1,569 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Au premier, selon moi, parmi les biens qu'on x doit aimer pour eux-mêmes et pour leurs conséquences, si l'on aspire au bonheur.

      Si on aime la justice pour ce qu'elle est et pour sa conséquence, est-ce dire que ses effets représentent ce plaisir qu'elle donne ? Car si on voit cette conséquence comme un autre avantage qu'elle mène à sa suite, que nous ne recherchons pas la justice en elle-même mais aussi pour ses effets (que la justice soit bonne, justement appliquée : car bien que son principe est d'être juste, elle pourrait, paradoxalement, ne pas l'être), ne ferait-elle pas aussi partie de la troisième espèce de biens ?

    1. "The basic principle behind REST status code conventions is that a status code must make the client aware of what is going on and what the server expects the client to do next"
    2. You can fulfill this principle by giving answers to the following questions:Is there a problem or not?If there is a problem, on which side is it? On the client or on the server side?If there is a problem, what should the client do?
  2. Jan 2022
    1. We believe that StylEx is a promising step towardsdetection and mitigation of previously unknown biases inclassifiers.

      Question: What kind of biases in classifiers?

    2. AttFind takes as input the trained model and a set of N im-ages whose predicted label by C is different from y. Foreach class y (e.g., y=“cat” or y=“dog”), AttFind then findsa set Sy of M style coordinates (i.e., Sy ⊂ [1, . . . , K] and|Sy|= M ), such that changing these coordinates increasesthe average probability of the class y on these images.

      Question: How can you actually define a style coordinate? How should I envision this?

    3. ablation

      Question: Ablation refers to the removal of an component within the AI system. Does it mean in this context that the loss will be deconstructed or something?

    4. latent vector w

      Question: This is a compressed representation of the image, right?

    5. a) A conditionalgenerative model that maps an embedding w into an outputimage. b) An encoder that maps any input image into anembedding w, so that the generator can modify attributesin real images. c) A mechanism for “intervening” with thegeneration process to change visual attributes in the image

      Network architecture in detail, generative model: StyleGAN2 -> question, are there possible alternatives to using StyleGAN2?

    6. It should be emphasized that our goal is not to explainthe true label, but rather what classifiers are learning.

      Interesting! If we were to use post-hoc explanations (think of SHAP and LIME), would you say that we intend to explain the true label, right?

    7. Deep net classifiers are often described as “black boxes”whose decisions are opaque and hard for humans to under-stand. This significantly holds back their usage, especiallyin areas of high societal impact, such as medical imagingand autonomous driving, where human oversight is critical.

      Would you argue that e.g. MLP is also a deep net? I would slightly rephrase the term "deep net" and change it into something like "neural network-based classifiers".

      But, related to this, I actually found quite a relevant and interesting additional paper! It happened to be published 3 days ago, and the paper basically argued that you don't neccesarily need deep convnets to solve similar societal problems - any problem that can be solved using a transformer can be solved by a MLP/CNN, and vice versa, provided that you do exhaustive tuning and use the right inductive bias. Idem ditto for RNNs!

      Link to CNN paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.03545 Link to RNN paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09913

    1. Platforms Editing Applications: FCP, Premiere, DaVinci Resolve, Motion, Compressor, Audition, etc. Bandwidth Frame Rates/sizes

      are these notes from the outline still to be addresssed?

    1. bad note

      An alternate title and fits with the original. What is a bad note if you are automatically hip?

    1. The on-resonance frequency needs to be optimized for each protein

      How to optimize it? How to measure if the frequency is good enough? on-resonance frequency from -3~0 ppm

  3. Dec 2021
    1. NEET does not test qualities that a doctor must possess such as compassion, empathy and passion to serve humanity. Accordingly hardly any doctor is willing to serve in rural areas. NEET toppers won’t necessarily make good doctors.
      • why dont they implement ethics syllabus (like GS4 of UPSC) in NEET entrance, even in PG also ?
      • a doctor (who is saving life) more than civil servant (protecting lives) needs moral ethics
    1. third party, in which case personal data held by it about its customers will be one of the transferred assets.

      I was going to respond to the survey until I saw this. I am offering to provide feedback for free and yet my personal information is collected and becomes part of the sale of the business in the form of an asset. The question is why is my personal information being held for any length of time after I have completed the survey? Isn't that a violation of GDPR?

    2. digital methodo collect

      I am unsure what this is and assume it is an error? If this is an error that seems odd that no-one was checking this as it is important information about how our data is used and gathered. If there are errors here, how can we be assured that our data is safe?

    3. Any member of our group, which means our subsidiaries, our ultimate holding company and its subsidiaries

      Who are?

    1. how do multi-organizational alliancesincrease the access of grassroots organizations to the federal policy process?

      How grassroots org can influence federal policy through alliances.



    1. Justice and equality are hegemonic ideas today. Secularism is conditioned to see them as good and decent and right. This is why it feels rational when we challenge oppressors. We accuse the privileged and the elite of injustice and unfairness. When they push back, with counter accusations, we see it as whataboutery.
    1. homophile movement began to tackle “subversive elements” and orient itself around respectability.

      How did they do to develop its respective

    2. he was forced

      By who?

    3. lavender scare”

      Why it is called like that

    4. 5,000 federal employees and thrusting them out of the closet

      That was the large amount. Did it make any loss to the organization ?

    5. classifying it as a “sociopathic personality disturbance”.

      Is it really the disorder.

    6. came together to form the Mattachine Society

      What is the inspiration to make them form it

    7. experienced

      What have they experienced before? From where and which events?

    8. ransacked his institute and burned the contents of its archive and library in the streets.

      What is the cause of that destruction

    9. weren’t even the first time LGBTQ+ people had fought back against police harassment

      Is it remarkable cause it is the biggest gathering at the time?

    10. Pride can still divide

      What make it divided

    11. indeed bend towards justice.

      How and what make the society get nearer to the justice

    12. Bastille day”

      Is Bastille the name of someone or sth remarkable?

    13. their repercussions

      What are some of the repercussIons that still continue

    14. unusual headline

      What make it unusual?

    15. change his life

      How can that newspaper change his life and what is it about

    1. IP failover uses Keepalived


    2. if the service that Keepalived is watching does not respond

      the service是什么service

    3. IP failover monitors a port on each VIP to determine whether the port is reachable on the node. If the port is not reachable, the VIP is not assigned to the node


    4. The VIPs must be routable from outside the cluster.

      vip不是keepalived创出来的?谁来负责让这个vip routable啊?

    5. There is no way to explicitly distribute the VIPs over the nodes, so there can be nodes with no VIPs and other nodes with many VIPs


    1. I’m particularly interested in two questions: First, just how weird is machine learning? Second, what sorts of choices do developers make as they shape a project?
  4. Nov 2021
    1. call works with any lifetime &self happens to have at that point.

      Do not understand this.

    1. Long and short call or put options

      Can we have a long put and a short call ?? What is the difference between going long and buying a call ?

    2. Equal and opposite positions in the market for a fully hedged position (e.g., hedging one long position with an equally sized short position)

      Doesn't it just add up to nothing ? No profit can ba generated from this, it will always be 0 ?

    3. Figure 26.14

      Biais == bearish or bullish ??

    4. igure 26.13

      Stock vs. Index ??

    5. Generally speaking, with the exclusion of late entries, the higher the price of a long entry, the more aggressive in price and conservative in time of entry it becomes

      Can we have a situation that is conservative both in time and price ?

      Yes/No :

      • cf. Fig.26.9 for Yes
      • cf. Fig. 26.10 for No

      => Yes : cf. paragraph D. of page 843

    6. Support levels for longs and resistance levels for shorts

      Isn't there a problem if we long at a breached support ? Same for shorting a breached resisitance ? We want the price to go up for a long and down for a short so it seems to me that it's the inverse ???

    7. At extremely high levels of leverage, the concept of aggressiveness and conservativeness with respect to the price on entry or exit di-minishes rapidly

      Because with a small capital, one can create a large margin position => sheer capital invested is no longer significant due to leverage

    8. Very late short or long entries with respect to support or resistance ■ Very early or premature long entries above support in a downtrend (both aggressive) ■ Very early or premature short entries below resistance in an uptrend (both


    9. Long entries taken below resistance in an uptrend ■ Short entries taken above support in a downtrend ■ Long entries taken just below a failed support ■ Short entries taken just above a failed resistance

      Isn't it the inverse ? short entry taken just below/above a failed support (since we want to see price decline)?

    10. It should also be noted that the longer it takes for a consolidation to unfold, the larger will be the number of potential buy stop orders that lie above the resistance zone and sell stop orders that populate just below the support zone. This explains why larger consolidations tend to produce stronger and more persistent breakouts

      buy stop orders place limit orders at the support, soif a lot of stop buy orders are triggered ,this places manylimit orders at support, and allows price to rebound strongly enough to pierce through the resistance

    11. stoplosses are es-sentially stop orders, which are trend promoting in nature


    12. inhibiting in nature


    13. security, index, or commodity

      What is the difference between these 3 terms ?

    14. $2 per hour over a 10‐hour period.

      Why do we consider the time ?

    15. other third‐measure values over similar durations
      • What is a third-measure ?
      • Which third-measures are they talking about?
      • Is it that of stock B that they're talking about ?

      i.e. Compare third-measure of stock A to that of stock B over similar durations to find which one is the more volatile ?

    16. ncrease in Price Fluctuations over Equal Durations Indicating Potential Rise in Volatility

      Why is the first measure of volatilty satisfied ?

      Maybe because the time period is the "equal duration" ??

    17. over equal durations

      How do we pick the durations ?

    18. we could not determine which stock was more volatile since the maximum amount of price change over equal durations were the same for both
      • What about comparing over smaller time periods, if we do this, we'll clearly see that there are differences ?
      • How do we pick the timeframe ?
    19. exponential or parabolic

      Isn't it parabolic in t his example, since y'' = cte ?

    20. This is because the bands are adjusted with respect to actual price action over a certain period of observation

      Period of observation which is the band's periodicity ?

    21. confirmation in the near or front month futures contract

      Crypto -> expiration des contrats futurs ?

    22. bearish chart patterns within a falling channel and bullish chart patterns with a rising channel.

      Strange since it's the opposite for wedges, and wedges resemble channels quite a lot ?!

    23. rising channel meeting its minimum one‐to‐one downside price objective.

      Is a rising channel bearish ?

    24. It cannot be projected into the future for potential barrier levels.


    25. Many of the failed buy signals found on the chart in Figure 12.15 would have been successfully avoided or filtered out had the reversal entry breakout tech-nique been employed

      WHY ???

      Reversal entry breakout -> return to the mean ?

    26. Figure 12.11 is an example of tuning the fixed percentage bands to a domi-nant cycle on the four‐hour chart of GBPUSD. The trough‐to‐trough cycle period was 133 bars. Using the third formula would also yield ((2×133) +3)/4 = 67.25. Rounding to the closest integer would give us 67 periods or bars

      Does this mean that the central line is the 67 lookback period and that we obtain the bands by fixed perccentage (here 1.3%, cf. Fig. 12.11) ?

    27. Figure 12.4

      The diagonal channel is static and not dynamic ??

    28. Price below the central value is a bearish indication, but price below the lower band is considered much more bearish. Similarly, price above the central value is a bullish indication, but price above the upper band is considered much more bullish.

      How can this be when the price is also supposed to reintegrate the bandwidth ?

    29. Notice that un-like double and triple detrending, which tends to remove lag between the oscillator and price, double and triple smoothing increases the price lag.

      What is the difference between detrending and smoothing ?

      • smoothing = prendre le MA d'un oscillateur. Ex. : %D = 3-period SMA of raw %K
      • detrending = faire la différence entre deux MA !
    30. double detrending reduces the lag components between price and the oscillators

      WHY ???

    31. igure 11.21

      Serious lag issue, no ?

    32. seven-period

      Why 7 and not 3 as indicated page 260 ?

    33. nine-period

      what does a nine-period EMA mean ??

    34. Periods 2/Exponential Weighting Ratio 1
      • How do we get this formula ?
      • What does the term periods actually mean ?
    35. no lag with respect to price

      But we need to know future information since it is located in the middle of N bars => we need to know N/2 bars in the future. That's why there's no lag !!

    36. THE HAnDbook of TEcHnIcAl AnAlySIS436In technical analysis, the average price is usually positioned at the last right-most bar on the chart, that is, at the current bar. This is the non-centered or end-displaced version of a moving average. It is technically incorrect to place the average price at the last bar, but in technical analysis this is done because it is being used as a barrier to price, that is, as potential levels of support and resistance, it is able to interact with price. Although there is no price lag in the centered version, the moving average does not extend to the most recent bars and therefore cannot provide a barrier to price.

      WHY ???

    37. Expansion

      Projection ?



    1. So it actually replaces the file, not update? If that file is hard-linked, the the other link is unaffected?
    1. In 1795, the German philologist Friedrich August Wolf published a book, “Prolegomena to Homer,” arguing that the Iliad and the Odyssey could not have been composed all at once in the form we know them now.
    1. extra

      Extra what?

    2. begins to be paid down on a monthly basis at a 50% rate, those credits may still be used towards Quarterly Love Credit quotas.

      Does this mean people are paid out at a 1/2 rate? What (if anything) incentivizes people to "cash out" here? Or is the purpose to get people to keep their shares in the org?

    3. private entities can sponsor the work needed to design and carry out the DisCOlarship.

      With this kind of sponsorship, do you envision that some of the funds will go towards creating infrastructure or being piped into the DisCOs account to pay out other folks that aren't directly involved in the training process?

    4. The three scenarios are:

      what if someone walks away from the process and has no desire to continue working with DisCOs?

    5. unlike value tracking for contributors, it's not expected to be either latent or unfulfilled.

      I think this sentence helps convince people that are interested in DisCOlarships, but may disuade people interested in contributing. the "expectation" for the credits to be unfulfilled. Question that pops to mind, why track my hours if there is an expectation that nothing will ever come of it?

    6. it is much easier to record contributions according to grade and measure. If you're not familiar with those terms, it basically means "quantity and quality".

      why not just say "quantity and quality" here?

    7. DisCOLarships

      Why is the L capitalized and not the rest of the word?

    8. 1 DisCOLarships: Where individuals regularly "visit" the DisCO.NP to learn about DisCO culture and structure in the real world, get to know the people, etc. There are minimal responsibilities and the DisCOLar is free to start their own DisCO afterward or join the same DisCO they have trained in. 2 The DisCO Dating Phase: Where potential members make a firm commitment to go through the DisCO.NP's mentoring and training program in order to become committed members or DisCONauts. There are considerable, consented-upon responsibilities on the part of the DisCO Dating Member and the DisCO-NP itself during this process.

      The difference between these two options is not immediately clear.

      Is it that the DisCOLar path is oriented towards creating new DisCOs and the dating is oriented towards joining the mothership?

    9. The DisCO Applications Program includes DisCO Governance Model templates for:

      Do these templates already exist? Do we have orgs that we can pilot these templates with?

    10. Other organizations wanting to become a LAB

      Are these organizations that have reached out to DisCO Mothership, or are these orgs that y'all feel would be good DisCOs?

    11. mirror balls

      What is a mirror ball?

  5. Oct 2021
    1. Figure 10.76

      Retracement or Expansion ?? How do we differentiate both of these ??

    2. Fibonacci retracement levels (measured across the range AB)

      QUESTION : Is the paper version correct ?

    3. diagonally. As a consequence, Fibonacci channel expansions will yield dif-ferent results depending on the type of scaling used on the charts.

      diagonal -> time effect -> depends on scaling of the chart

    4. BC

      WHY ??? Peut-être car en cas de double possibilité, on ne considère de préférence la plus petite ?

    5. Extension

      Isn't it rather an expansion where the up after point B fails and goes lower than the previous trough at B ?

    6. extensions

      expansion instead ??

    7. signal line

      moyenne mobile ?? Oui, cf. page 246

    8. Current and Prior Larger Trends

      What are the current and prior larger trends ? Aren't they the same as wave degree ??

    9. violating point 1

      How do we determine this horizontal line for point 1 ?

    10. points 1 and 2


    11. Remember that slope and reverse divergence are mutually exclusiv

      Why ???

    12. jacent peak to peak and trough to trough analysis.

      cf. p. 271 et Fig. 9.22

    13. devoid of any visible peaks and troughs (F

      Why aren't there any waves in Fig. 9.8 ?

    14. reverse bearish

      So when we look at peaks, the price indicates the trend when there is a disagreement between price and signal, however when it's troughs, the signal expresses the upcoming trend ???

    15. To construct these pivot points, first find the previous day’s typical price. This represents the next day’s pivot level, PP
    16. stochastic

      What is the stochastic ?? Réponse : cf. page 259 ! (c'est le %K et %D)

    17. stochastic action

      What is the stochastic ?? Réponse : cf. page 259 ! (c'est le %K et %D)

    18. The difference between the previous close and the current high ■ The difference between the previous close and the current low

      Que dans le cas où il y a des gaps non ?

    19. this coincidence of buy and sell signals by both oscillators in the chart example in Figure 8.7 above creates false consensus and may lead the trad-er into a false sense of confidence

      But in this case (Fig.8.7), the signals are correct ??

    20. Equivolume

      What is equivolume ?

    21. TRIN advances/declines / Up Volume/Down Volume=( ) ( )


    22. It is important to note that overextensions in volume can signal either a top or a bottom. Extreme buying and selling activity generates volume and can result in either a top or bottom. That is the reason why we cannot use the terms overbought or oversold with respect to volume extremes unless we are able to associate volume with either a top or bottom formation. Therefore, although we are able to pinpoint overextensions in volume, it is only possible to identify overbought or oversold lev-els in volume after a top or bottom has already formed, that is, in retrospect


    23. Selling Climaxes

      If the top is marked by a blow-off in the volume chart, then the following volume candles will be of smaller size, indicating a trend reversal ?



    1. My mistake was thinking I could be anythingother than hungry.My mistake was thinking I could be anything other

      three lines three different way to interpret. to be anything to be anything other than XXX to be anything other (is this the same as to be anything else? )

    2. Lying motionless

      Accessing memory but failing just like trying to get a glimpse through a curtained window. Lying motionless here and now? Or when every one was afraid? Is the terrible effort the effort to access memory?

    3. lent

      strange strange verb here; Lent to whom from the daughter?

    4. His

      First instance of using third person "Him"?

    5. to liaison

      Liaison is not really a verb but still one can connect, one can make phonetic connection between words or social connection, often illicit, between peoples. What does this mean?



    1. the power to destroy may defeat and render useless the power to create

      Is this the foundational argument for the Supremacy Clause? For this example, does this mean if the states had the power to influence federal programs or policies, that the powers delegated to the federal government would be redundantly delegated?

    2. which might disappoint its most important designs

      What is meant by "most important designs"? Is it meant that the state governments are supposed to depend on the federal government and not vice versa? If so, that seems to go against the core contractual aspect of federalism.

    3. component parts

      What is meant by "component parts" here? Are they the states? Are they the powers given to the federal government by the Constitution?

    4. is not supreme.

      When do state laws take effect over federal laws? How do you know when which is supreme? or vice versa?

    5. But if the full application of this argument could be admitted, it might bring into question the right of Congress to tax the State banks, and could not prove the rights of the States to tax the Bank of the United States.

      Based on the relationship between State, banks, and General Government, is this suggesting a contradiction or non mutual relationship between the 3 in this line of argument?

    6. every argument which would sustain the right of the General Government to tax banks chartered by the States, will equally sustain the right of the States to tax banks chartered by the General Government.

      Is this relationship between State, banks, and General Government rooted in reciprocity or mutual responsiblity?

    7. No political dreamer was ever wild enough to think of breaking down the lines which separate the States, and of compounding the American people into one common mass. Of consequence, when they act, they act in their States.

      Why is where the assembly took place relevant to the case and why exactly are they defending it?

    8. Its means are adequate to its ends, and on those means alone was it expected to rely for the accomplishment of its ends.

      This whole phrase is really confusing me? I'm not able to even figure out what any of the parts mean, could anybody help me out?


      Is this something that is actively being said? If so, is this something that was yelled a little but louder? Or was this only written and capitalized for effect.

    10. We

      I saw "we" being mentioned throughout this whole thing but I'm still a little bit confused as to where the introductions would be. Is this just assumed or am I missing something?

    11. but by people over whom they claim no control.

      Is this suggesting that if States were allowed to tax the Federal Government, would States hold power and authority over citizens outside of their state? Would State laws apply universally?

    12. incompatible with the language of the Constitution.

      How exactly is the necessity of resorting to mean which it cannot control not compatible with the language outlined in the Constitution?

    13. thus leaving the question whether the particular power which may become the subject of contest has been delegated to the one Government, or prohibited to the other, to depend on a fair construction of the whole instrument.

      Is this suggesting that there is isn't any sort of protocol for when certain issues arise that causes question on what government has authority over said issue?

    14. It is true, they assembled in their several States—and where else should they have assembled?

      When assembling in their states, did they form permanent locations to meet or was it a random?

    15. But if the full application of this argument could be admitted, it might bring into question the right of Congress to tax the State banks, and could not prove the rights of the States to tax the Bank of the United States.

      Is this saying that the federal government can tax the states, but the states cannot tax the federal government?

    16. This is, we think, the unavoidable consequence of that supremacy which the Constitution has declared.

      A lot of this argument seems centered around the idea that the people, via its representatives, declared the Constitution has supreme power over states. In this, a State (and by extension, representatives of the people) is arguing the apparent supremacy of the federal gov't over the state, doesn't this contradict the argument of the Supreme Court a bit, that the will of the people was for a federal gov't to hold supreme over state?

    17. The people of all the States have created the General Government,

      A lot of what we've read up to this point make it seem like the Supreme Court acts as a kind of voice for the Constitution, that it would interpret and enforce the objectives of it. It's never felt like a branch that was representative of the people. Does the Supreme Court ever act or treat itself as representative of the people, or does it more view itself as a representation of the Constitution?

    18. It was reported to the then existing Congress of the United States

      I'm assuming he means with this line, the congress as it existed under the Articles of Confederation. My question is why bring up this quick history recap? Is it to argue that the States, in ratifying the Constitution and the new Federal government, were granting that the Federal Government held a certain amount of power of them? Something else?

    19. The Constitution of our country, in its most interesting and vital parts, is to be considered, the conflicting powers of the Government of the Union and of its members, as marked in that Constitution, are to be discussed, and an opinion given which may essentially influence the great operations of the Government....

      Does Marshall regularly define the scope of the case like this at the start of his decisions? I don't recall anything similar in Marbury v Madison.

    20. The powers of the General Government, it has been said, are delegated by the States, who alone are truly sovereign, and must be exercised in subordination to the States, who alone possess supreme dominion.

      Does Maryland grapple with the idea that the sovereignty and power of the states comes from the people in its argument that the Constitution receives its power from the states, as opposed to the people?

    21. The Government of the Union then ... is, emphatically and truly, a Government of the people....

      What's the deal with these ellipses? Is there actual text omitted? Or did Marshall literally include these marks in his writing?

    22. we shall find it capable of changing totally the character of that instrument

      I don't understand what this is saying? So on the basis of Marylands contends it changes the meaning of what the Bank means in the constitution?? I'm not sure if I even read it correctly the end of the sentence isn't making sense to me. Changes the character of what instrument? Constitution?

    23. the Bank of the United States is a law made in pursuance of the Constitution, and is a part of the supreme law of the land....

      What does this mean? so the bank of the united states is inherently also the supreme law of the land?

    24. the instrument,

      Whats the term "instrument" referring to here? the constitution? or the creation of it?

    25. Taxation, it is said, does not necessarily and unavoidably destroy.

      Taxation seems to be a big pinpoint of this argument. In history we have seen many problems with "taxation without representation" or misuse of taxing in this case, but we also see problems today with people not agreeing with where the tax money goes, or especially problems with getting tax returns. Do you think taxation is going to continue being a problem?

    26. may be carried into execution, would partake of the prolixity of a legal code, and could scarcely be embraced by the human mind. It would probably never be understood by the public.

      I am lost here. Is this referring to the idea that if the constitution had every subdivision of rules stated that it would not be embraced by human kind and that it would never be understood by the public? Because wouldn't a constitution with accurate details be the most accepted to the public?

    27. Among the enumerated powers, we do not find that of establishing a bank or creating a corporation

      While the Constitution is the Supreme Law of the land, obviously the Constitution does not outline every possibility of things that happen within society (like the establishing of a bank or creating a corporation). Is the creation of something or a situation where things happen due to the lack of guidelines in the constitution common? Do you think it is fair that new rules and regulations be made in addition to there being none directly stated about these given situations?

    28. Would the people of any one State trust those of another with a power to control the most insignificant operations of their State Government?

      This question is more a thought for questions. Do you think that this idea of one government have power over another government issues still stand in to days modern world? or do you think that states and governments the the US are more lacs about this issues then they where in 1819?

    29. quieting the excessive jealousies

      Is here referring to the jealousies of the states to the federal government or the federal government to the states? Who in this scenario is the jealous party leading to the creation of the 10th amendment?

    30. "this Constitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof," "shall be the supreme law of the land,"

      For clarification is Marshal saying that since the people told the states that they wanted a federal government, that the states have to abide by the federals governments laws and rules? He pointes out that the states may see them selves as sovereign states, but since the people agree to the federal government the states also have to follow it?

    31. They did not design to make their Government dependent on the States....

      Would the dependence on the states be referring to the states making money for the national government by creating the taxes?

    32. The argument on the part of the State of Maryland is not that the States may directly resist a law of Congress, but that they may exercise their acknowledged powers upon it,

      Wouldn't that be unconstitutional? To not abide to the laws enacting by congress? Isn't it up to the Judiciary to interpret the acknowledged powers?

    33. which another Government may furnish or withhold

      Is 'another government' directly referring to the state vs. the national government?

    34. Its nature, therefore, requires that only its great outlines should be marked, its important objects designated, and the minor ingredients which compose those objects be deduced from the nature of the objects themselves.

      At the end of this where it states 'deduced from the nature of the objects themselves' - the objects themselves are the individual states and people in those states, correct? So if there was no mention of the laws regarding bank taxes of states in the constitution, but the grand power of the law is saved for the people, which influence the government, makes me wonder- was this creation of Maryland's bank and bank tax, at all ever voted on by the people? Or was it 'secretly' created and decided by the government of the state alone?

    35. Though any one State may be willing to control its operations, no State is willing to allow others to control them

      So here it sounds to me like it is certain that the states have sovereign power to create their laws, but wouldn't that directly conflict with the constitution being the supreme law of the land? Or is "no state is willing to allow others to control them" specifically speaking to something I'm missing?

    36. But is this a case of confidence?

      What constitutes a case of confidence? Is Marshall saying here that the national and state governments need to just have confidence in one another that there will be no abuse of power from either end? When does the Court decide a case is to be considered a case of confidence?

    37. the power of establishing a branch in the State of Maryland might be properly exercised by the bank itself,

      This section confuses me. Is Marshall saying here that not only can the government create a national bank, but they can delegate powers to this bank for it to exercise? Or is it saying that the State of Maryland, where the bank will be established, is to delegate powers to this national bank?

    38. incidental or implied

      If Marshall is saying what I think he is saying here, could technically any "power-move" the national government makes be considered an implied power, if not prohibited by the Constitution? Would it just depend on how the justices perceive it, at the time of the conflict?

    39. But the two cases are not on the same reason.

      Kind of seperate, but do federal buildings pay taxes to the state they are in? Or to the government? Or do they pay at all? If they dont does that mean that the state tax payer does?

    40. That the power to tax involves the power to destroy;

      Definitely seems like a major quote. Is he basically saying that this would give state governments the power to destroy the federal government?

    41. and that the Constitution leaves them this right, in the confidence that they will not abuse it....

      "In the confidence that they will not abuse it" I feel like that is a big leap of faith to make. It seems as though states could drag an issue like this on and on, especially if they are in an opposing party than the president or something like that. Is there a sort of double jeopardy type thing to ensure this doesn't happen? or are there examples of this happening frequently?

    42. unanimously of opinion

      In the Epstein text, it says that one of the seven Supreme Court Justices, Thomas Todd, did not participate in the decision. So it was unanimous, but only among 6 of the 7. I wonder why Todd didn't participate? Does anyone know from the text or other history?

    43. burden,

      This word choice seems dangerous in how vague it is. A lot of actions that a state might take could be defined as "burdening" a law enacted by Congress. Who decides what is a burden? I wonder if there have been cases that have happened since that argue over whether a state action is a "burden" to a national government function? Or if this part of Marshall's argument has ever been used as precedent for the federal government to stifle state power?

    44. had experienced the embarrassments resulting from the insertion of this word in the Articles of Confederation

      Is the "embarrassment" Marshall is referring to here the events of Shay's Rebellion? We know that the invention of Federalism was specifically an attempt to remedy the pitfalls of the Articles of Confederation, and that the Articles created a weak central government. I remember reading about Shay's Rebellion that the national government found themselves unable to fund troops to be sent to counter the Rebellion. Is that because the power to send national troops into states was not "expressly" delegated to the US government? Or are there other "embarrassments" that arose from this part of the Articles, especially seeing as Marshall made "embarrassments" plural?

    45. We shall find it capable of arresting all the measures of the Government, and of prostrating it at the foot of the States.

      I feel like this is a tad dramatic. How would allowing Maryland to tax a government institution arrest "all the measures of the Government"? I understand that taxing the bank would likely lead to the closing of that bank - but how would it interrupt the rest of our governence?

    46. This, then, is not a case of confidence, and we must consider it is as it really is.

      I feel like I've been lost in this paragraph. I'm not entirely sure what is trying to be said here?

    47. The Government of the United States, then, though limited in its powers,

      Does anyone else feel that it is a stretch to say that Constitution = the government? I understand completely where they are coming from, and agree that it makes sense to have an overarching government, but this statement here feels like a stretch.

    1. The breakdown of water involves a rearrangement of the atoms in water molecules into different molecules,

      Why would hydrogen and oxygen need to be separated for?

    1. Other policies simply tar-geted black communities for iso-lation and demolition. The postwar programs for urban renewal, for instance, destroyed black neigh-borhoods and displaced their residents with such regularity that African-Americans came to believe, in James Baldwin’s mem-orable phrase, that ‘‘urban renewal means Negro removal.’

      QUESTION- this whole passage and this quote in particular took me by surprise because I was not aware of the fact that the very roads we travel on were built as a means of segregation- and it brings me to the question of what other everyday things we don't think twice about could have been originally intended as a means of separation?

    2. It is the culture of acquiring wealth without work, growing at all costs and abusing the powerless.

      QUESTION - This culture has been built in America on the basis of slavery, but has it also occurred elsewhere in the world? Most countries don't have everyone working an amount proportional to the wealth they possess, so what was the basis of this culture in other places in the world?

    1. , why did focus groups virtually disappear from the social sciences during the next three decades?

      1( Merton et al., 1990) - used focus groups just to examine reaction to media propaganda - didn't publish.



    1. to gain an understanding of thescope of payments in lieu of taxes (PILOTs) in Illinois municipalitie

      What's the scope of PILOTs in Illinois municipalities How to explain the PILOTS in Illinois municipalities generate less revenue that what's typically seen?

    1. that the individual who considers himself injured

      I am also confused what they mean by injured in this conclusion

    2. "I do solemnly swear that I will administer justice without respect to persons,

      Similar to Taylor I am also confused on what they mean with the comment "without respect to other persons". How does this translate when it comes to the rest of the statement.

    3. It is also not entirely unworthy of observation, that in declaring what shall be the supreme law of the land, the constitution itself is first mentioned; and not the laws of the United States generally, but those only which shall be made in pursuance of the constitution, have that rank.

      Now that Marshall observes the supreme law of the land to be the constitution, this makes me wonder how the Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed when it altered the original jurisdiction that was written in the constitution. Did the creators of the this act not consult or care about the constitution?

    4. This is of the very essence of judicial duty.

      When deciding a case, how is being able to disregard the constitution part of judicial duty? Isn't that the backbone for making laws in this country? It the court's duty to determine if the laws are constitutional or not.

    5. It seems only necessary to recognize certain principles, supposed to have been long and well established, to decide it.

      Is this saying that the court must put the Constitution first, over an act of congress? Are the principles, which are being referred to, those in the Constitution? If not, what are they?

  6. Sep 2021
    1. My question is, wye is a sanitary tee directional? I maintain that a two way sweep would be a more efficient vent.
    1. Why does a judge swear to discharge his duties agreeably to the constitution of the United States, if that constitution forms no rule for his government? If it is closed upon him, and cannot be inspected by him?

      This concludes Marshall's habit of asking questions that he proceeds to answer. Are many modern day decisions written similarly? Or is this style more suited to an early justice seeking to define the role of the court, including the types of questions a Justice should be asking and answering?

    2. If congress remains at liberty to give this court appellate jurisdiction, where the constitution has declared their jurisdiction shall be original; and original jurisdiction where the constitution has declared it shall be appellate; the distribution of jurisdiction, made in the constitution, is form without substance.

      Okay help me clarify this. In this phrasing saying that if Congress gives appellate jurisdiction over the constitution witch already holds original jurisdiction than that new law or rule makes no sense?

    1. Does this daemon benefit me in anyway or is it only used for mismatched resolutions like 1440p with a 1080p display?
    1. What revitalization strate-gies do university anchors employ and how do these approaches compare to anchor institution models?



    1. an important change in the urban anchor institution conversation. It moves beyond the “who” and “how” of university-neighborhood interventions and begins to ask, “what happened?”

      What happened to the neighborhood after UPEN WPI interventions in Alex Penn School.

    2. This article seeks to move beyond the anecdotal, advancing the conversation with a longitudinal evaluation of neighborhood change during the WPI years.

      What is the longitudinal change in neighborhood characteristics as measures of effective revitalization and how do those demonstrate the effect of WPI investments from UPENN> and how does that differ from perceptions captured in previous qual studies?