1,569 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. if the laws furnish no remedy for the violation of a vested legal right.

      Question: Is having a job a legal right? I understand that this case was also trying to figure out that same question.

    2. The secretary of state, being a person holding an office under the authority of the United States, is precisely within the letter of the description; and if this court is not authorized to issue a writ of mandamus to such an officer,

      I am a little lost in this area. Why is Madison the name on this case and not Jefferson? Is this sentence explaining that? I don't quite understand they way this is phrased.

    3. mandamus should be used for that purpose, that will must be obeyed. This is true, yet the jurisdiction must be appellate, not original.

      So a mandamus can only be applied to Appellate jurisdiction and not Original? Or can it be applied to both if met with the "specificity" of the original jurisdiction requirements?

    4. appellate jurisdiction may be exercised in a variety of forms

      What does that mean appellate can be exercised in a variety of forms? Is this referring to the different types of lower courts that hears under this type of jurisdiction?

    5. original jurisdiction

      So where does appellate jurisdiction come in? I only see this statement mention original jurisdiction but in the video Prof explained the Constitutional Article III held the Supreme Court has power to do both. So in what circumstances does appellate court because the jurisdiction for a case/trial?

    6. without respect to persons

      What exactly does this mean? I guess I'm confused because it started off heavily implying that all men deserve fair trials/ access to law. Does this just reinstate that the law is above people and must be applied evenly? The 'without respect' is throwing me off.

    7. and it becomes necessary to enquire whether a jurisdiction, so conferred, can be exercised.

      When they mention 'can be exercised' are they talking about finding a conclusion at all with the issue? Stating that no one was given the jurisdiction to make the conclusion from the constitution?

    8. it must be because the law is unconstitutional, and therefore absolutely incapable of conferring the authority,

      Is this part of the reasoning why said action taking place was unconstitutional? Are they using this as reason, or is it still being debated?

    9. this legal title to the office, he has a consequent right to the commission; a refusal to deliver which, is a plain violation of that right, for which the laws of his country afford him a remedy.

      So is this saying that his high office position allows him to make the judgement on delivery (or not delivery) of the papers, and have no consequences for his choice? Because he should be, with his position, thinking about the laws above person opinions?

    10. no bill of attainder or ex post facto law

      I realize this is just an example he's using to prove his point, that every word of the constitution is important and that the constitution should trump other laws. However, I've never heard of either of these - A "bill of attainder" or an "ex post facto" law. Does anyone know what these are?

    11. practical and real omnipotence

      As a Federalist, Marshall knows that many of the people reading this opinion will be Anti-Federalists. I'd love if my classmates would weigh in: Do you think he is using the exaggerated language of "omnipotence" to appeal to the Anti-Federalist fear of concentrated power? Do we think Marshall is speaking from a totally neutral judicial stance here, or do aggrandized depictions like these hint that he is letting his political bias shine through?

    12. It cannot be presumed that any clause in the constitution is intended to be without effect

      This assertion is fascinating to me. In my interpretation, Marshall is basically saying that every single clause in the constitution has a deliberate effect. I wonder, are there any clauses that the framers explicitly wrote as transitional sentences between two more important thoughts that have been interpreted to have a huge effect? In other words, was Marshall right to say that every single clause was supposed to have an effect?

    13. If, however, such a bill should be passed and a person should be prosecuted under it; must the court condemn to death those victims whom the constitution endeavors to preserve?

      I'm a little confused on how this analogy fits in. Is this meaning that the bill passed should be enforced by the courts? If this is true how exactly does this fit in the argument?

    14. If then the courts are to regard the constitution; and the constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature; the constitution, and not such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they both apply.

      What would make the constitution not superior if put in the situation of conflict? From my understanding the Constitution is going to be more superior or hold more weight

    15. and consequently if the officer is by law not removable at the will of the President

      In what circumstances is the officer not removable at the will of the President in this context? From my knowledge the house impeaches and the Senate holds the trial

    16. The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to claim the protection of the laws, whenever he receives an injury

      Is this inciting that in order to be given civil liberty, you must obeyed by the laws set in place?

    17. If the solicitude of the convention, respecting our peace with foreign powers, induced a provision that the supreme court should take original jurisdiction in cases which might be supposed to affect them; yet the clause would have proceeded no further than to provide for such cases, if no further restriction on the powers of congress had been intended.

      What exactly is this stating? I this suggesting that the courts don't have any jurisdiction over foreign powers, and only take cases that are related to their branch?

    18. If any other construction would render the clause inoperative, that is an additional reason for rejecting such other construction, and for adhering to their obvious meaning.

      I do not understand how this statement relates to what was said before. If I'm correct, the previous statements was suggesting that the supreme and inferior courts have certain jurisdiction. Are they saying that how jurisdiction is determined may change over time?

    19. Or, in other words, though it be not law, does it constitute a rule as operative as if it was a law?

      This is mostly just a question of clarity- is the question being asked here that if a law that is created in which the constitution does not have an answer for, should it be considered legitimate?

    20. Between these alternatives there is no middle ground. The constitution is either a superior, paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it.

      This seems like a crucial sentence that is being asked even today. This case seemed to have established crucial legitimization on the reach and powers of the Supreme Court, but what did it do in regards to establishing the power of the Constitution?

    21. To what purpose are powers limited, and to what purpose is that limitation committed to writing, if these limits may, at any time, be passed by those intended to be restrained?

      Throughout class so far, a lot of discussions have been about interpretation of the constitution. There are various styles to achieving this, but the one we lack now is direct communication with the framers, obviously. So, in the case of this, Marshall is interpreting at a time when one of the founders is a sitting president, so why is the Supreme Court trying to interpret the words written of men who could offer their own intentions plainly?

    22. the rights he has acquired are protected by the law, and are not resumeable by the President.

      Is this saying that once a Justice is appointed and confirmed, the President cannot revoke the office from the individual? Does that mean that power lies with Congress?

    23. gave the officer a right to hold for five years

      Doesn't the Constitution outline that the Justices serve for life? Why does this say five years?

    24. signed by the President

      I thought the Justices were appointed by the President but then had to be confirmed by the Senate. Was this second step an amendment added later?

    25. Neither is it necessary in such a case as this, to enable the court to exercise its appellate jurisdiction.

      I thought the whole point of this case was to review laws or precedents within the constitution and deem whether or not they were truly viable. Doesn't appellate jurisdiction become necessary then? A higher court overturning a lower courts decision?

    26. The principles, therefore, so established, are deemed fundamental. And as the authority, from which they proceed, is supreme, and can seldom act, they are designed to be permanent.

      I know that the peaceful transfer of power between one administration to another is a big deal in the United States and a coveted tradition. Does this case have anything to do with that precedent? Obviously this has to do with judgeship and not the presidency, but refusing to deliver the commissions in the last days of office certainly screams sore loser. So other than establishing judicial review within the courts maybe this case had other effects on the tradition of American politics?

    27. To withhold his commission, therefore, is an act deemed by the court not warranted by law, but violative of a vested legal right.

      From what I understand about this case. it vaguely reminds me of the case of a baker who refused to bake a cake for a gay couple due to his religious beliefs. I think it made it to the state supreme court and they ruled he was within his constitutional right to refuse service. Since they ruled here that they could not force him to deliver the commissions (even though he did violate the law) did this case have any affect on the ruling of the more current case? I know that it said in a previous module that they have to follow precedent set by previous cases.

    28. It is then the opinion of the court,

      How can a court's opinion change? When there are different people on the court would that maybe produce a different outcome? How would you be able to be sure that things are standard?

    29. If this obloquy is to be cast on the jurisprudence of our country, it must arise from the peculiar character of the case....

      This whole phrase is just completely in one ear and out the other for me. Would anybody be able to explain what this means? It is just a fancy way for getting into the opinion on the case?

    30. If he has a right, and that right has been violated, do the laws of his country afford him a remedy?

      This is confusing to me because I don't understand how this is an opinion answered question. If something has gone wrong shouldn't there be a remedy owed?

    31. he power remains to the legislature, to assign original jurisdiction to that court in other cases than those specified in the article which has been recited; provided those cases belong to the judicial power of the United States.

      I am confused on how the legislature fits into the court's original jurisdiction. Did the legislature have to approve each of the cases that the supreme court took? Why only for original jurisdiction and not appellate jurisdiction as well? Does this still apply today?

    32. appointment conferred on him a legal right to the office for the space of five years.

      When mentioning Mr. Marbury's commission, they state that he is given a five year term. Were judicial appointments not lifetime appointments within the early years of the court system? Was the term five years for each appointee?

    33. who considers himself injured, has a right to resort to the laws of his country for a remedy.

      When this is referring to a man considering himself "injured", does that mean that a remedy can only be given to cases in which someone was injured? Or is this a form of metaphorical speech?

    34. to issue writs of mandamus to public officers, appears not to be warranted by the constitution

      Where does the issue writs of mandamus come from then if not the constitution? I thought that the way judicial courts act were all centered around the constitutional law. But the way this is worded, it appears that mandamus is not in reference to the constitution.

    35. Affirmative words are often, in their operation, negative of other objects than those affirmed; and in this case, a negative or exclusive sense must be given to them or they have no operation at all.

      I am confused on what affirmative words are. What do they have to do with this case? If anything, shouldn't there need to be positive affirmation words towards the case? If it is only negative, then wouldn't that be the opposite of having no operation at all?

    36. The government of the United States has been emphatically termed a government of laws, and not of men. It will certainly cease to deserve this high appellation, if the laws furnish no remedy for the violation of a vested legal right.

      Does this simply suggest our government is laws and doesn't have much to do with the men that are supposed to uphold them? What legal right are they referring to?

    37. That it thus reduces to nothing what we have deemed the greatest improvement on political institutions -- a written constitution -- would of itself be sufficient, in America, where written constitutions have been viewed with so much reverence, for rejecting the construction.

      At this point, Marshall has invoked the idea of and principle behind written constitutions generally about 5 times. I don't take issue with his argument, but is there a reason he acts as if the principle behind a constitution is so well understood but does not invoke specific examples from somewhere else? Did he think this was not helpful for a young United States in defining the scope of its own laws? Or did he not have a useful example of a written constitution from another nation to cite?

    38. To enable this court then to issue a mandamus, it must be shown to be an exercise of appellate jurisdiction, or to be necessary to enable them to exercise appellate jurisdiction.

      If the Court is only bound to issue a mandamus as an exercise or remedy provided the powers granted by its appellate jurisdiction, which it denied given the case was brought directly to the Court, then how did it take the case under original jurisdiction? Did Marshall have a different take on jurisdiction than Justice Chase a few decades later?

    39. Here the language of the constitution is addressed especially to the courts. It prescribes, directly for them, a rule of evidence not to be departed from. If the legislature should change that rule, and declare one witness, or a confession out of court, sufficient for conviction, must the constitutional principle yield to the legislative act?

      I'm curious as to how the writers of the Constitution had not considered that something similar could occur? Why did the writers not introduce some sort of specific method where one of the branches could declare an action of another unconstitutional?

    40. 3dly. He is entitled to the remedy for which he applies

      Why would he not be if his position is upheld by the law as they mentioned previously? Why would he not be entitled to a remedy of the situation?

    41. To enable this court then to issue a mandamus, it must be shown to be an exercise of appellate jurisdiction, or to be necessary to enable them to exercise appellate jurisdiction.

      I think I'm lost at this point? I'm not entirely sure what point they are trying to make, and there are far too many large words in the previous paragraph for me to be able to make sense of what is happening in this section. I certainly feel lost.

    1. early career researchers on the specific ways that they approached and handled the question of ‘how many qualitative interviews is enough?’
    2. Methods Review we draw on the tacit knowledge of a series of renowned social scientists who come from a range of epistemological and disciplinary positions but who share an expertise in qualitative research.
    1. But when people get less than seven hours of sleep on a regular basis, they face increased risk of metabolic problems like type 2 diabetes, as well as mental health issues like depression, Martin said.

      Is this true i can get type 2 diabetes from lack of sleep?

    1. Before the hissing funeral pyre, floating down the river, white blocks of what looks like detergent appear like icebergs

      Why do people in Delhi drink river water knowing that the end is polluted?

    2. "If you're somebody who needs seven hours of sleep a night, then you really need 49 hours a week,"

      how many hours a week do you need to sleep? why

    1. We can die by it, if not live by love,          And if unfit for tombs and hearse Our legend be, it will be fit for verse;

      "We can die by it, if no live by love" is Donne professing to the reader that life without his lover is not worth it, similarly to Shakespeare's tragedy, "Romeo and Juliet." After this, Donne predicts the success of his poem saying he will be remembered for his "verse" or poems like this one. What does Donne's "prediction" say about him as a writer?

    2. Alas, alas, who’s injured by my love?          What merchant’s ships have my sighs drowned? Who says my tears have overflowed his ground?          When did my colds a forward spring remove?

      If John Donne knows that his love hasn't harmed anyone, why does he continue to question the reader about it? If he is being truthful, why ask?

    3. For God’s sake hold your tongue, and let me love,

      Donne speaks directly to the reader, pleading them to let him love. Why is Donne so frustrated with the reader after only one line of the poem?

    1. Question: Why a cable for a wireless keyboard? Answer: .noScriptDisplayLongText { display : none; } <style> .noScriptNotDisplayExpander { display : none; } .noScriptDisplayLongText { display : block; } </style> because it is not a wireless keyboard...
  2. fa21psy352.commons.gc.cuny.edu fa21psy352.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. He related the three broad topics Sprache, Mythus,and Sitte (language, mythology, and culture) to the individual-psychological aspects of representation, emotion, will, andhabit.

      Intriguing.. I can see where the connection is possibly being made, that language and culture have an impact on our psyche? Language can focus our aspect on specific aspects of the world and influences perception and culture effects us developmentally.

    2. The duality of German politics and the parallel developmentof Wundt’s politics are reflected in his psychology, which hasproduced a split between social and experimental psychology

      It begs the questions.. How has the duality of German and Wundt's politics followed us in some guise ever since? Does it mean that traces of modern psychology are still white washed and catered towards one demographic?

    1. Directives do not support namespaces.

      What are namespaces (not generally but in angular)?

    2. asterisk (*)

      Is there any meaning to the asterisk?

    3. You develop applications in the context of an Angular workspace.

      Why would I want multiple projects inside a workspace? Why would I want a workspace instead of simply projects side-by-side?

    4. instantiates a component

      In which order are properties (attributes) and constructor "evaluated"?

    5. .slice(0)

      Why create a copy of observers? Because an observer could be added while running complete()? Why not do it in next() as well?

    1. has to do with health or safety.

      Wasn't this topic of public health and safety already discussed? Is J. Breyer giving Layton the opportunity to explain the state's stance in further detail?

    2. Establishment Clause

      How many times have there been cases of violations to the Establishment Clause? Is there a precedent for what is and is not a violation?

    3. So what is the definition of a church? So a religiously-affiliated school is not a church under the -- under the Missouri constitution?

      What is the criteria specifically for deciding if a religiously-affiliated organization receives state funding? I think it's interesting and poignant that the justices have asked both attorneys for their definitions of church.

    4. Voluntary Cessation Doctrine,

      I looked up the Voluntary Cessation Doctrine, but I am still unsure what it means and how it pertains to this case? I wish they would have elaborated more on it. I could be mistaken, but I believe the Doctrine deals with exceptions to mootness, however, I thought Justice Breyer said this case was not moot.

    5. and there is a point where you can accommodate religion,

      I am a little confused with Cortman's argument. If the court favors religion, then theres an Establishment Clause problem, but if the court attacks religion, then theres a Free Exercise Clause problem. How can these things be balanced out? When is it appropriate to accommodate religion? What are other examples of the court accommodating religion?

    6. Locke v. Davey

      Does Lockey vs Davey involve the qustion of scholarship (of religious schools) provided from government money? Thats what I'm gathering but I'm not sure. Not familiar with the case but before I look it up I'm guessing it has to do with government funded school scholarships secular vs non secular?

    7. World Vision brief,

      What is the World Vision Brief? Is this apart of the amicus brief? Im confused and already not familiar about what exactly an amicus brief is.

    8. And so there's a question about how religious you may be in order to receive the benefit or not.

      So how is this measured? How is the court able to tell how "religious" a school is and does how "religious; they are determine the funding amount they receive?

    9. Why can the State provide police protection or fire protection?

      Are states not obligated to protect churches from potential disasters? I get there's a separation of church and state, and maybe I'm completely misunderstanding the question, but is that Kagan's implication here?

    10. It clearly is, not only in this administration, but in the new lawsuit being brought to challenge the new policy, because it violates why we're here in the first place, is the Missouri State constitutional provision.

      The Missouri State constitutional provision has been brought up a few times, does this mean that the Supreme Court can make decision on state constitutions?

    11. Some of the amici on our site -- side say that there is

      What is an amici? Is this a group of people or a set of rules/laws that Layton is referring to that establish that there is no clause violation?

    12. Well -- well, for -- if the political winds change, we have -- we have this policy by Facebook or press release. So it can easily be changed back if political --

      How often does social media play a part into political bias? How are judges or trial members able to keep their rulings separate from the bias they're hearing in the news or headlines?

    13. But there's -- there's government coercion when you say there's a public benefit, and the only way you could receive that public benefit is if you do not exercise your religion.

      I understand the idea that public benefit from the government and religious states should not mix. Are there other examples of government coercion to public benefit you could provide as examples?

    14. David A Cortman

      He doesn't really answer the justices question of how he doesn't see the other way of questioning as discrimination IN FAVOR of the church against other non religious people which I think is sort of telling and again why I think justice sotomayor is one of the dissenting judges. One question I have is whether or not there actually is anything in the constitution that protects discrimination in favor of religion? I always hear about it the other way around and I remember in one instance not long ago about a christian baker who refused to bake a wedding cake for a gay couple based on the argument that it violates his ability to practice his religious beliefs. The court sided with him, which to me is discrimination in favor of "religious beliefs" that was ruled by the supreme courts as justified and constitutional.

    15. past

      Not sure if it's really a question necessarily, but I find it odd they are being so technical. I realize that they need to set a precedent and be able to justify their decisions and make sure it fits within the laws and everything, but they should be focusing on the merits of the case at hand, not coming up with every possible thing it could be compared to. Again it makes sense that they need to cross reference this type of information and those questions are worth answering but in this setting it somehow seems to me to be off topic.

    16. And so on one side you have the Establishment Clause.

      I looked up the establishment clause and it is essentially a clause put within the fifth amendment that prohibits congress from establishing religion. To me it seems like funding a religion is a very good way to establish it so I'm not sure exactly what his point is here. Unless he is suggesting that all religious schools recieve the same public benefits/funding. And unfortunately I have a hard time believing that certain states would ever fund anything other than christianity if it was left to a state level decision.

    17. There's also entanglement.

      Having no prior knowledge of the Establishment Clause, I believe I've been able to glean a little of what it might say from the course of listening to this case. The application of it seems to be broken into two halves of conditionality, "endorsement" and "entanglement." Does anyone on the thread have a definition of what these two conditions mean?

    18. I know your white light is on.

      Do any of my fellow students know what Justice Kagan is referring to here? Is Cortman's "white light" perhaps a five-minute warning light, since we are reaching the 25-minute mark, and each party gets 30 minutes? Or perhaps it just means "it's time to wrap it up?"

    19. hypothetical

      I'm curious, in their attempts to, as Professor Roberts characterized it, "probe the strength of their legal arguments, implications and hypothetical effects," how often do Justices describe hypothetical situations? If there was a statistic on how many times, on average per case, a hypothetical was posed, how high or low do we think it would be?

    20. they have a free exercise right to religious autonomy to decide who their members are. In fact, most private organizations and religious organizations do so.

      Does anyone else think that when he says "they have a free right to exercise... most private organizations and religious organizations do so." leads to him invalidating his point, that what he's asking for, is money for a private religious space? To me it seems like he has directly stated the church can do what it wants because it's private, but wouldn't that exactly take away from his want of federal money?

    21. there is no Establishment Clause problem, which is what we have here,

      Did I miss them getting to the point of there being no establishment clause here? If yes, can anyone point me to where that was? Or is the establishment clause just something I should know / will learn?

    22. private party

      Question - Here he says it's done by the private party, and I'm assuming that he means the individual who's hypothetically praying on the playground, however if that individual is from the church/ going to the church after or before playing- doesn't that make the individual apart of the church?

    23. I think the way the Court always has.

      Question - What is he referring to when he says 'the way the Court always has? What ways has the SCOTUS always separated secular function from its religious function?

    24. Locke, right? Locke drew a distinction between assistance for devotional, theological education and scholarship and others.

      This mention of Locke has been used numerous times throughout this conversation, and I have yet to understand where the meaning of this is being drawn from. Are they referring to something John Locke wrote? Is this the name of something or someone I may have missed?

    25. Because the kind of examples Your Honor is giving are examples where the -- the benefits are universal. They are not selective, which they are here; they are universal. So we start on the endorsement side.

      This is a very good point that I feel like is ignored. I have to wonder why this was not expanded on further - both by Layton himself or one of the justices.

    26. Friends of the Earth and the Knox

      I wish this had been elaborated on more. What do these two cases mean, and how does citing them help?

    27. how Missouri interprets the term "church" in its constitution?

      This question by Justice Alito made me realize that each state may have its own definition of "church". If this is to be one of the deciding factors of this particular case, and a case of the same material opens up in a different state, would the Supreme Court use Trinity Lutheran v. Comer to decide in a similar manner? Or would they have to judge with no stare decisis because of the different terms within the different state constitutions?

    28. Let's suppose that the public school sometimes uses its playground for things other than children playing, whatever they're going to have, a -- you know, an auction or anything else. Isn't it the consequence of your argument that the church can use the playground for more religious activities if the public school can use the playground for other non-playground activities?

      My first question is a bit more overarching of the argument that is happening so far. Is this argument, that the division of religious versus secular property on the church grounds, a violation of the first amendment? More specifically, if every individual has the freedom of religion, why does it matter that this church playground must be secular? Are they telling Cortman that they can judge what happens on the churches own private property? Why does this affect whether the church can join a fundraiser or not?

    1. Hi, I have a question about which rendering engine is used for this simulaiton video. Is blender being used? Same question goes for the video in the begining of this post. https://medium.com/toyotaresearch/drake-model-based-design-in-the-age-of-robotics-and-machine-learning-59938c985515. It looks like that the video in the beginning of the above post is rendered with blender.

    1. phragmite,

      est-ce qu'il serait envisageable d'intégrer des images ou des dessins de certaines plantes, aussi pour les rerendre visibles aux yeux du lecteur ?

    1. Canyon invitant Louise à plonger la voiture dans le vide.

      est ce qu'on peut y voir une conquête du bas-côté ? cet espace où il y a encore une place de liberté.

    2. après le premier accident,

      Ça me fait penser aux figures des couples mobiles ou en cavales (Thelma et Louise, Bonny and Clide), est que cet amour aurait été différent si vous aviez appris à conduire au sens où savoir conduire c'est aussi pouvoir à tout moment prendre sa voiture pour s'en aller vers une autre direction ?

    3. aurait inspiré Nabokov à terminer un manuscrit avec lequel il se débattait depuis une décennie, un manuscrit qu’il avait essayé de mettre au feu deux fois.

      est-ce qu'on en sait plus sur l'aide de Sally pour Nabokov ?

    4. cette recherche n’aboutit à rien d’autre qu’à l’inspiration qu’a été la petite fille kidnappée. Nabokov a entendu parler de ce fait divers, et ce détail-là, dans le tissu de ses journées, lui a permis de finir son livre.

      si le livre de Weinman "n'avance pas", est-ce qu'on peut envisager de voir ce mouvement comme le destin de Sally sur la route ?

    5. son épouse, Véra,

      Véra est-elle une femme de plus sur le bas-côté ?

    1. thus just this, how can research help the p

      How can research help the poor? central Focus. Author examines five participatory research projects (research from the underside) and applies a criteria as to whether or not it is research that helps the poor?

    2. me examples. But h

      How to evaluate research that appreciates power imbalances? Research by and with the social deprived...., Criteria laid forth>



    1. He also does not understand the etiquette of not drinking the tea straight from the tea.

      Could you please clarify what you mean by drinking tea from the tea? I'm curious as to what he does not understand in terms of tea etiquette.

    1. I use Black Language intentionally in my scholarship to acknowledge Africologists’ theories that maintain that Black speech is the continuation of African in an American context.

      I thought that the idea that AAVE is a continuation of African dialect in America was a really interesting idea. I wonder if there are any grammatical rules that exist in both AAVE and other African languages.



    1. how can weengage in ethnographies of vulnerable communities while maintaining a sense of objectivity and protecting our informants?

      Ethnographies of vulnerable communities - and be objective and protect informants



    1. understandings that may contribute to the goals of liberation. Explo

      Purpose of study is to understand the goals of feminist liberation.



    1. {{hero.id}}

      So I can use interpolation in any string?

    2. public directives

      Can directives also be private? What is the difference?

    3. router directives

      What defines a directive?

    4. Notice that the CommonModule references and declarations array are unnecessary, so are no longer part of AppRoutingModule.

      What was there purpose?

    5. module

      What is a module?

    1. I have often wondered both questions, I know I always felt shame if I made a grammatical mistake and a teacher would point it out to the class. Also, am I problematic if I use SAE? Or is it more problematic to force my students to use SAE?

    1. What is their definition of lesser educated? Is it people who do not hold a college degree? Anyone without a doctorate? Not finishing high school? What is their definition of education and lesser educated?

    1. A measure ofresponsibility is part of our obligation whether it comes to us through religion or throughother practices, you know, a moral obligation of duty to others.

      I want to question where we see this in other cultures, such as our own. Do we have practices that embrace this ideology? Is it in the same way or a similar way?



    1. Tell all the truth but tell it slant

      One stance to have is to be aware of Dickinson's metacognitive journey in most poems. So...what is D's overarching point about poetry as a craft, as a vehicle, as a way of being and knowing?

    1. In the last analysis, the kids should come full of spontaneity - with their feel- ings, with their questions, with their creativity, with their risk to create, getting their own words "into their own hands" in order to do beautiful things with the

      One question I have here is how do we teach this kind of concept in the classroom? Since we will be in high schools, how do we embrace this ideology when students may not even know how to engage with this kind of thing because they were not taught to do so prior to our class?

    1. Angular CLI workspace

      What is this?

    2. ProductDetailsComponent

      What are declarations for if I do not have to add it there?

    3. uses the currency pipe to transform product.price from a number to a currency string.

      Where is the pipe registered?

    4. In the ngOnInit() method

      Why don't I do this in the constructor method?

    5. By injecting ActivatedRoute, you are configuring the component to use a service. The Managing Data step covers services in more detail.

      How do I know what is injected in which order?

    6. product

      Is this necessary? product seems to always be set.

    7. !

      Is this a simple ts assertion?

    1. medium design is less like making a thing and more like having your hands on the faders and toggles of organization.

      pedagogy, is that you?!

    2. Since unreasonable politics easily unravels reasonable politics, being right is a bad idea in medit1m design.

      So is medium design negative by nature?

    1. contentEditable

      Why is camelcase used here although the html attribute is contenteditable?

    1. specifying a custom NGINX configuration snippet in the default server {}

      如果我想设置其他的vblock呢?例如http下init_worker 和upstream之类的。

    1. we will explore how educators (re)designcritical and sustaining literacy and languageexperiences in ethical solidarity with students andcommunity members to reciprocally benefit studentlearning and community advancement.

      I wonder if I'll be able to use this knowledge in my field placement this semester?



  3. Aug 2021
    1. <-c // Wait for f to return.

      Why do we wait for it to return? Don't we potentially wait infinitely?

    2. To avoid key collisions, userip defines an unexported type key and uses a value of this type as the context key:

      How does not export key prevent collision?

    3. The Context associated with an incoming request is typically canceled when the request handler returns.

      So cancel a context is a normal way of ending a context instead of only being meant for exceptions? But what is closing the Done channel then for? When do I use what?

    4. Background is the root of any Context tree

      Does this mean a derived context can get access to the root context or is another context tree started with each derived context so only derived contexts are accessible?

    5. That data must be safe for simultaneous use by multiple goroutines.

      How do I achieve this safety?

    6. <-chan struct{}

      Is that the type of a receiving channel where an empty struct can be received?

    1. <-done

      What type of statement it that?

      Probably, reading from a channel is treated like a function call.

    1. With these three examples, Danzigermakes the point that a historical analysis of thestructure of the psychological experimentitselfreminds us that there has never been such a thingasthepsychological experiment, or only one wayof doing research.

      Is this what the authors meant when they said to make US and European psychologies self-consciously aware that they are at the center?

    2. What Morawski’s analysis demonstrates is notthat reflexivity renders experimentation impos-sible in psychology but that an understandingof its effects is sometimes required to make ourinterpretations of psychological data more mean-ingful.

      This is helping me with understanding some of my conundrum with the problems of not being able to replicate lab results of psychology experiments in the real world. Perhaps if more studies consider Morawski's consideration of reflexivity it can better help us with interpreting the results of our experimental studies?

    3. Although theUnited States and Europe are often at the centerof our account, we attempt to make them self-consciously so, rather than assuming that thisform of psychology isthepsychology, or eventhat within this context psychologists adhere toone way of organizing and interpreting reality.

      Hmm.... what do the authors mean by "mak[ing] them self-consciously" aware that US and European Psychologies are at the center of their account of history? Would it be an attempt at drawing attention to why they become the center?

    1. What I don't understand is why you need to make it explicit? Given: function isBarAlsoFoo(obj: Bar): obj is Foo; Without resorting to any, how can we get any code to typecheck in which you pass an object that's not a Bar to isBarAlsoFoo()?
    1. For helium, there is approximately one isotope of Helium-3 for every one million isotopes of Helium-4, hence the average atomic mass is very close to 4 (4.002602).
      • Need more understanding on this
    1. But writing instruction in schools remains stagnant.

      Begs the question: why stagnant? and what do we mean by stagnant? like swamp water? These kinds of water are often the most full of life:turtles, single celled creatures, salamanders, leeches...

    1. the ID for your network

      Is the name of the resource chosen by me or is it predefined by Google?

    2. authenticate the GCP provider,

      Other than the way using the key or something different meant?

    3. A GCP Project

      Can I not provision the project with terraform? Also goes for the other resources here, not only the project...

    1. In the world of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other quick strike information processes, why is there a definite lack of evidence of a steady upward progression of reading and writing skills among African American contributors?

      What kind of social media do you use?

  4. Jul 2021
    1. --load-info-json FILE JSON file containing the video information (created with the "--write- info-json" option)

      What is this used for?

  5. Jun 2021
    1. The following slightly more complex example shows how this works in practice:
      • How do return types and parameter types of overridden methods interrelate with those of the overriding methods?
      • Why is there a this qualifier in the parameters of the constructors? Does it reference the instance of the widget, i.e. does the whole qualified parameter reference the final member variable?
      • VoidCallback is an interesting type. How would other functions with other return types and parameters be typed?
    2. A SafeArea widget is also used to properly pad the text so it appears below the display on the top of the screen.

      What is this for?

    1. Firestore

      Can I use only one Firestore instance within a GCP project? If not, i.e., I can use multiple instances within the same project, is there a best practice of how many instances to use?

    1. customize their operation through the use of struct tags

      How can I access struct tags myself, e.g., to write a library using these for decoding and encoding special formats?

    2. you can suffix the desired name of your field with ,omitempty to tell the JSON encoder to suppress the output of this field when the field is set to the zero value

      Json struct tags are more versatile than I thought. But is there a way to further differentiate between the zero value set by default or set intentionally? Maybe, I sometimes want it to be omitted but other times not.

    3. backtick ` characters

      What data type is a tag of?

    1. function's directory,

      Module? Or install it globally?

    2. CloudEvents

      What is the reason for the CloudEvent and background functions not being available for all runtime? Can they both be used interchangeably or do they have two different use cases so that I have to use two different runtimes to be able to serve both use cases?

    3. Choosing an abstraction layer

      What about an abstraction layer for CloudEvents Functions and background functions?

    4. webhooks

      What are "webhooks"?

    5. atop Cloud Functions, Cloud Run, and other container-based platforms

      So there is actually no real vendor-lock-in, correct?

    6. Multi-cloud function deployments

      How high is the risk of downtime? "Multi-cloud" really means using not only GCP but also, e.g., AWS, Azure etc.?

  6. kubernetes.io kubernetes.io
    1. finalizers

      Run after the job terminated?

    2. capacity-based cleanup policy
    3. when using .spec.completionMode="Indexed", each Pod gets a different index in the range 0 to .spec.completions-1.

      What practical implications does this have?

    1. according to which in sexually desiring Y, X is attracted to the bodily, physical attributes of Y

      What are some potential arguments against this phenomenological pessimism about sex?

    1. A year before the Declaration of Independence, each one of my grandparents had an Ancestor who arrived in America. Some had been here for 3-4 generations, others were just arriving.

      Do you have any information about when your ancestors arrived in America? Can you trace your people this far back?

    1. needing to keep keys with a longer Time to Live, even if the system is out of memory

      How does this work?

    1. BestEffort

      As BestEffort pods do not have any requests (more specifically, the containers inside the pod), they are always above their requests. Does that mean, they are always evicted first?

    2. system out of memory

      Is there something like a system of cpu event?

    3. pods

      Error in text: nodes instead of pods?

    1. Das Global Portfolio One verzichtet überwiegend auf den Einsatz von synthetischen ETFs anstelle von physisch replizierenden ETFs.

      Unnötig komplizierter Satz oder? Es werden also eher physisch replizierende ETFs eingesetzt oder sollen zumindest eingesetzt werden?

    2. Die vollständige Replikation ist jedoch nicht immer möglich.


    1. Transaktionskosten deutlich gesenkt

      Ich hätte eher höhere Transaktionskosten erwartet? Warum hier geringer?

    1. 于是 Nginx 以及 Nginx 背后的应用就无法知道原始请求的真实来源。


    2. 而他们自己其实并不期望使用 content 阶段缺省运行的静态资源服务


    1. Your attempt should work. There is a mismatch in column name in your query though. The query uses col2 but the table is defined with col1.

      I would actually lean towards making this a comment, at least the typo fix part. But if you remove the typo fix part, all that's left is "should work", which I guess should be a comment too since it's too short to be an answer.

    1. 限制连接数


    2. 连接数和请求数


    3. 在有规则变动的时候,刷新下 Nginx 的缓存就行了。


    1. 注:ngx.location.capture 和 ngx.location.capture_multi 指令无法抓取包含以下指令的 location: add_before_body, add_after_body, auth_request, echo_location, echo_location_async, echo_subrequest, 或 echo_subrequest_async 。


    2. lua_package_path

      syntax source

    1. 请设置 client_body_buffer_size 和 client_max_body_size 为同样大小

      为什么?假设我的一个请求只有1k buffer_size 10k max_body_size 100k 这两值不等 难道还不存不了了?

    1. Why do people start smoking? Surely they know it's addictive, expensive, and bad for you

      Because of of the responses that this got, this makes for a great example of people's inability to get the question right before trying to get the answer right.