200 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Survivals of this spatially oriented technique still mark our language when we say “in the first place” and “passing on to the next point.”

      The use of mnemonic techniques through history have been crystalized into our language with phrases like "in the first place" and "passing on to the next point".

  2. Jan 2022
  3. Dec 2021
    1. Hobbes and Rousseau told their contemporaries things that werestartling, profound and opened new doors of the imagination. Nowtheir ideas are just tired common sense. There’s nothing in them thatjustifies the continued simplification of human affairs. If socialscientists today continue to reduce past generations to simplistic,two-dimensional caricatures, it is not so much to show us anythingoriginal, but just because they feel that’s what social scientists areexpected to do so as to appear ‘scientific’. The actual result is toimpoverish history – and as a consequence, to impoverish our senseof possibility.

      The simplification required to make models and study systems can be a useful tool, but one constantly needs to go back to the actual system to make sure that future predictions and work actually fit the real world system.

      Too often social theorists make assumptions which aren't supported in real life and this can be a painfully dangerous practice, especially when those assumptions are built upon in ways that put those theories out on a proverbial creaking limb.


      This idea is related to the bias that Charles Mathewes points out about how we treat writers as still living or as if they never lived. see: https://hypothes.is/a/VTU2lFvZEeyiJ2tN76i4sA

    2. Most of the people we will beconsidering in this book are long since dead. It is no longer possibleto have any sort of conversation with them. We are nonethelessdetermined to write prehistory as if it consisted of people one wouldhave been able to talk to, when they were still alive – who don’t just

      exist as paragons, specimens, sock-puppets or playthings of some inexorable law of history.

      This is similar to a problem that Charles Mathewes has pointed out about history and historical writing: Too often we act as if the writer never died and also we forget that the writer ever lived in the real world.

      Peoples' context matters.

      Cross reference: Lecture 1 of [[[The City of God (Books that Matter)]]

    1. sea-discoverers to new worlds

      The imagery of exploration and sea travel was a popular subject in the literature of the Elizabethan-Jacobean era. It was the Age of Discovery, and John Donne himself also had experience in sea travel. The heroic adventure stories of the people who fulfilled the Renaissance curiosity through their expedition were fascinating enough to stir the imagination of the writers of the time.

      Exploration is a process of understanding a wider world, but Speaker is no more interested in it since he has already found the perfect world in his little room with his lover.

    2. Whatever dies, was not mixed equally

      In Galen's medicine, disease and death were the consequence of a disproportion in one's constituent elements, the 4 humors: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm.

    3. maps

      chart of the heavens

      In addition to sea and land exploration, astronomy was another interest of the intellectual of Donne's Era.

      Source: Redpath, The Songs and Sonnets of John Donne (1956)

    4. Seven Sleepers’ den

      It's an allusion to a Christian legend about seven Christian youths who hid in a cave in hopes of avoiding the persecution of Decius in AD 249 in Ephesus. Eventually, they were caught, tortured and were walled up alive in the cave they once hid. However, miraculously, they did not die, slept for 187 years and were awaken in AD 479, a new world where Christianity became the major religion.

      Same imagery with the poem of waking up in a new world.

      Source : https://catholicsaints.info/seven-sleepers-of-ephesus/

    5. sucked on country pleasures

      In the 17th century, it was common to send infants of affluent families to the countryside to be wet-nursed. It is an unneglectable process necessary for the infant's growth, but also a sign of immaturity that the babies should once graduate to proceed to the next step of development.

      Rustic and simple-minded pleasure compared to the ones enjoyed in the Court or City (probably London where John wrote many of his love poems in Lincoln's Inn).

    1. There was a Web 2.0 and people spoke of Web 3.0. Now it all seems to be moving to the moniker web3. Perhaps because of the ability to search for the name or to turn it into a hashtag? #Web3.0 just doesn't work on Twitter which wants to treat the decimal as a period.

  4. Nov 2021
    1. Huang, who has a background in paleography, warns that many characters do not function as a “signific,” a linguistic term indicating a relationship to the word’s meaning. Additionally, the meanings of numerous characters changed over time, or they were “loaned” to other words with separate meanings. Even though more than 86 percent of characters have radicals that also function as significs, Huang encourages teachers to understand some of the exceptions, saying, “It is all right for Chinese teachers not to lecture on these, but they have to know them because students may ask.”

      More than 86% of characters in Chinese function as significs, a linguistic term indicating an association to the word's meaning. Sometimes these meanings can change with time and drift from original meanings.

      The drift can be interesting and important from the perspective of historical linguistics as well as to give clues to changes in culture.

      An example in English might be the use in computer user interfaces that include telephone handset images or old 3.5" floppy disk images used to respectively indicate "call" or "save" despite the fact that these items have either changed shape or are no longer commonly used.

    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_alphabet

      I was sort of hoping that there would be a more linguistic structured correspondence between the alphabet and numbers as a potential precursor of the phonetic major system, but alas no.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Chris Aldrich</span> in Chris Aldrich on Twitter: "@HeghnarW Great job on at the "Loss" conference! I'm curious about the alphabetic correspondence to numbers you mentioned in the canon tables of the Zeytun Gospels. Is it a 1 to 1 alphabetic correspondence as in Hebrew or 1-A, 2-B, 3-C, etc. or more complex? #sberg" / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>11/19/2021 10:42:31</time>)</cite></small>

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Heghnar Watenpaugh</span> in Heghnar Watenpaugh on Twitter: "@ChrisAldrich Chris, thanks so much for your interest! a table of the numerical values of the Armenian alphabet is here: https://t.co/cB1qFgNI3i" / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>11/19/2021 10:42:31</time>)</cite></small>

    1. As when a man buries a burning log in a black ash heapon the island of the Phaiakiansin a remote place in the country, where none live near as neighbors, 490and saves the seed of fire, having no other place to get a light from, soOdysseus buried himself in the leaves, and Athene shed a sleep on his eyesso as most quickly to quit him,by veiling his eyes, from the exhaustion of his hard labors.

      Wonderful analogy, particularly given the value of storing the heat and spark of fire in the wilderness at the time of the poem's composition.

      This is an interesting use of the verb "to quit". I'm curious what the sense of the original Greek was. Who/what is quitting who/what?

      Also interesting given his weakened state that he would need the help of Athene to fall asleep.

    1. Which is precisely what got some of these people into trouble, because the definition of acceptable has radically changed in the past few years.

      acceptable

    1. In one particularly ingenious entry, she explains the demise of the full stop (or, in American English, the “period”). If you have ever wondered why putting such once-crucial punctation in emails, phone messages or tweets now feels so awkward, here is the answer: “The period can feel so emphatic as to sound sarcastic, the internet’s version of ‘puh-leeze’ and ‘no, thank you’ and ‘srsly’ rolled into one tiny dot.” It can easily come across as passive-aggressive. Exclamation marks, moreover, “now convey warmth and sincerity”; failing to use them runs the risk of making the person you are messaging feel uncertain and anxious.
    1. Homer’s Greek is an amalgam of dialects from various regions and eras. It includes words and grammatical forms that were already puzzling Athenians in the fifth century B.C., when students had to read Homer in school.

      The Greek in Homer is an amalgamation of dialects which is an indicator that the works were aggregated from many sources and turned into a final finished work.

    2. Ultimately, the only evidence that such a person as Homer ever lived is the existence of the Iliad and the Odyssey themselves.

      This makes me wonder what the linguistic origin of the name Homer is? Was it common/uncommon? Does it's root indicate anything about who Homer may have been?

  5. Oct 2021
    1. Who’s Afraid of Digital Natives? Let’s not get intimidated by kids and their Internet savvy.

      This is a common trope/stereotype which since has generally turned out not to be true. While some of the generation at this time were more digitally savvy, on the whole it turns out that they aren't always as savvy as we thought or expected them to be.

      Note that this was written in 2011.

      When did the phrase "digital native" originate?

      Cross reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_nativen which indicates:

      Native–immigrant analogy terms, referring to age groups' relationships with and understanding of the Internet, were used as early as 1995 by John Perry Barlow in an interview,[9] and used again in 1996 as part of the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.

      The specific terms "digital native" and "digital immigrant" were popularized by education consultant Marc Prensky in his 2001 article entitled Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, in which he relates the contemporary decline in American education to educators' failure to understand the needs of modern students.

  6. Sep 2021
    1. Us canonized for Love.

      Certain 16th-century editions of the Italian poet Petrarch's works were affixed with a woodcut of an urn containing the ashes of lovers, along with a Phoenix. Donne is credited with moving away from a Petrarchan tradition in poetry, and would have been well-acquainted with this work.

      Source: The Poems of John Donne: Volume One, edited by Robin Robbins (Routledge)

    2. eagle and the dove

      The eagle and the dove have been called upon by many different authors to represent a range of relationships. These include "predatory appetite and power versus submissive gentleness," "strength and tender purity," "pleasure and sorrow," and "the active and contemplative lives."

      Source: The Poems of John Donne: Volume One, edited by Robin Robbins (Routledge)

    3. Note on History of Poetry:

      Donne wrote The Canonization around the turn of the 17th century, a time when European poetry was ruled by Petrarchan sonnets. Some attempts, including by C.S. Lewis have been made to categorize poets of this era (Lewis used "drab and "Golden", others; "plain" and "eloquent") but the spectrum of poets defies easy categorization. One important aspect of the time period was the innovation of language itself. Poetry and literature were moving away from Latin and French, and vernacular English continued to develop.

      Source: English Poetry in the Sixteenth Century, Nasrullah Mambrol (Research Scholar, Department of Studies in English, Kannur University)

    4. The Canonization

      The final trick of this Donne poem comes from a historical impact he is unlikely to have predicted. After all, he never published his own poems. And yet, 400+ years later, his lyrics are still studied by scholars and students. He has been canonized in the literary sense. Furthermore, as love poems like this are some of his best-known, his love has in fact been canonized.

    5. General Historical Note:

      Donne likely writes this poem at the very beginning of the 17th century, though it could have been anywhere from the 1590s until the 1620s. This range came at the end of the Elizabethan period and contains the reign of James I, the first Stuart monarch. This was a period of great growth for England, with increasing naval power leading to the formation of the East India company, as well as the colony of Jamestown, expanding the power of the British empire in both hemispheres.

      Sources: The Late Tudors, England 1547-1603; British Museum

    1. The weird way you tap or push a whole image of a page to the side—it’s the uncanny valley of page turning, not a simulation or replacement of it.

      This may be the first time I've seen uncanny valley applied to a topic other than recognizing people versus robots or related simulacra.

    1. -lit hours.60 There are few trades which are not described as honouring Saint Monday: shoemakers, tailors, colliers, printing workers, potters, weavers, hosiery workers, cutlers, all Cockneys. Despite the full employment of many London trades during the Napoleonic Wars, a witness complained that "we see Saint Monday so religiously kept in this great city.. . in general followed by a Saint Tuesday a

      Saint Monday https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Monday

      I've frequently heard people say they hate Mondays, but I've never heard of the cultural phenomenon of Saint Monday.

    2. nabled Tristram to date his conception very exactly. It also provoked The Clockmaker's Outcry against the Author: The directions I had for making several clocks for the country are counter- manded; because no modest lady now dares to mention a word about winding- up a clock, without exposing herself to the sly leers and jokes of the family ... Nay, the common expression of street-walkers is, "Sir, will you have your clock wound up

      It also provoked The Clockmaker's Outcry against the author:

      [...] Nay, the common expression of street-walkers is, "Sir, will you have your clock wound up?"

      I've actually heard the euphemism clock in a sexual setting in my youth, but never heard the origin. This is the likely source. It's been 20 years or more since I've heard this in common speech though.

  7. Aug 2021
    1. The classical meaning of this word was strongly linked to economic contexts. It was often used to denote ‘that whichis weighed together, kept together, saved’. C.T. Lewis and C. Short, A Latin Dictionary(Oxford: Oxford University Press,1999). For Enlightenment English speakers, the Oxford English Dictionary’s (OED’s) 2a definition for compendium,which takes its early modern usage in neo-Latinate culture into account, is: ‘An abridgement or condensation of a largerwork or treatise, giving the sense and substance, within smaller compass.’

      Notice the tying in of things kept together in an economic context. How does this relate to the commonplacing of ideas (or even the gathering of flowers with florilegia)?

    2. The Latin noun ‘compendium’, and the phrase ‘via compendiaria’ were used assynonyms for the noun ‘methodus’ during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.23ByLinnaeus’s time, the word was used in Latin book titles to denote a compilation of collocatedtexts that had previously existed as separate works on their own, or which, if removed and distrib-uted separately, could be read without recourse to other parts of the book.
  8. Jul 2021
    1. In 1996, technology historian Jennifer S. Light compared the talk of “cyberoptimists” about virtual communities to city planners’ earlier optimistic predictions about shopping malls. As the automobile colonized U.S. cities in the 1950s, planners promised that malls would be enclosed public spaces to replace Main Streets. But as Light pointed out, the transition to suburban malls brought new inequities of access and limited the space’s functions to those that served commercial interests.

      Nice historical comparison.

    1. 1920's slang

      • dough, bread: money,
      • vamp: (of women)
      • Sheik: a attractive man (from Valentino film)
      • and how!: indeed!
      • putting on the Ritz: dressing up, 1929 Putting on the Ritz with reference to Ritz Hotel
      • Ragamuffin: a bedraggled or messy person
      • tomato: a pretty woman "ready for the picking"
      • wet blanket: a killjoy (used to put out a fire)
      • whopee: having a really good time (sex)
      • fried, smoked, bent, zozzled, ossified: drunk
      • bump off: to kill someone (from gangster culture)
      • cheaters: glasses
      • hot: stolen
      • hock: pawn something for quick cash
      • petting party: get together of men and women where kissing or petting occurred
      • bob: short haircut style
      • heebie jeebies: shaking or trembling as a result of psychological
      • it: sex appeal, from eponymous film title starring Clara Bow
  9. Jun 2021
    1. The viciousness of church politics can rival pretty much any other politics you can name; the difference is that the viciousness within churches is often cloaked in lofty spiritual language and euphemisms.

      It would be interesting to examine some of this language and these euphemisms to uncover the change over time.

  10. May 2021
    1. Why are there so many programming languages and frameworks? Everyone has their own opinion on how something should be done. Some of these systems, like AOL, Yahoo, etc... have been around for a decade, and probably not updated much.
    2. Simple fact is that HTML support is different in them because mail clients are so old, or others are allowed to operate in browsers where not all CSS or even HTML can be applied in a secure manner. Older clients have outdated browsers that you'll likely NEVER see brought up to standards; what with Opera's standalone aging like milk, and thunderbird lagging behind the firefox on which it's even built. Don't even get me STARTED on older clients like Eudora or Outlook.
  11. Apr 2021
    1. John Company offers players a new understanding of British history in the eighteenth and nineteenth century that reflects contemporary scholarship on the subject and extensive research into primary documents. John Company attempts to put the critical events of that time in their proper context and show how the imperial experience transformed the domestic culture of Britain. The East India Company lurked behind every building of a textile mill and every bit of wealth in a Jane Austen novel.  John Company is an uncompromising portrait of the people who made the Company and the British Empire what it was. It is as frank as it is cutting in its satire.  Accordingly, the game wrestles with many of the key themes of imperialism and globalization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and how those developments were felt domestically. As such, this game might not be suitable for all players. Please make sure everyone in your group consents to this exploration before playing. 
    1. Unfortunately, there is some urgency to this effort. As Shashi Tharoor writes in his book Inglorious Empire (2018), over the past 30 years, there has been a tremendous bout of collective amnesia, espeically in the UK, about the history of empire and its consequences. Into this vacuum, revisionist historians of the worst kind like Niall Ferguson have capitalized on historical blind spots of people living today to make an absurd case for the benefits of empire. This cannot be allowed to happen. Tharoor believes that one of the best bulwarks against this erasure is to do the work of inquiry and to make the history of empire accessible and apparent to the widest audience. It is into this effort that I submit my work. John Company is an unsparing portrait that hopefully will give its players a sense of the nature of empire and the long half-life of its cultural production. It is certainly not the only way to make a game about empire, but I hope that it does its part in adding to our understanding of that subject and its continued legacy.
    1. the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of a historical account.[1] It usually involves challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about an historical event or time-span or phenomenon, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved.
    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

      • Llyn Bochlwyd (lake gray cheek)
      • Foel Fawr
      • Coed Llugwy
      • Cwm Cneifion

      Erasure of culture

      Memory and place names

      "A nation which forgets its past has no future." - Winston Churchill (check quote and provenance)

    1. Around &Bigger the box is bigger: 75mm high instead of 45mm or so.That was the main reason for the name &Bigger. The first edition does fit in its box but very tight. Because the first factory used bigger cardboard than planned. They told me about this "upgrade" after they produced the game. The thicker tiles (about 2.5mm) did feel good for the game so the &Bigger edition has the same
  12. Mar 2021
    1. This has taken off hugely.

      hugely used in context

      Apparently Donald Trumpisms are leaking into broader society, though even here it seems to be used ironically, thus also making fun of Trump himself.

  13. Feb 2021
    1. Sass variables, like all Sass identifiers, treat hyphens and underscores as identical. This means that $font-size and $font_size both refer to the same variable. This is a historical holdover from the very early days of Sass, when it only allowed underscores in identifier names. Once Sass added support for hyphens to match CSS’s syntax, the two were made equivalent to make migration easier.
    1. Beware, though: What you are about to see is not particularly elegant. In fact, the TTY subsystem — while quite functional from a user's point of view — is a twisty little mess of special cases. To understand how this came to be, we have to go back in time.
    1. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/Dillad1/tips-and-notes

      This looks like the divergence of the idea of fox and vixen could appear here with mutations in these languages then later entering English.

      The pronunciation difference of ff and f also could factor here.

  14. Jan 2021
  15. Dec 2020
    1. It is choosing to adopt what some residents half-jokingly call the “Kumbaya” Montclair mentality.

      There's an interesting dichotomous meaning going on here. There's the common "peace, love, and happiness" meaning of the word from the 60's/70's hippies, but there's also the Gullah translation of the original song who's lyric was essentially, "Come by here".

    1. After the famous comedian Bob Hope popularized the catchphrase “now you’re cooking with gas!” on his 1930s-era radio show, the slogan became synonymous with “modern, efficient, clean.”

      Never knew Hope was the progenitor of this idiom.

  16. Oct 2020
    1. In React 0.12 time frame we did a bunch of small changes to how key, ref and defaultProps works. Particularly, they get resolved early on in the React.createElement(...) call. This made sense when everything was classes, but since then, we've introduced function components. Hooks have also make function components more prevalent. It might be time to reevaluate some of those designs to simplify things (at least for function components).
    1. Long, H., correspondentEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmail, H. L., Dam, rew V., Fowers, rew V. D. focusing on economic dataEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmailAlyssa, visualization, A. F. reporter focusing on data, data, analysisEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmailLeslie S. S. reporter focusing on, & storytellingEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmail, multimedia. (n.d.). The covid-19 recession is the most unequal in modern U.S. history. Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/business/coronavirus-recession-equality/

  17. Sep 2020
    1. there's a incredible list and i think that hypothesis may still maintain it i've at least seen it a few times

      Here's the list. Getting a bit out of date. I didn't really even set out to create a list, but people kept telling me about more and more annotation projects and eventually it found it's way into a doc, and then a spreadsheet. A lot of the early efforts are in here, maybe not so many of the more recent ones.

    1. It was called a "virtual DOM" library because it didn't start out as isomorphic, but actually tied to the DOM from the start. It was an afterthought to make it isomorphic.
    1. The Storming of Seringapatam (1799)

      This battle, while less familiar to us, would have been familiar to Collins's original readers. Read more about it at the Wikipedia article, Siege of Seringapatam

  18. Aug 2020
    1. Historically, it was defined as one minute (1/60 of a degree) of latitude along any line of longitude. Today the international nautical mile is defined as exactly 1852 metres (about 1.15 miles).
  19. Jul 2020
    1. These seem to be better reasons to support sub-nanosecond resolution. I think either storing picoseconds or storing sec fraction as 64-bit integer are better approaches than storing a rational. However, either change would be very invasive, and it seems unlikely to be worth the effort.
    1. In the Set class we already called this - and difference, which it is ok but not really accurate because of the previous explanation, but probably not worthwhile to change it.

      Is this saying that the name difference is inaccurate?

      Why is it inaccurate? You even called it the "theoretic difference" above.

      Is that because "relative complement" would be better? Or because the full phrase "theoretic difference" [https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/set-theoretic_difference] is required in order for it to be accurate rather than just "difference"?

    1. L.E. Phillips

      I think that L.E. Phillips would be a useful subject of an article. He was an influential figure in Eau Claire, WI and the surrounding area. There is some historical information about him at lephillips.com.

  20. Jun 2020
  21. Mar 2020
    1. The treatment of quarantine reflects the latter. Courts and academics rarely expressed doubt about the validity of quarantine regulations, since the courts presumed that actions taken under the police power were constitutional.10,11 Challenges to the Fourteenth Amendment, usually successful when governmental intervention interfered with individual liberties, were not well received by the courts when communicable disease regulations, including quarantine, were involved.
    2. State police power was validated for the first time a few years after the end of the Revolutionary War, when Philadelphia was isolated to control the threat of yellow fever.
    3. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
  22. Dec 2019
    1. (40) Next I inquired, why the Hebrews were called God's chosen people, and discovering that it was only because God had chosen for them a certain strip of territory, where they might live peaceably and at ease, I learnt that the Law revealed by God to Moses was merely the law of the individual Hebrew state, therefore that it was binding on none but Hebrews, and not even on Hebrews after the downfall of their nation.

      Divine Law is historically situated

    1. Idee uniformi nate appo intieri popoli tra essoloro non conosciuti,debbon’avere un motivo comune di vero.
    1. 147 The nature of things is nothing but their coming into being (nasci- mento) at certain times and in certain fashions. Whenever the time and fashion is thus and so, such and not otherwise are the things that come into being.

      This principle seems to contradict the previous one: everything is historical!

    2. 144 Uniform ideas originating among entire peoples unknown to each other must have a common ground of truth.

      Unhistorical constants? Curious in Vico for whom everything is historical...

  23. whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com
    1. I preferred leaving the police force.

      From The Law and the Lady to The Woman in White, Collins’s career-long engagements with British law in his fiction conveys a complex ethical code. Heroes commit crimes as often as the villains. For more discussion on British law in Collins and its social and biographical context, see Pykett.

    2. I had delicious kisses, thanks to Priscilla.

      This story hints as Collins’s contemporary liberal views of sexuality and marriage. Suggestive of an illicit liaison (at least in terms of an officer engaging with a investigative subject), Collins reifies Victorian morality by engaging the two to be married but then disrupts that again by the revelation that Priscilla murdered Zebedee. The narrator’s love for the criminal Priscilla, however, may suggest a movement beyond Victorian social conventions. Collins’s work, as always, is morally complex. For more information on Collins’s own affairs, see the Peters biography in the further reading tab.

    3. smelling her breath

      Though Priscilla is deemed sober, the influence of drugs and alcohol are prevalent throughout Collins’s oeuvre. Collins himself suffered from opium addiction. Addiction is showcased in Armadale (1866) and The Moonstone (1868). See Peters for biographical information on Collins’s addiction.

  24. Nov 2019
  25. May 2019
    1. restoration of peace

      This was in reference to the peace Treaty of Amiens in 1802:

      "Treaty of Amiens, (March 27, 1802), an agreement signed at Amiens, Fr., by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars." (https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Amiens-1802).

  26. Apr 2019
    1. The West Indians," she continued, "whom I look upon as the most desirable of the two, as the best of the good, prove to be a Mrs. Griffiths and her family

      Austen criticizes the value system of rich people. They believe West Indians are more desirable than a college that prepares students for a clerical profession. This is both racist and ignorant at the same time.

    2. Let me feel your ankle. That's right; all right and clean

      ANKLES come up 8 times in Sanditon - why? A few articles note that ankles were only considered scandalous in the Victorian era, not Regency era, because ankle boots only became in vogue during the Victorian era. Perhaps the overfixation of ankles is not due to it being scandalous, but just poking fun at how OCD the characters of the novel were for Mr. Parker’s (minorly injured) sprained ankle.

  27. Dec 2018
    1. one family of children who came from London for sea air after the whooping cough

      In the 18th century English physicians would prescribe cold sea water and sea air to cure a variety of sicknesses. It was common for ailing people to be dunked in the freezing sea, as "the adrenaline from the shock of cold was thought to have soothing effects on the body, calming anxiety and restoring the body-soul balance".

      https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/08/the-historic-healing-power-of-the-beach/279175/

      This historical question has been debated up to the twenty-first century:

      Does the Sea Air Have Curative Powers? - WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/does-the-sea-air-have-curative-powers-1407797285

      Does the sea air have healing powers? | Fox News https://www.foxnews.com/health/does-the-sea-air-have-healing-powers

      Out of the blue: The healing power of the sea - ABC News www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-26/could-sea-help-manage-mental-illness/8343932

    2. physic

      (old-fashioned term) a medicine that purges; cathartic; laxative.

      https://www.dictionary.com/browse/physic

    3. chamber-horse

      An eighteenth-century exercise machine.

      "…A special type of chair, commonly called a 'Chamber Horse', because the motion made as you sat on it was similar to that of a trotting horse."

      http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/uIVOye4BRy-Sh5k7_PF_iQ

    4. liberal

      what are the connotations of this in this historical context? I'm not sure how to look this up but I'd like to know.

  28. Oct 2018
    1. While machines and algorithms are indeed coming for tasks currently being performed by lawyers, these tasks tend to be labour-intensive and/or low-value and/or process driven.

      Is this the first time that such a transformation has taken place? Can you think of other historical cases where labour-intensive, low-value, or process-driven work has been automated?

    1. I cannot help but wonder, would things have been different if Mrs Lee Kuan Yew had continued to attend these meetings?

      How do you think Singapore's history might have been different if women were included among the founders of independent Singapore?

    2. Discrimination on the basis of gender or sex is omitted

      Can you think of reasons for why this might have been the case?

  29. Sep 2018
    1. rimination on the basis of gender or sex is omitted.

      Can you think of reasons why this might have been the case?

    2. “Although Mrs Lee Kuan Yew was one of the first women to sign up as a PAP member, she was never admitted into the inner sanctum of the party.Truth be told, she attended the first meeting with S. Rajaratnam, K. M. Byrne, Philip Hoalim Jr and his wife Miki.

      Why do you think Mrs Lee Kuan Yew was excluded from the "inner sanctum" of the PAP? Do you think this could have been a justifiable decision in the circumstances?

    3. Was it only by this twist of fate and chance –Lee Kuan Yew wanting to stop the wife of another colleague from attending –that the founding team became and then stayed an All Men’s group?

      How do you think Singapore's history might have been different if women were included among the founders of independent Singapore?

  30. Aug 2018
    1. This text analysis that it contains words written in hebrew and deciphering of the first sentence of the text using hebrew translation seems to align with what this author is saying about the text being passed down through the family.

      She made recommendations to the priest, man of the house and me and people.

      [Source] (https://hyp.is/GB7sZKjvEeidoGeGo8L6jA/www.independent.co.uk/news/science/mysterious-manuscript-decoded-computer-scientists-ai-a8180951.html)

    1. Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.

      Sukhwant Singh's analysis here seems to fit with a lot of other's partial analysis/observations such as multiple characters representing the same character, certain characters only appearing at the end of words etc. It seems quite compelling. The dates however, are a century too early although that does not necessarily dispel his theory that it is written in Landa Khojki.

    2. Many "words" differ by only one character and are found in each other's vicinity

      This might suggest the same thing as Tiltman's analysis in that a single character may take several forms.

    3. Tiltman treats f as a variant form of k and p as a variant form of t

      When learning that there were over 100 characters used in the manuscript my first thought was that perhaps variations of a character were used to represent the same character.

    4. Speaking generally, each character behaves as if it has its own place in an 'order of precedence' within words; some symbols such as o and y seem to be able to occupy two functionally different places.

      This is very interesting. It seems to suggest that each word may be scrambled based on the characters used.

    1. Here is a copy of the full manuscript.

    2. The text seems to be split into four parts (based on the drawings); botanicals, astrological charts, women bathing, and what appears to be recipes. For this reason it's theorized that the Voynich Manuscript is an encoded medical book.

    3. Both the mineral pigments used in the paint as well as the large and consistent quality of the parchment indicates the text would have cost quite a bit of money to produce.

    4. The Voynich Manuscript has not been deciphered despite people dedicating their entire lives to the challenge. Even modern deciphering computerized methods have not picked up a pattern.

    5. Interestingly, the drawings of some of the plants seem to show cellular level detail. The first microscope didn't exist until centuries later.

    6. The Voynich Manuscript was carbon dated to 1404-1430. The dovetail wall in one of the drawings given the time period indicates the author probably lived in Italy as that's the only known place during that time period with that style of architecture.

  31. Jun 2018
    1. William Holman Hunt,

      William Holman Hunt place of burial is at St. Paul's Cathedral.

    2. Royal Academy Schools

      Two letters from Henry Sass were published in the Royal Academy along with one of his books you can access these at royal academy online catalogue.

  32. May 2018
    1. Irish dance halls were very popular during the 1950's amongst Irish-Americans. They allowed people to have fun, dance, and also meet possible romantic partners. The image above parallels this moment in the text because it showcases how women tended to stay together in groups (like Patty, Diana, and Eilis) and wait for men to ask them to dance.

    1. Bartocci’s, the department store Eilis works at was likely inspired by Abraham and Strauss. Abraham and Strauss, also known as A&S, was a famous department store located at the corners of Hoyt and Fulton in Brooklyn. Abraham and Strauss was unlike the small and specialized shops (like Miss Kelly’s general store) that an Irish immigrant would have been used to at this time. A&S sold many different kinds of products, including clothing for all ages, furniture, and sporting goods. This was done in order to compete with other Brooklyn retailers and offer customers one-stop shopping.

  33. Apr 2018
    1. Melchor

      n. Saint Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi along with Caspar and Balthazar who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus.

    2. San Dionisio

      n. Denis of Paris;Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint. According to his hagiographies, he was bishop of Paris in the third century and, together with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, was martyred for his faith by decapitation.

    3. Descartes

      n. a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

    4. Bacon

      n. an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves.

    5. Santo Tomás

      n. an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

    6. Aristóteles

      n. an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy"

    7. Padre Anastasio

      n. served as Pope from 27 November 399 to his death in 401.

  34. Mar 2018