networked online environment.
    2. One important aspect of critical social media research is the study of not just ideolo-gies of the Internet but also ideologies on the Internet. Critical discourse analysis and ideology critique as research method have only been applied in a limited manner to social media data. Majid KhosraviNik (2013) argues in this context that ‘critical dis-course analysis appears to have shied away from new media research in the bulk of its research’ (p. 292). Critical social media discourse analysis is a critical digital method for the study of how ideologies are expressed on social media in light of society’s power structures and contradictions that form the texts’ contexts.
    3. Besides conducting qualitative social research with social media users in order to learn about their experiences, interpretations and perspectives, critical digital methods should not completely discard tools for digital data collection and analytics but take their use into a new direction. Critical digital methods should certainly engage in collecting and analys-ing samples of data from social media platforms with the help of tools and services, such as DiscoverText, Tweet Archivist, Netvizz, NodeXL, Gephi, NCapture/NVivo, Sodato, Import.io, InfoExtractor, Google Web Scraper, TAGS, SocioViz and so on.
    4. t has, for example, been common to study contemporary revolutions and protests (such as the 2011 Arab Spring) by collecting large amounts of tweets and analysing them. Such analyses can, however, tell us nothing about the degree to which activists use social and other media in protest communication, what their motivations are to use or not use social media, what their experiences have been, what problems they encounter in such uses and so on. If we only analyse big data, then the one-sided conclusion that con-temporary rebellions are Facebook and Twitter revolutions is often the logical conse-quence (see Aouragh, 2016; Gerbaudo, 2012). Digital methods do not outdate but require traditional methods in order to avoid the pitfall of digital positivism. Traditional socio-logical methods, such as semi-structured interviews, participant observation, surveys, content and critical discourse analysis, focus groups, experiments, creative methods, par-ticipatory action research, statistical analysis of secondary data and so on, have not lost importance. We do not just have to understand what people do on the Internet but also why they do it, what the broader implications are, and how power structures frame and shape online activities
    5. Studying digital and social media could take inspiration by the tradition going back to Karl Marx and other critical theorists

      A need to think about the context and broader social implications of the research being conducted.

    6. There is a tendency in Internet Studies to engage with theory only on the micro- and middle-range levels that theorize single online phenomena but neglect the larger picture of society as a totality (Rice and Fuller, 2013). Such theories tend to be atomized. They just focus on single phenomena and miss soci-ety’s big picture
  9. Dec 2019
    1. React Native vs Flutter vs Xamarin: A Comparative Guide [2020]

      The most popular cross-platform frameworks are React Native, Xamarin and Flutter. But, which to select out of three? We’ll go through each one of them and by the end of this article, you will get the one which suits best for your business.

    1. ZFS native encryption: zpool create -o ashift=12 \ -O acltype=posixacl -O canmount=off -O compression=lz4 \ -O dnodesize=auto -O normalization=formD -O relatime=on -O xattr=sa \ -O encryption=aes-256-gcm -O keylocation=prompt -O keyformat=passphrase \ -O mountpoint=/ -R /mnt rpool ${DISK}-part4

      --mountpoint=none no -R

    1. Then create a file with the key (ex 31 x 1) echo 1111111111111111111111111111111 > /key.txt Then create an encrypted filesystem ex enc on your "pool" based on that key zfs create -o encryption=0n keyformat=raw -o keylocation=file:///key.txt pool/enc
  10. Nov 2019
    1. Wow, looks like a lot of duplication in https://github.com/constelation/monorepo/blob/master/packages/Style_/src/index.native.tsx compared to https://github.com/constelation/monorepo/blob/master/packages/Style_/src/index.tsx to handle differences in props on the different platforms such as backfaceVisibility.

      And even structure/shape differences like:

      const style = { ...styleFromProps, ...this.props.style, ...Child.props.style }
      

      vs.

          propsToPass.style = [styleFromProps, this.props.style, Child.props.style]
      

      Is there no way to remove this duplication?

    1. Reason compiles to JavaScript thanks to our partner project, BuckleScript, which compiles OCaml/Reason into readable JavaScript with smooth interop. Reason also compiles to fast, barebone assembly, thanks to OCaml itself.
  11. Oct 2019
  12. ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com
    1. incipallyagriculturaltools,asanequivalent.Theypreferringprovisions,Mt_EgavethemaBarrelofFlourandsomethinginadditio

      Ojibwe prefer provisions

    2. changetheirmodeoflifewouldbevirtuallytochangetheirreligion.T

      that is literally what it is

    3. twasabeggingdance,theywerehungryandaskedforsomethingtoeat.Mr.Hallgavethemaverylittleatthesmallnessofthewhichtheylaugheda

      the "scary" appearance of the Natives was a begging dance

    4. hefollowingarethereasonsforcontinuingFond.duLa

      Reasons for staying at Fond du Lac

      • property
      • agriculture
      • school
      • less Catholicism than in past
    5. hereality‘ofevilwillcomesoonenough,andinthemeantimewemustdowhatwecantosavetheIndians,&preparethemtobeartheapproachingevilwithlessinjuryorsufferin

      it's almost as if he is saying to prepare the Ojibwe for a cultural genocide

    6. ncreoeverhereare5familiessettledbyuschemwe5333helpinagricultur

      Ayer argues that Pokegoma deserves a higher ration of money because they have more missionaries and more natives that need help with agriculture

    7. hysicalAspectofthegounu'y.Thisplace&theimmediateVicinityoffersveryfewinducementtoAgriculralists.Smallspotsofexcellentalluviallandaretobefoundhere,butnotsufnienttolocateanynumberoffamilies.Thereisgoodlandalso—a[t]variousdistncesintheVicinity.ASIhavetraveledverylittleinthesurroundingcountry,it'11notbeexpectedofmetoattemptadescriptio

      the land is good for several people to farm, but not for whole communities

    8. theywerenotunderthenecessityoftakingtheirfamilieswiththemtosubsistupontheChaseastheyfor-merlyhaddon

      because of an increase in long term agriculture, men spending fall and winter hunting is not necessary, but done almost out of habit according to Ayer

    1. heythereforelookedtotheirfarmertoplowforthem&nngnishseedatotheheaohertheylookedtoinstructtheirohildxen;ThisisthepresentpositionofthingsatPokegana—-peacezgragrtheyassuxedustheywoulddome,fortifythamselvea&plantm

      promise of 30-40 Native families at Pokegoma in the Spring

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    1. ewasthesonofoldBuffalo,andthesecondthathehaslostsinceIhavebeenhere.Hewaskilledbya.fallingtreewhileouthunting.

      A second chief, son of Old Buffalo, died while hunting

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  13. Sep 2019
    1. # CocoaPods on iOS needs this extra step

      I think I was missing this step, as it isn't included in the warning message from the CLI anywhere.

      error React Native CLI uses autolinking for native dependencies, but the following modules are linked manually: 
        - @react-native-firebase/app (to unlink run: "react-native unlink @react-native-firebase/app")
        - @react-native-firebase/auth (to unlink run: "react-native unlink @react-native-firebase/auth")
        - @react-native-firebase/database (to unlink run: "react-native unlink @react-native-firebase/database")
        - @react-native-firebase/firestore (to unlink run: "react-native unlink @react-native-firebase/firestore")
        - @react-native-firebase/storage (to unlink run: "react-native unlink @react-native-firebase/storage")
        - react-native-camera (to unlink run: "react-native unlink react-native-camera")
        - react-native-fs (to unlink run: "react-native unlink react-native-fs")
        - react-native-image-picker (to unlink run: "react-native unlink react-native-image-picker")
        - rn-fetch-blob (to unlink run: "react-native unlink rn-fetch-blob")
      This is likely happening when upgrading React Native from below 0.60 to 0.60 or above. Going forward, you can unlink this dependency via "react-native unlink <dependency>" and it will be included in your app automatically. If a library isn't compatible with autolinking, disregard this message and notify the library maintainers.
      Read more about autolinking: https://github.com/react-native-community/cli/blob/master/docs/autolinking.md
      
    1. OneweaidedinputtingupaloghousethisFall.Anotheriscommenced,andtwoorthreeotherswishtobuildassoonaswecanaidthe

      Natives are beginning to move into and around Pokegoma and build houses and farms

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  14. Aug 2019
    1. Theirerrorsaremoreformidabletothemissionarythantheheathenismit

      The Catholic influence in the area is deemed as worse than the Native religious influences

    2. hiscircumstancehastendedtoremovethemfromthetimebeingfromourintercourse&innuenc

      agricultural failures forced the Ojibwe to travel to deer land for food, so they are removed from the influence of the missionaries during the winter

    1. Demonstrates how label text will wrap at a point that appears to narrow when shrunk (the label can't even be as wide as the input it is labeling!), and how to work around this problem by adding styles:

        '& label': {
          whiteSpace: 'nowrap'
        }
      

      Of course, you would only want to do this if you are going to only be showing the label in shrunk state (which I think is safe to say is the case for date picker inputs), since it would look bad to actually have text overflowing outside of the input box. But if it's in "shrink" state, then it's actually above the input, so as long as there isn't another input/label directly to the right, and/or as long as we adjust the width so the right side of the label mostly lines up with the right side of the input, then I think we should be safe.

      Reference

      The input label "shrink" state isn't always correct. The input label is supposed to shrink as soon as the input is displaying something. In some circumstances, we can't determine the "shrink" state (number input, datetime input, Stripe input). You might notice an overlap.

      To workaround the issue, you can force the "shrink" state of the label.

      You need to make sure that the input is larger than the label to display correctly.

    1. IfaMissionfumiEyr————————______—+consistedofoneman&twofemales,itmightbedifficulttoeradicateff35—555—1537‘fn§“imvro§§1onthathokoayohastooWiveo

      a mission family with two women might look like a polygamous relationship to the Natives

    2. hismightoperateasastimultuswiththemtocultivateafixavalueuponcorn,rice&0,atleastwithsuch,ascarstohavetheirohil.instructed,ratherthansquanderitinfeasts,&feedingsuchasaretooindolenttomakeagardenthemselve

      Boutwell disapproves of the way the Natives handle food

    3. Atpresentthereisnothingamongthem,nothinglikepersonalrightsorindividualprepertyanyfurtherthantrapsguns&kettlesareconcerne

      no personal property

    4. esicknccnwhichprevailedamongtheIndian038lastsummerwasinconaequcnoeofourcomingintothecountryandthothehissionaricewouldbringsick—noesupontheIndianaaloe"

      Natives believe missionaries bring sickness

    5. tappearstothemlikearenunciationofhhoirreligiOn(astheycallit)tozubnittoinstructionorzuuffartheirchildrento.ItitnotatallsurprisingthattheyshOuldfeelthuo..Theyarealmostallgrosslylyncrsntofovoxythlng‘connectod‘withdivinetruthbut'afewofthemeye:havingbeen:wheretheyhadnnopportuni:yofhaarinzof

      Ayers says that moving onto a Mission feels like giving up their Native religion

    6. Thereisbutlittleprospectthatmanyofthemwillbebenefit—todmuchbyvhattheyheariftheycannotbeinducedtosettledown&cultivatethegroun

      Ayer doesn't think Christianization will work unless the bands settle down and cultivate land rather than roaming for most of the year

    7. heywouldretaintheircustoms&habitsIftheGreatSpirithaddeaignadtheyshouldbeinstructedtheywouldhavehadhiawordcommunicatedtothanbefore.."TheGreatSpiritdesignedtheyahouldhaveadifforentreligion&quotnmofromnhoWhites

      This is how Ayers describes the decision of the Ojibwe band to not listen to Christian teachings

    8. hepacificdispositionoftheIndianstowardsthewhitepeople.T

      Hall and Boutwell think the Natives will take kindly to the White settlers

    9. ithanIndian,atraditionorcustomwhichisgivenhimbyhisfathers,issacre

      Patriarchal traditions are said to be sacred to the Ojibwe

    10. eathensuperstitions,towhichtheyarestronglyattached,andwhihhisagreathindrancetotheirreceivingthegosp

      The religion of the Natives gets in the way of the Christianizing process

    1. ReedseveralInd.Hymns,thiehIsungtothem.Aftersingingonetheseconddrthirdtimeoneortwoyoungmenjoined&tomysurprise,sungitquitewell.Theyaredelighted&surprisedtohearhymnssungintheirownlanguag

      Boutwell sings hymns in the Ojibwe language, which surprises the Natives

    2. sdesirousofaschoolatornearhisgoat,&lof£er§<$odéVall,inhispowertoaidinoaae.apersonissenthere

      Schoolcraft wants a school in this area and will work with Boutwell to make it happen (at Red Lake over Sandy Lake because of the land is better at Red Lake)

    3. Manyofthem"toretheinsignia.ofaddress:Syst‘r‘ip.5%poleost—skinroundthehead&heels,thebushytailoftheanimalsoattachaitotheletter10todragonthewround.Thecrownofthehadwasornamentedwithstandingfeathers,indicatingthenumberofenem

      Boutwell describes in detail the appearance of the Natives surrounding the Chief

    4. wasperformedaroundthegravesofthede

      the scalp dance was performed around the graves of the deceased Ojibwe

    5. tWM‘Lodbrthrow“qu-3,r;.1hearinginh.oneoftherecent30.11139.

      the "scalp dance" to celebrate the recent victory over the Sioux is led by three Squaws

    6. saweqthfromthefeet,thatshe3.1...mysmakesthearden,in0.5muchastheInd.dagge-itde'gmja'dtnghim“elftouseM9435thehueorMS

      the women are the only ones who work the garden because the men find it degrading to use a hoe or axe

    7. Thisband'gif:cetidlat’é‘ci"at106.Thereareabout35huntersheren

      the band of Natives that entertains the party has 106 members, 25 of whom are hunters

    8. dqrh.ismostlyobtainedatRedLakefromthelads.whotherecultivateittoconsiderableextent.

      some sort of food is obtained at Red Lake from the Natives there (I can't read what it is)

    9. he.principalpartofthebandarenotabsent,someattheirfishingeothersattheirhuntinggroun

      The majority of this Native band is either hunting or fishing

    10. ourpostsaresetinthegroundfrom7to9feethigh,bymeansofwhichasortofscaffoldisraised&uponwhichintheopenairthecoffinisasisséestplace

      how the Natives bury the dead - raised above ground

    11. tone.momentourmenweresingingsomeInd.hymn-thenextaeongordancingtune-thenextmomentanInd.vauldbegintothumphiedrun&oing,thathemightmakehispartofthenoise,&rendertheSceneofconfusionmoreperf

      a combination of Christian Sabbath and Native participation (with their own traditions)

    12. AnoldInd.incompanywithus,passingalargestonerisinoutofthemiddleoftheriverlefthisofferingoftobaccotothe(Henito)spirit.

      Native offers tobacco to Menito spirit on the river

    13. oseethemeatisenoughtodisgustforeverahungryman.Allcollectaroundthekettleorbigbirch-barkdisheeachuseshisfingersorwholehandJustwhichhefindsmosttohisadvantage.Childrenasnakedastheywereborn,savethecloth.rcundtheloine&hungrydogssittingontheirhindlegswiththeirnosesoverthedishin-tentlywatchingeverymotion&staringyourintheface.allthis.couldbeendured,buttoseeasquatlickakettlecoverbothindiameter&circumference,thisismorethaneverywhitemanchuldwellendure

      here the author provides some insights into the eating habits of the Natives, describing it as disgusting, mentioning the naked children and how the mothers lick the lids of the pots

  15. Jul 2019
    1. Onabluffaf’vyard;:3ourr1ht19asmallplatofroundwhichtheInds.h&v6plunntiwithpobtbosawhichaiojuqtmakingnheirappearancefromtherrmmd

      Natives planted potatoes which are now sprouting

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    1. LinkedIn launched the Native video feature on its mobile app in 2017, following which Marketers unlocked opportunities untouched in the market. Previously video marketing involved uploading content on platforms like YouTube and Vimeo whose links are shared on required social media sites.  Engagements on native videos are comparatively higher than YouTube link sharing. There are more benefits in posting a LinkedIn native video when compared & studied from all perspectives.

      LinkedIn launched the Native video feature on its mobile app in 2017, following which Marketers unlocked opportunities untouched in the market.

  16. Jun 2019
    1. heInds.have:ehbampon.thisIsland,froasuperatitiouaideatheyentertain‘tksitsbaingtharesidenceofthebadSpir

      expedition sees Spirit Island, which is uninhabited by Natives because of belief of a bad spirit there

    2. isonthisrivarabout3ms.fromthemouthofwhichtththeInds.tolongin‘toth.LaPointband,maketheirgarden
    3. nhisneckhunghisdeceasedfathcrsmedal&silvergorge,thelatterofwhichwasintheformofahalf—moon.

      son of dead chief wears his medals

    4. PlacedbytheGovernmentasanAgenttothispeople,theiradvancementinthescaleofmoral&accountablebeings,istome,anobjectofhighimportance.AndIknownotwhatcouldhavesodirectaninnuenceinraisingthemtothedignityoflife,astheintroductionofChristianity[sic].Iamquitesatisnedthattheirpolitical,mustresultfromtheirmoralmelioration.Andthatallourattemptsinthewayofagriculture,schooling&themechanicarts,areliabletomiscarry&producenopermanentgood,unlesstheIndianmindcanbepurinedbygospeltruth,andcleansedfromthebesettingsinofabeliefinmagic,&fromidolatry&spirit-worship

      the only way to improve all aspects of Native life (agriculture and politics mentioned) is to Christianize them calls their current practices "the besetting sin of the belief in magic" and "idolatry & spirit-worship"

    1. Where react native is veteran in the mobile app development platform, flutter is also leaving its mark by delivering the best cross-platform apps and it is here to stay.

      Confused between Flutter vs React Native? This blog is your guide to learn everything about both the app development frameworks.

    1. Warren’

      I suppose I may be a bit biased, being a "Warren" college student. ; ) In all honesty however it is likely that it is the high profile nature of the claim, and the intense politicization that brings so much publicity to this particular case.

    2. Donald Trump, have mocked the senator’s claims by calling her “Pocahontas.”

      Wow! such a shame :(

    3. Ultimately, the panel expressed hope that instead of continuing to double down on her ancestry claims

      What more can Elizabeth Warren do to placate the Cherokee? It looks like this might seriously hurt her campaign, and if she does become president, then this could simply sour relations between the United States and the Cherokee. Some have accepted her apology, and “understand that she apologized for causing confusion on tribal sovereignty and tribal citizenship and the harm that has resulted,” Julie Hubbard, a spokeswoman for the tribe said. “The chief and secretary of state appreciate that she has reaffirmed that she is not a Cherokee Nation citizen or a citizen of any tribal nation.”

      But others are still not satisfied. “This still isn’t transparent,” said Twila Barnes, a Cherokee genealogist who has been critical of Ms. Warren’s claims of native ancestry since it became national news in 2012. “She needs to go public and say she fully takes responsibility and that the DNA test was ridiculous. There is still something about this that feels off.” It seems that only time will tell in this case. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/01/us/politics/elizabeth-warren-cherokee-dna.html

    4. eugenics

      I believe the precise term to be used here is Anthropometry, or human measurement, which was a key aspect of pre-genetic Eugenic ideology, and continues today in genetic biology, under more 'subtle' labels such as euthanizing, sterilizing, or preventing intermarriage between people with 'genetic diseases.' http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/html/eugenics/static/themes/6.html (I mean i'm not saying I am denying genetic disease research and treatment is based on science, but so was eugenics back in the day, it's just science has 'improved' since then... or has it? Maybe, but it is policy that is more important in these regards.)

    5. “Native nations have a fundamental right to weigh in when one makes a claim to kinship.”

      What does this mean exactly? This is extremely important and I don't know exactly what is being articulated here.

    6. ancestry, background, and blood, rather than citizenship, nationhood, and sovereignty, which subtly undermines recognition and the sovereign status of tribal nations.

      This isn't really subtle at all. Most of the public I speak to outside of my family and college seem to view Native Americans as a racial classification that receives certain government benefits as reparations based on past discrimination. Reservations tend to be spoken of as segregated zones, rather than sovereign nations. Public misconceptions by Non-Natives seem to inform the issue.

    7. Warren’s statement betrays a deep misunderstanding of Native nationhood. “Even though histories of colonialism have made our processes of defining citizenship messy, complicated, painful, and even racist,” he said, “Native nations have a fundamental right to weigh in when one makes a claim to kinship.”

      This statement is vague because it does not clarify what the misunderstanding is, and what it means to weigh in, and precisely what kinship means. Ethically, what is the distinction here? Did Warren make an ethical violation when she publicly claimed to have Cherokee ancestry, without first notifying tribal authority? What constitutes as kinship, versus ancestry. It seems to take the power away from individual identity, and grant it to institutions. It is an opportunity cost of self-determination. What would be the proper course of action for Warren to take afterwards? Make a public apology, or publicly make a statement denying kinship?

    8. “I am not enrolled in a tribe, and only tribes determine tribal citizenship. I understand and respect that distinction. But my family history is my family history.”

      Based on this Rhetoric, she sounds sincere, but what is so controversial about this statement? Are there other statements where she made different kind of claims?

    9. “They all descend from full-blooded Cherokee great-grandmothers,”

      Assimilation and 'whitewashing' could indeed produce a large number of un-enrolled people who are of Cherokee descent, and also produce false accounts where people genuinely believe they have some Cherokee ancestry but are mistaken based on an old family story. What is implied here is that there is a malicious, intentional fabrication of Native Ancestry to advance one's own personal agenda. There is a fine line between a claim that should illicit the response, "Really? How neat, what an interesting heritage story," and "I see under race/ethnicity you put down 'Cherokee' on your application. That is very serious claim, do you have any documentation?" I think there is a difference. How harmful is it for someone to claim 'unofficial' or unverifiable ancestry, and what problems does this present? How should these be viewed/enforced differently.

    10. “I Have a Native Ancestor”

      Only a fraction of a percentage of Americans claim to be Cherokee, but high profile cases make a big impact. "In 2000, the federal census reported that 729,533 (0.26%) Americans self-identified as Cherokee. By 2010, that number increased, with the Census Bureau reporting that 819,105 (0.26%) Americans claimed at least one Cherokee ancestor" https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2015/10/cherokee-blood-why-do-so-many-americans-believe-they-have-cherokee-ancestry.html

      About 300,000 Cherokee are enrolled, so that is under half of all Americans who claim to be of Cherokee descent. In other words, there is about 3 Americans who claim to be Cherokee for every 2 enrolled Cherokee. It is difficult to say how big of a problem this really is; it could be a minor inconvenience, or it could be a catastrophic threat. It is difficult to say how this should or can be enforced. It could be that a simple fine could dissuade people, or even a public service announcement, or this may be a breach of freedom of speech. Maybe only in instances where fraud is involved, for financial gains or in high profile cases? It is hard to say.

    1. Critics always are the Ìrst to point to the excesses and potential for crime and to give examples of criminal activity; however, every tribe must be free and empowered to be able to determine the course of their nation.

      This seems to be at the heart of the issue. Indian gaming can best be viewed as an exercise in self determination, and an important asset on the road towards economic self sufficiency.

    2. ese questions must be answered on a case-by-case, tribe-by-tribe basis

      In the readings, this seems to be a recurring theme. There is no one-size-fits-all approach, no magic bullet solution that will work for all tribes, which are highly diverse in values, economy, and needs.

    3. Downey Home Man changes into a but-terÈy, Èies into the kiva, and leads the girls out to safety. Earth Winner is full of trickery and changes into a white butterÈy “to lure them away from the young man.”

      This is a really epic story. The theme of butterflies makes sense because of butterfly migrations through the region.

    4. Bisti Badlands
    5. ). However, there is a need for more research regarding per capita and its impact on the social fabric of tribal communities.

      That might be a good opportunity for someone studying Native American History to pursue! It seems like an exciting topic to research.

    6. e murder-for-hire plot added to the already precarious image of gaming in Southern California.

      Can this be considered defamation? It must have had a substantial monetary impact.

    7. e genocide in California was nearly successful.

      "The California Genocide refers to actions in the mid to late 19th century by the United States federal, state, and local governments that resulted in the decimation of the indigenous population of California following the U.S. occupation of California in 1846.

      Actions included encouragement of volunteers and militias to kill unarmed men, women and children.

      Location California

      Date 1846–1873 Target Indigenous Californians Attack type: Genocide, ethnic cleansing Deaths 4,500-16,000 Indigenous Californians outright killed, thousands more died due to disease and other causes Perpetrators: United States Army, California State Militia, white settlers"

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Genocide

    8. But most agree

      This is problematic. Most scholars agree, but does the United States government? Does the American Public? Outside of Historians and scholars, do most agree?

    9. Fuck Indians

      Really? Wow, now that's hate speech. Fuck whoever sprayed that, seriously.

    10. ). e Mashantucket Pequot have withstood racism regarding their “low blood quantum

      In other words, "They don't LOOK Indian." Whatever that means and who's the judge of that, other than their tribe?

    11. Does Indian gaming increase crime on reservations and oÅ reservation? Generally, it does not increase crime.

      This is an important statement. It is a commonly accepted narrative that must be challenged. It is considered 'common sense' to the average American that Indian gaming increases crime in America, because it attracts organized crime, or money laundering or some such narrative. Media portrayal is invariably consistent with this. James Bond would be less cool if he were gambling at a Casino and he WASN'T attacked by mobsters. Right?

    12. “need to control criminal activity associated with gambling and the alleged inability of tribes to deal with such crime” (Mason ‚ƒƒƒ, ——)

      While controlling criminal activity is important, doesn't it fall under jurisdiction of tribal law enforcement? Even organized crime?

  17. May 2019
    1. “What happens in Vegas, stays in Vega

      I have always considered this term to have a sexual connotation, but did not associate it specifically with use by male visitors potential to encourage gender violence, especially in the context of Native American women.

    2. Indian gaming causes crime, deteriorates neighborhoods, and gives Indians special privileges in the form of casinos and sovereignty

      This sounds like economic envy! What is the problem with these 'special privileges?' A sovereign nation can use its independence as it pleases, but this is a decision that they must make and assume responsibility for; what about Swiss banks? They have an international reputation for better or for worse.

    3. face of Indian Country and the nation as a whole.

      It can sometimes be overlooked that Native American issues can have a drastic impact on the nation as a whole, the development of a massive gaming industry is an example of this, also natural resources such as fossil fuels and uranium.

    4. ©ª« ¬ª® ̄

      Cheryl Redhorse Bennett is an author, as well as an "Assistant Professor in American Indian Studies at Arizona State University. Bennett is an enrolled citizen of the Navajo Nation and also descended from the Comanche Nation." And focuses on issues such as justice and violence against Native Americans and their communities.

    1. The question I would like to put forth to this conference, to the delegates of other countries here present is that why have you not rec-ognized us as sovereign people before? Why did we have to travel this dis-tance to come to you? Had you not thought that the U.S. government in its deliberate and systematic attempt to suppress us, had you not thought that was the reason that they did not want to recognize us as sovereign people?

      Here is the original question again, but elaborated.

    2. Why Have You Not Recognized Us as Sovereign People Before?”

      Is this question answered in the passage?

    3. terminate

      Possible rhetorical response to termination policy, which was opposed by Indian movements. Taking the term termination and cleverly re-applying it, transforming the concept.

    4. we are united by blood

      Reminds me of blood quantum racial thought, but applied to pan-Indian movement, and more broadly applied outside the United States! Inclusive, rather than exclusive.

    5. I have a message of Panama. “The Indian women of Panama greet our inseparable companions in the struggle, in the Indian movement that are present here today to question and to achieve positive acts for our nations.

      Using a current event as an example to prove their point. Linking current issues to American history to influence policy decisions.

    6. We are undergoing a modern form called sterilization, which has been going on for hundreds of years, to totally exterminate the Red man.

      Explicitly framing the issue of sterilization as being consistent with an underlying motivation of genocide, based on a persistent dynamic of Native American destruction that predates the use of the term genocide, but fits the definition.

    7. sterilization abuse to sovereignty, genocide, and global indigeneity.

      I wonder if framing the problem as human rights issues is related structurally in any way to post-Vietnam war era rhetoric about the Nigerian civil war...

    8. Consider how Sanchez, who became a tribal judge on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation

      Interesting position title, about self-determination through governance of tribes by members, for positions such as judges.

    9. Women of All Red Nations (WARN)

      This, as well as DRUMS, are examples of creative acronyms that are easily recognizable and gain media attention in this era. One negative example coined by opponents is CREEP, for re-electing Nixon.

    1. Just over half of the state’s tribes operate casinos, but only 16 are full Vegas-style resorts. And 47 of the state’s 109 tribes have no casinos at all, with some reservations still struggling to provide running water and electricity. “Not all tribes are rich from gaming,” Vialpando said.

      Wow, this is some important context... the industry is unequally distributed and doesn't help the less fortunate tribes!

    2. Two centuries of slaughter, land theft and discrimination have left California’s Native Americans with lower median incomes and education levels coupled with higher rates of poverty and unemployment than the general population.

      The 'plight' rhetoric.

    3. might give Native Americans an unfair advantage in the market.

      Same rationalization as in some of the readings!

    4. “It’s a long pattern in this state,” Vialpando said. “There’s a history of marginalizing tribes. There’s a history of not wanting to engage with tribes.”

      In this context, the Tribes being unfairly barred from this new market is not so surprising, but how is this implemented, and by whom?

    5. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel opened the Mountain Source cannabis store about two weeks ago, in the front part of a failed casino that tribal leaders abandoned in 2014.

      Casino failed, locals had to adapt.

    6. a building that once let visitors try their hand at slot machines and poker tables is now a shop that sells cannabis flower and marijuana-infused truffles.

      Gambling -> Marijuana

    7. are being shut out In a state where weed is legal, groups hope for equal footing.

      This is interesting, and highly unexpected! Tribes not allowed to grow, but the rest of the state IS!

    8. new gambling fo

      Example of gambling linked to marijuana as a concept of tribal different legal restrictions to federal law.

    1. In short, the Indians ask for assis-tance, technical and financial, for the time needed, however long that may be, to regain in the America of the space age some measure of the adjust-ment they enjoyed as the original possessors of their native land.

      The wording here is not entirely clear to me... what is "Some measure of the adjustment they enjoyed?"

    2. We insist again that this is not special pleading. We ask only that the United States be true to its own traditions and set an example to the world in fair dealing.

      Here is the problem! "We ask" Instead of "We demand"

    3. Consider whether the following excerpts from the Declaration of Indian Purpose should be read as blatantly milquetoast or latently radical and how the authors attempted to transform Indian politics into a Cold War imperative.

      This document is a criticism of the Declaration of Indian Purpose, and seeks to re-analyse and re-examine how Indian Interests and rhetorical/political strategies have evolved in the past 20 years.

    4. Challenges came from conservatives who feared its critical edge would be seen as un-American and ardent nationalists who believed that it did not go far enough in demanding sovereignty.

      Calling out the opposition and it's motivation. Explaining where the challenges for Native Americans are coming from, and posturing politically.

    5. Declaration of Indian Purpose’

      Framing this 1961 document in relation to the previous 1944, canonizing these with a shared Native American History within an explicitly recognized narrative. This is the framework that the author chooses to present this message.

      https://americanindianmovementehs.weebly.com/ "The Declaration of Indian Purpose is a book concerning the founding of the National Congress of American Indians in 1944. - 64 Indian tribes met in Chicago to emphasize "the right to choose their own way of life" and "the responsibility of preserving their precious heritage."

    1. The drums of our eternal people will sound once more forever across our lands.

      They mention brain-washing-Uncle-Tomakawkification ostensibly a reference to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, or more specifically the characterization of portrayal of Blacks in media as a caricature of white stereotypes typical of blackface minstrelsy, at the expense of Black interests, in order to appeal to white audiences. Appropriating this to the stereotypical portrayal of Native Americans as savage, or primitive, but then they mention recognizable 'stereotypes' such as ancient wisdom, drums, sacred hoops, mother earth, tree of peace... At first glance this segment may appear to be a contradiction, but it is a self conscious reclamation of these: they take these universally recognized symbols of colonialism and elimination, and re-brand them to represent an enduring authentic Nativism, rejecting the negative stolen usage,

      http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/interpret/exhibits/tomming/tomminghp.html

      " In the novel Tom is not an "Uncle Tom," which the dictionary defines as a black person who abjectly sells out the interests of his race to curry favor with the white power structure. Malcolm X's speeches and his Autobiography are probably most directly responsible for giving the term the rhetorical force it has today."

    2. or die, or

      How accurate is this assessment? What basis or evidence is there that the Indian organizations failed? Were these not the organizations that EMPOWERED movements such as the United Indians of All Tribes in the first place? From a historical perspective, this seems to be the trend, but at the time, perhaps this was not what was perceived...

    3. While President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support for self-determination in March 1968,

      Vietnam War era president, Kent State Massacre, Kennedy Assassination; great social anxiety and fear of civil unrest, tumultuous time in American society and media-coverage of fears in America at the time.

    4. The occupation of Alcatraz has seen the beginnings of a concept of unity long dreamed of by all our people.

      Pan Tribal/Pan Indian Rhetoric. By taking the initiative, they seek to garner support from the momentum of the already growing Pan-Indian movement. Much of this momentum was hard won by political maneuvering and legal battles, and peaceful protesting such as civil disobedience through fishing. But this decisive, militant action is an expression of that prevously gained power, and a great risk!

      "Pan-Indigenousism, formerly Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations."

  18. Apr 2019
    1. Federal Indian policy during the period from 1870 to 1900 marked a departure from earlier policies that were dominated by removal, treaties, reservations, and even war.

      What caused this departure? Was it just that this was the next phase? Previous violence had effectively advanced the agenda to this point to allow 'mopping up' and consolidating the gains that had been won?

    2. On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts.

      It might be a good idea to follow the link and read the Dawes act, just to get some perspective on what was the contents of this document. [http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=50&page=transcript)]

    1. The dismemberment of tribal land bases has created an enormous range of obstacles to economic development in tribal communities, including those within the Cherokee ation, and has squandered human potential and caused suffering on an immeasurable level.

      This poetic description of 'dismemberment' is quite graphic and evokes images of slaughter and mass graves such as at wounded-knee. The act of land-redistribution was one of violence and it resulted in destroyed lives and culture as well as somewhat 'indirectly,' the literal death of inhabitants from economic factors as well as increase in crime, violence, alcoholism... I need to take a break and go to work, my objectivity is slipping, and emotion is powerful, but not the best historical lens, especially in an academic setting.

    2. Allotment resulted in impoverishment and marginalization, and if desperation was reason to assimilate, then it sometimes caused that, too, although to a much smaller extent than its champions had predicted.

      It is the isolation from traditional social networks and economic systems such as Buffalo that accomplishes this. I just thought of how I will go to food-service work in an hour and administer 'Buffalo Sauce' and the thought and association made me sick. That people's livelihoods were destroyed so they would be replaced by making practically extinct a magnificent species. And now I use that word every work-day in the context of a pungent smelling, spicy, cowboy/country-western themed hot-sauce condiment.

    3. the federal govern-ment sought to compel American Indian people to accept Christianity, the English language, market-oriented agriculture conducted through nuclear family units, Anglo-American social organization, and, even-tually, American citizenship.

      Here the wall of separation between church and state is explicitly broken. The reason is apparent: the federal government seeks allies among a variety of institutions to aid in the ultimate elimination of native peoples, and total control of land and residents.

    4. t was this extended network of relationships and the obligations and hospitality associated with it that brought Lewis Sourjohn to the Chewey area, that account for John and Dora Wolfe's decisions, and that enabled annie to survive the loss of her husband and her farm without ever being destitute or homeless.

      Here is an effective form of collective resistance that allowed individuals such as Nannie to survive. Without this network, she very well may have perished in this harsh environment, no matter how independent she was. No person survives as an island, which is why Allotment policies seek to isolate and control Native peoples made dependent.

    1. To many Cherokees, the old Cherokee Female Seminary building that now stands on the campus of Northeastern State University in Tahlequah remains a symbol of adaptation and progress in a changing, and often inhospitable, world. To others, it remains a symbol of that inhospitable world.

      Both perspectives are authentic, and neither are mutually exclusive. This is a complex and problematic topic, perhaps it is best that it remains uncomfortable, unsettled, and unsettling, especially in an academic context.

    2. In light of the reverence that progressive tribal members felt for the Cherokee Female Seminary and considering the reason for its establishment, it is little wonder that the 211 girls who graduated from the seminary and, to a lesser extent, those who did not gradu-ate but used their seminary education to obtain degrees from other institutions were considered the creme de la creme of the Cherokee Nation.

      Elevation in social hierarchy becomes equated not with resistance or talent within a traditional Cherokee context, but in the context of white cooperation and submission, with real economic incentives for following the program. Within Cherokee society this restructures the social hierarchy, and alters fundamentally the character and beliefs of the new generation of leaders. This creates division and social upheaval within the community.

    3. Two Scenes in Indian Land," Na-Li de-scribes a "wild and desolate" estate of a Cherokee family, composed of "whooping, swarthy-looking boys" and plaited-haired women, all of whom "bear a striking resemblance to their rude and uncivilized hut."

      Here wildness and skin color are consistently connected, but also notice evidence of equating the state of the hut to the inhabitant, compared to the whitewashed houses mentioned in the lecture, with pine floors...

    4. Unsure whether the Cherokees could obtain a high level of civilization by themselves, he asserted that "intermarriage will accomplish the purpose quickly.

      The Cherokee identity is one that is meant to be eventually erased, so hypodescent is treated differently than that of African slaves. Blackness was considered a badge of slavery, so it was carefully portrayed as a contagious quality that one drop would grant an identity, so that it would persist despite intermixing and create a perpetual stock of potential slaves. This attitude persisted in the South even after slavery was abolished. The Cherokees were meant to eventually disappear, so in this case, whiteness was portrayed contagious in at least the sense it would 'erase' the Cherokee identity, if not enough to make them 'equal.'

    5. A Wreath of Chero-kee Rose Buds, girls complained in an editorial about the Townsend, Massachusetts, female seminary's paper, the Lesbian Wreath, which referred to the Cherokee girls as their /1 dusky sisters. "23 A popular practice of the Cherokee seminary's paper was to tell anecdotes and stories in which appearance, particularly blue eyes, featured promi-nently. For example, one story tells of the consequences that young "Kate M.11 faced after plagiarizing a poem for literature class. "Fun and abundance," student Lusette writes, "peeped from her blue eyes ... and the crimson blush stole upon her cheeks." In the same issue, author Inez writes about what her schoolmates might be doing in four years. One student is described as a /1 fair, gay, blue-eyed girl, 11 and another is a "fairylike creature with auburn hair.11

      Here the physical features between Anglo Americans and Cherokees are juxtaposed, and are tied to an essentialist view where the physical characteristics are ranked on a hierarchy that encompasses linked traits such as intelligence, morality, civilization, and spiritual purity. Having Cherokee students write material such as this promotes an internalization of racism, and a normalization of accepting their place within this hierarchy. Ostensibly there would be resistance to this, but resistance would be punished, and acceptance would be rewarded, leading 'clever' Cherokees to follow the least path of resistance and receive praise and be rewarded for submission, while the 'stubborn/backwards' Cherokees would 'fail to learn the truth' and be punished. This suggests an Orwellian dynamic of indoctrination and psychological manipulation.

    6. 68 Colonialism and Native Women was probably because girls of one family attended school together, which helped to alleviate homesickness. Some were even adopted into the "big happy seminary family, 11 a phrase used by a mixed-blood (one-thirty-second Cherokee blood) to refer to the upper echelons of the student hierarchy.16 Because of interruptions such as the Civil War, the destruction of the school by fire, smallpox epidemics, and alternate educational opportunities, not one student, not even a grad-uate (many of whom enrolled for more than ten semesters), remained in the seminary from first grade through graduation.17 Full-bloods who enrolled in the common schools usually learned to speak

      It is important to put into context that the real destruction of Native Peoples was far reaching, and that the Boarding School institution did not exist in a vacuum. The real tragedy was a multifaceted, expansive process of genocide, elimination, and replacement... not just allotments and re-education. Context matters to view the Boarding School institution as an agent of cultural violence.

    7. 4 With the National Council advocating white education, the traditionalists were continually pressured to adopt a different culture if they wanted to attend the seminary.

      Here is a good explicit example of how race and culture are tied together in 19th and early 20th century racial paradigms.

    8. a mixed-blood senior responded to the administration's concerned query "Full-blood girls to do Shakespeare? Impossible!" by saying, "You don't know [teachers] Miss Allen and Miss Minta Foreman!" implying that these instructors were indeed miracle workers.

      The internalization of white racism by mixed-blood students represents one of the major consequences of the divisive nature of the boarding school dynamic. In-group/out-group division as different categories are arranged in proximity to whiteness, creating conflict to promote white interests and gain allies in Native destruction and subjugation in the late-game/end-game strategy.

    9. I haven't got but 2 letters frame home and one frame you and I have writen 6 letters since I have been here and this is the 7 I aint rooming with no body yet here is the picture of the jail house.

      A sense of entrapment, definite negative feelings, and involuntary attendance. This is someone who HAS to be here, they don't want to be.

    10. The establishment of the Cherokee seminaries created a tremen-dous amount of pride among many Cherokees, but not all tribespeo-ple liked the idea of the expensive schools.

      This is an interesting way to phrase it. Did it create pride among many Cherokees, or just a select few? The narrative the federal government and the institution, and Indian Affairs would want to portray certainly suggests this, but is it wise to use this type of language today off hand, and is it historically accurate?

    11. Women such as Belle Cobb, Rachel Caroline Eaton, and Nannie Katherine Daniels went on to graduate from universities (Cobb earned her medical degree in 1892,

      These names may be useful to remember for researching primary history documents.

    12. -Qua-Tay, seminarian, 1855

      The seminarian perspective is one that can be viewed as problematic or controversial, because it is wrong to deny their experiences and their unique perspective of individuals benefiting from boarding schools, but it is even worse to deny the tragedy and the cultural destruction inflicted by this institution.

  19. Mar 2019
    1. Learn why Hybrid App Technologies is the right choice in 2019 and which hybrid apps are making huge a name this year? Begin your business startup with the best Hybrid mobile app solution.

      Learn why Hybrid App Technologies is the right choice in 2019 and which hybrid apps are making huge a name this year? Begin your business startup with the best Hybrid mobile app solution.

  20. Oct 2018
  21. Sep 2018
    1. man

      Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

    2. Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

  22. Jun 2018
    1. Digital Writing

      Is the phrase "digital writing" as fraught as "digital native"? Or has it morphed into just plain writing? I still find myself bridging the gap analog -digital gap. For example, a summer goal is to make annotation of pdf's as close to paper as I can. I invested in a reMarkable tablet to make this happen. Do I consider it "digital writing"--yes and no. It is the merging of digital and analog. I do it so as to have less friction and quicker feedback with students. None of this matters if students can't take in the feedback or if my feedback sucks, but that is another pedagogic and compositional concern.

  23. Mar 2018
    1. young activists can feed a constant conflict over racist Native-American sports mascots, even as actual Native Americans, when surveyed, consistently say that they do not care about the mascots, and instead are far more concerned about poverty, addiction, and violence in their communities.

      Accusations of "cultural appropriation" serving to distract from more difficult challenges.

  24. Dec 2017
    1. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.

      In this phrase, Jefferson talks about the importance of education and advancement by using the native Americans as an example. He describes them as barbaric and is basically making fun of their ideology to worship their ancestors and their traditional ways. This is not the first time Jefferson expressed his views of Native Americans in such a negative light. For my Art Inside/Out Engagement course, I am doing a project on the Declaration of Independence. The quote that my group decided to use was “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” The discrimination against Native Americans is engraved in the Declaration of Independence of the United States and in the Rockfish Gap Report of the University of Virginia.

  25. Sep 2017
    1. encounter we make, relationship we build, or key-stroke on our technological device builds a network.

      This is what is called 'native data'; data that is built through everyday behaviors.

  26. May 2017
    1. The native peoples and their land were, and to some extent continue to be, under siege.

      Here Berger is making a reference to the history of Indigenous peoples in Canada and how they have been affected through the degradation of nature around them. The history of white people bringing disease and other hardships to indigenous people is a well documented one. But the less talked about part is how modern technologies affect on the environment has affected them. Andrew Stuhl writes, "the number of reindeer in Barrow- the largest town in the region with a population of 1,200 Inuit- had dropped from an estimated 35,000 in 1935 to 5,000 in 1940." This dramatic decrease in reindeer population had a lasting effect on the Inuit population as they eventually had to negotiate with the Canadian government to get reindeer herds as a means of subsistence. As technology advanced, over fishing and whaling practices in the 1980s and 1990s drove some species of fish to near extirpation from the Arctic. Furthermore climate change is having a profound effect on indigenous populations in the more recent past. The raise of temperature is creating less sea ice and making the migrating patterns of whales and caribou less predictable. This causes it to be more difficult for Inuit hunters to track and capture their food. All of these things put together shows how white people's affect on the environment has made life harder for the indigenous populations of the Arctic. Ford, James D.1, james.ford@mcgill.ca. "Indigenous Health and Climate Change." American Journal Of Public Health 102, no. 7 (July 2012): 1260-1266. Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed May 8, 2017). Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing the Arctic science, colonialism, and the transformation of Inuit lands. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.

    2. National Parks Act

      In this section, Berger talks about how he believes that there should be an amendment to allow for the creation of wilderness parks. The Berger Inquiry was first published in 1977 and by "1988 amendments also enabled the Governor in Council to give legal recognition to wilderness zones within parks, heightening the level of protection on these lands by prohibiting any activities that are 'likely to impair the wilderness character of the area." The National Parks Act has been an evolving document and has changed throughout its history. The first national park in Canada was established in 1885 which was Banff National Park but the National Parks Act was not passed until 1930. This act allowed for Canadian Parliament to create designated areas as national parks where industrial development and activities like hunting would be restricted. As of 2000 there was over 68,327,742 hectares of land designated as a national parks which is about 6.84 of the land in Canada. While this is a good percentage, there has been a push to add more national parks in different areas of the country. There was a proposal to add over 15,000 square kilometers and establish five new regions to the national marine conservation areas. In general, Canadians care about their national parks and "this significance has been reflected in the additions to the amount of area protected and changes to legislation and policy over the last decade." Dearden, Philip, and Jessica Dempsey. "Protected areas in Canada: decade of change." Canadian Geographer 48, no. 2 (July 20, 2004): 225-239. Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed May 8, 2017).

  27. Apr 2017
    1. qualified voters

      "Qualified voters" meant almost exclusively white men. As the former colonies began the process of writing state constitutions, debates over who should be included as a "qualified voter" often divided conventions. Vermont and Pennsylvania had two of the most liberal constitutions. Vermont permitted all men, regardless of color, to vote, while Pennsylvania permitted all white men to vote regardless of income. Other states, like Maryland, had much more restrictive qualifications for voting and required that free white men also hold property.