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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Alkaloid-containing plants exact a heavy economic toll on livestock produc-tion in rangelands of western North America. Losses to these plants can be reduced or eliminated by recognizing plants containing alkaloids, understand-ing when livestock graze specific toxic plants, and knowing signs of potential toxicity. Grazing schemes can then be developed based on knowledge of the temporal and spatial dynamics of alkaloid concentration and consumption by livestock.Lossescanbereducedbyensuringthatlivestockarenotexposedorhave limitedexposureduringperiodsofgreatestrisk(i.e.,highesttoxinconcentration)or whenlivestockaremostlikelytoeattoxicplantsinsufficientamountstoproduce toxicity.
    2. Death camas (Zigadenus spp.) grows on foothill ranges in much of the Rocky Mountain area. Animals eating death camas die from reduced blood pressure and heart failure. Death camas is one of the first plants available during spring, and animals may graze the plant if other forage is lacking. Generally, recognizing the presence of death camas and understanding the acutely toxic nature of the plant will aid in avoiding problems. Hungry animals should not bedriventhroughadeathcamas-infestedpasture.Sheepinparticularshouldnotbe beddednearlargepatchesofdeathcamas,andsheepherdersshouldavoidstressing sheep by rapidly driving them if they do eat death camas. Death camas can be controlledbyphenoxyherbicides.
    3. 39National Forests and most problems can be solved by grazing management.
    1. False hellebore (Veratrum spp.) is f ound in moist habitats in the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain states. It is grazed by sheep and goats and causes birth defects (i.e., monkey-faced lambs). Livestock management to avoid losses t o false hellebore i s r elatively simple because the window of toxicity when false hellebore poisons t he fetus i s r elatively narr ow (i.e., 14 to 33 days gestation). Pregnant animals, particularly sheep, should not be allowed access t o veratrum-infested pastures during this period. Cattle rarely ea t the plant, therefore no special management is needed. For sheep, false hellebore i s quite palatable, and herders must keep bred sheep from ingesting false hellebore f or about one month after the rams are removed. This is not difficult to accomplish because false hellebore is limited in distribution to moist mountain habitats and grows in easy to identify dense patches. Although effective herbicidal control is available, it may not be practical because the major populations grow in
    2. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) grows throughout the United States in areas with abundant moisture (i.e., creeks, ditches etc.). Animals eating poison hemlock die from acute respiratory failure or have deformed offspring. The most critical season to avoid poison hemlock is spring because the plant often appears before other forage has emerged. Green seed pods may be eaten in mid-to-late summer. Furthermore, poison hemlock may regrow in fall after seeds shatter. Ingestion during fall may coincide with birth defects in pregnant cattle, if they are i n the firs t trimester of gestation (days 30-75). If poison hemlock invades hay fields, the contaminated hay can poison livestock. Even though toxicity decreases upon drying, sufficient toxins may be r etained to poison livestock. Cattle appear to be particularly susceptible because of their acceptance of the plant and their sensitivity to the alkaloids t hat c ause birth defects. Poison hemlock can be easily controlled with phenoxy herbicides.
    3. Acute t oxicity problems are l es s common now, but lar ge sheep losses occurred frequently 100 years ago. Deaths occ ur when livestock, usually sheep, ingest a large amount of seed pods in a short time. This can occur from contaminated hay or from hungry animals gaining access t o lupine-dominated forage, and can be prevented by using lupine-free hay and avoiding lupine-dominated ranges when other forage is scarce. During some years, lupine populations may temporarily increase on rangelands not normally problematic. Livestock producers need to be aware of lupine populations and be sufficiently alert to alter grazing or breeding programs when these eruptions occur. Lupine populations increased dramatically during 1997 in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, causing severe l osses. For example, producers in Adams County, Washington lost over 30% of their calves ( >4000 calves) from lupine- caused birth defects.
    4. 38of rotational grazing scheme. Herbicidal control of lupines is feasible, but is usually more expensive than altering a grazing management program.
    1. Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are widely distributed throughout the western U.S. Cattle eating lupine may have deformed or "crooked" calves, and sheep may be poisoned outright by lupine. Livestock losses from lupine poisoning can largely be prevented by understanding two interrelated aspects. First, the highest concentrations of toxic alkaloids tend to occur in immature lupine plants and seed pods. Second, pregnant cattle are susceptible to the effects of alkaloids that cause birth defects during a window from 40 to 70 days of gestation, occasionally extending to 100 days. Birth defects in cattle can be prevented by using breeding or grazing programs that avoid placing pregnant cattle in lupine-dominated pastures in the first trimester of gestation. Alternatively, risk can be reduced by allowing only short-term access to lupines by pregnant cattle in some form
    2. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale) is not only a toxic plant that contains alkaloids, but also a noxious weed that is increasing over much of North America. The plant spreads from bur-like seeds that cling to wildlife, livestock and humans, and invades disturbed areas. Houndstongue is generally unpalat- able when growing on rangelands, but lactating cows and horses may eat green houndstongue at times. When houndstongue contaminates hay, it is readily eaten by cattle and horses, and is quite toxic.
    3. Senecio or groundsel species (Senecio spp.) and houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale) contain highly toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These alkaloids are potent liver toxins that cause wasting and photosensitization. Senecios and houndstongue occur on many western U.S. rangelands. Only seven of more than 112 senecio species are known to be toxic so correct identification is essential. Managing rangelands so that plant communities are in good condi- tion and adequate forage is available is crucial to reduce losses to senecio. Generally, senecios are not very palatable, and are avoided by grazing livestock if other forage is available. Drought stress and overgrazing can increase populations of threadlleaf groundsel, as the plant is an aggressive invader. Drought is an especially dangerous time because other forage may be lacking and the toxic alkaloid concentration in senecio plants increases during drought, so grazing animals may ingest higher quantities of more toxic forage. Senecio species are also most toxic when plants are reproducing, thus avoiding pastures when these plants are in bud, flower, or seed is prudent. Proper grazing management must consider stocking rates, as excessive stocking may increase the amount of toxic plant consumed when alternative forages become limited. Excessive stocking may lead to degradation of the desirable plant community allowing senecio species to increase. Herbicidal control may alleviate some problems if incorporated into an overall management program
  2. Jan 2022
  3. Nov 2021
  4. Oct 2021
  5. Sep 2021
    1. Talking about the Planta App, it is a boon for plant lovers. Well, we could also say that the application acts as a personal assistant for the plants.
  6. Aug 2021
  7. Jul 2021
  8. Jun 2021
    1. When Ron Finley first grew a garden on a curbside dirt strip, he got cited—and then a warrant was issued for his arrest. He fought back, got the laws changed, and started a movement. Now the community activist and self-proclaimed “Gangster Gardener” is teaching you how to grow your own food, keep your plants alive, and find beauty and freedom in gardening no matter the size of your space. Start planting a revolution.
  9. May 2021
    1. Gobeil, P., Pillet, S., Séguin, A., Boulay, I., Mahmood, A., Vinh, D. C., Charland, N., Boutet, P., Roman, F., Most, R. V. D., Perez, M. de los A. C., Ward, B. J., & Landry, N. (2021). Interim Report of a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Plant-Produced Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for Covid-19 in Healthy Adults Aged 18-64 and Older Adults Aged 65 and Older. MedRxiv, 2021.05.14.21257248. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.14.21257248

  10. Apr 2021
    1. Once plant toxins are absorbed fr om the gut into the blood, they are often trans- ported to the liver. T he liver primarily, and secondarily the kidney, intestinal mucosa, lungs, a nd skin contain enzyme systems that metabolize or alter toxic compounds, rendering them inert. Ability to metabolize or reduce sensitivity to specific phytotoxins varies by herbivore species a nd individuals. For example, sheep can tolerate and detoxify more pyrrolizidine alkaloids than cattle, therefore it takes five times more tall larkspur (Delphinium occidentalis) to poison sheep compared to cattle
    1. Successfully navigating the seasonal and spatial variation of forage quality in grazing environments can be accomplished by knowing how much to eat, when to eat, and what else to eat. Grazing animals have a strong natural tendency to select diets composedof several plant species and sample available plants on a regular basis. This behavior may increase the likelihood of ingesting necessary nutrients and reduce the potential of over-ingesting toxins. The toxic effects of a plant are determined largely bythe amount eaten, but the ingestion rate may also be important. Grazing animals can avoid toxicosis by limiting their consumption of a specific toxic plant each day to allow sufficient time for detoxification, and to limit potential cumulative effects ofspecifictoxins
    1. Concrete Mixing Plant

      As a company, we are sensitive to using advanced building technologies effectively for all our building and construction projects. As a matter of fact, the most important factor underlying the quality and safety standards that our company has achieved in all its projects so far is that we use building technologies effectively. We always follow technological developments that will help us achieve much better standards in construction applications. For this, we use the most innovative concrete mixing plant technology to realize the concrete applications without exception at the highest quality. We have been working with Elkon for many years to meet this need that has arisen in line with the intensive work of our company. As well as the high-quality standards of the company's concrete mixing plant products, we can ensure a high compatibility in our work with service offerings focused on projects. For this reason, we are working with Elkon firm on the need for a concrete mixing plant for each project that our company will start to realize. In addition to volume capacity options, mixers have a very rich model variety by means of technical functions. In this way, we can supply concrete plants, which are suitable for our needs created by the concrete application capacity in our project, from the company. With its superior technology and high-quality durability, we do not encounter any problems in our applications on concrete, which is the most common thing we use in our project sites. The serious problems that technical problems may cause in terms of construction projects are at everyone's discretion. Our company will continue to work in harmony with the company for all construction and building projects in the future, as it has enabled us to encounter these problems today. We would like to thank them for their quality responses to our requests up to now.

  11. Mar 2021
  12. Feb 2021
  13. Oct 2020
  14. Sep 2020
    1. if turnover is fast the accumulation of respiring biomass is low and respiration depends primarily on photosynthesis; while if turnover is slow the accumulation of respiring biomass is high and respiration depends primarily on biomass

      For small plants, respiration rates depend upon photosynthesis. In larger plants, respiration is dependent upon biomass.

      Idea is that respiration rates are controlled by photosynthates.

  15. Jul 2020
  16. Jun 2020
  17. Dec 2019
    1. On-Demand Plant Delivery Website Design

      Here's how our On-Demand app designers made aesthetically appealing website design. Do you have any out of the box idea for an on-demand app? we'll help you design the perfect UI/UX for your dream project.

    1. lants speak in a chemical vocabulary we can’t directly perceive or comprehend. The first important discoveries in plant communication were made in the lab in the nineteen-eighties, by isolating plants and their chemical emissions in Plexiglas chambers, but Rick Karban, the U.C. Davis ecologist, and others have set themselves the messier task of studying how plants exchange chemical signals outdoors, in a natural setting.
  18. Nov 2019
  19. Oct 2019
    1. We also show how our toolbox can be used to deploy the FBP in planta to build auto-luminescent reporters for the study of gene-expression and hormone fluxes
  20. Sep 2019
    1. placed at a 45° angle, nylon-mesh side up. Roots grew downward, collided with the bottom slide of the microcosm, and traveled along it. This method allowed observation of the root system by epifluorescence microscopy

      well explained!

  21. Aug 2019
  22. Jan 2019
  23. Jul 2018
    1. repeat expansion at IIL1 leads to increased accumulation of 24-nt siRNAs in a temperature-dependent manner that correlates with the iil phenotype. We show that DCL3 and other components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway are essential for this siRNA-directed epigenetic gene silencing
  24. Apr 2018
  25. Oct 2017
  26. Jun 2017
  27. May 2017
    1. Churchill Falls hydro-electric project
      The Churchill Falls hydro-electric project was inaugurated by Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister, on June 16, 1972. This hydro-electric plant was constructed between 1967 and 1975 and completed one year ahead of the predicted schedule. At the height of its construction, approximately 6,300 workers were present in the summer of 1970. The majority of construction occurred in the summer months, although construction continued year-round despite harsh conditions in Labrador where temperatures dipped to -21°C with a mean annual snowfall of 406 centimeters. The Churchill Falls power station is located in southern Labrador about 1,100 kilometers from an urban area. The Churchill Falls hydro-electric project was the largest hydro-electric project at the time, capable of generating 5,225 mW of electricity. It creates this energy by utilizing the water of the Churchill and Naskaupi Rivers which have a total catchment area of about 67,340 km2 combined. The underground power station is about 305 meters below ground. It uses eleven generators with a combined capacity of 5,225,000 kW. In order to utilize this harvested energy, large power lines capable of handling voltages up to 735 kV were put in place to transmit the energy from Churchill Falls to the Hydro-Quebec transmission system in the Manicouagan-Outardes hydro complex. The distance between these two stations is 606 kilometers. The energy from Churchill Falls was also transmitted via power lines to the Labrador City-Wabush area (Crabb, 1973). 
      

      References

      Crabb, P. (1973). Churchill Falls- The Costs and Benefits of a Hydro-Electric Development Project. Geography, 330-335.

  28. May 2016
    1. The next stage was the developing and preparing of avenues or mediums through which I couldexpress the manifold phases, possibilities and powers of My Idea.The outward evidence of this was what is known as the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms,which, each in turn, as it came into manifestation, gradually unfolded higher and more complexstates of consciousness that enabled Me more and more clearly to express the infinite phases andvariety of My Nature.It was at this stage that I looked upon My Creation, as stated in My other Revelation, and sawthat It was good

      The preparation of mediums to express God.......

  29. Dec 2015
  30. May 2015
  31. Oct 2013
    1. In writing are the roots, in writing are the foundations of eloquence. By writing, resources are stored up, as it were, in a sacred repository, from where they may be drawn forth for sudden emergencies or as circumstances require.

      Writing is the foundation and the source from which we grow. Seems strange, distances writing from us, makes it seem something disconnected and inspired from some other force beyond us

    2. We must write, therefore, as carefully and as much as we can, for as the ground, by being dug to a great depth, becomes more fitted for fructifying and nourishing seeds, so improvement of the mind, acquired from more than mere superficial cultivation, pours forth the fruits of study in richer abundance and retains them with greater fidelity.

      Plant metaphor yet again

    1. they yet never fully attain to his force or fertility of language

      Those we imitate act as the fertile soil we grow from

    1. And as the generation of man is effected by both parents, and as you will in vain scatter seed unless the furrowed ground, previously softened, cherish it so, neither can eloquence come to its growth unless by mutual agreement between him who communicates and him who receives.

      plant metaphor again