532 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. y. Already, in 1796, the trade was complaining at the competition of French and Swiss watches; the complaints continue to grow in the early years of the nineteenth century. The Clockmakers' Company alleged in 1813 that the smuggling of cheap gold watches has assumed major proportions, and that these were sold by jewellers, haberdashers, milliners, dressmakers, French toy-shops, perfumers, etc., "almost entirely for the use of the upper classes of society".

      I wonder at the history of counterfeit goods. At what point in a market does it typically begin to happen? Is there some level of profit margin which kicks in due to lack of competition? What are the effects of brand within the space of fashion?

    1. The

      Questions the class came up with: Are they making more money off of vapes than they are cigarettes? Why aren't the stores IDing people like they do cigarettes? Why aren't these products banned if they are so harmful? Is there is a difference between a vape and e-cigarettes, or is it just a different name? Do certain vapes have more nicotine than others? Than cigarettes? Why don't they ban regular tobacco instead of e-cigarettes if e-cigarettes are safer than regular tobacco ?

    1. All four of these extraneural resources — technology, the body, physical space, social interaction — can be understood as mental extensions that allow the brain to accomplish far more than it could on its own.

      Technology, the body, physical space, and social interaction can be extensions of the mind.

      What others might exist? Examples?

    2. Those who are attuned to such cues can use them to make more-informed decisions. A study led by a team of economists and neuroscientists in Britain, for instance, reported that financial traders who were better at detecting their heartbeats — a standard test of what is known as interoception, or the ability to perceive internal signals — made more profitable investments and lasted longer in that notoriously volatile profession.

      Improved interoception may be a usefu skill for functioning in the world.

      How might one improve this ability? Can it be trained?

    1. While the material about just how darn embodied our brains are might have been something of a bummer for someone as uncomfortable being bodied as I am, the material about how much our brains like narratives was just what I wanted to read.

      How might we compare/contrast the ideas behind this with Alex Rosenberg's book How History Gets Things Wrong: The Neuroscience of Our Addiction to Stories?

    2. One of the best things I picked up in project-based learning training was to be deliberate in teaching groups how to work together. Though our brains may be pretty good at it, our societies are not, and it’s only getting worse. Students need modeling and practice to be able to figure out how to interact in positive ways in groups, how to structure collaborative work, how to overcome the atomizing forces of society.

      I wonder here at the stereotypical gendered views of working together. Who is better at it and why?

      What social function, if any, does a more conflict-based ability to not work together provide?

  2. Sep 2021
    1. Once they are deployed on the network you can't change them

      so how do I add new features and fix bugs?

    1. even if a malicious dapp submitted an infinite loop, the transaction would eventually run out of ether and terminate

      How do I, the user requesting a transaction to be processed, know how much ETH I need to give upfront that is enough for the transaction to go through?

    1. Accounts and account balances are stored in a big table in the EVM;

      Isn't the balance = the result of your initial ETH amount and the sum of all your transaction history?

    2. participant

      what is a participant? a miner? a user requesting a transaction? who else? nodes? are nodes = miners?

    1. Anyone can deploy new smart contracts to Ethereum in order to add custom functionality to meet their application's needs.

      How to prevent "reinventing the wheel" by creating Smart Contracts that other developers might have created already with the same (or very similar) intent/behavior???

    1. If the target account is not set (the transaction does not have a recipient or the recipient is set to null), the transaction creates a new contract. As already mentioned, the address of that contract is not the zero address but an address derived from the sender and its number of transactions sent (the “nonce”). The payload of such a contract creation transaction is taken to be EVM bytecode and executed. The output data of this execution is permanently stored as the code of the contract. This means that in order to create a contract, you do not send the actual code of the contract, but in fact code that returns that code when executed.

      ????????????????????

    2. External accounts that are controlled by public-private key pairs

      what are these public-private keys? where are they stored?

    1. Cognitive scientists have found also that when we answer a question in our own words, we integrate the information better into our long-term memory.

      Reference for this?

    2. Researchers found that students remembered passages of text better when the extracts began with a question, for example, “Is this evidenced?”

      Reference for this?

    1. In practice, almost every whistled tonal language chooses to use pitch to encode the tones.

      Why is pitch encoding of tones more prevalent in tonal languages? What is the efficiency and outcome of the speech and the information that can be encoded?

  3. Aug 2021
    1. The earliest attested manicules appeared in the Domesday Book, the exhaustive survey of England carried out for William I in 1086.

      I wonder if we can find a direct link to the manicule and the use of the hand as a mnemonic device?

    1. All topics were framed as specific but open questions

      When meetings are framed around reading titles, they suggest a level of certainty. Framing around questions starts with what is unknown instead of known - more open to novices? (See next paragraph - "facilitators located expertise in readings and research ... not themselves")

    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammelband

      Sammelband (/ˈzæməlbænt/ ZAM-əl-bant, plural Sammelbände /ˌzæməlˈbɛndə/ ZAM-əl-BEN-də or Sammelbands), or sometimes nonce-volume, is a book comprising a number of separately printed or manuscript works that are subsequently bound together.

      Compare and contrast this publishing scheme with the idea of florilegium and commonplace books.

      Did commonplace keepers ever sammelband their own personal volumes? And perhaps include more comprehensive indices?

      What time periods did this pattern take place? How does this reflect on the idea of reorganizing early modern information management practices? Could these have bled over into the idea of the evolution of the Zettelkasten?

    1. The issue of terminology is still problematic since some scholars insist that thegenre must be defined expansively in order to reflect accurately early modernpractice. Adam Smyth’s sixteen characteristics of commonplace book culture(II, A) are particularly useful in this regard

      Adam Smyth compiled sixteen characteristics of commonplace book culture. This could be an interesting starting point for comparing and contrasting all the flavors of commonplace book relatives.

      Adam Smyth, “Commonplace Book Culture: A List of Sixteen Traits,” in Women and Writing, c.1340–c.1650: The Domestication of Print Culture, ed. Anne Lawrence-Mathers and Phillipa Hardman (2010), pp.90–110

      See also possibly: Smyth, Adam. “Printed Miscellanies: An Opening Survey,” in his “Profit and Delight”: Printed Miscellanies in England,1640–1682 (2004), pp.1–31.

    1. The confession-book, I suppose, has disappeared. It is twenty years since I have seen one. As a boy I told some inquisitive owner what was my favourite food (porridge, I fancy), my favourite hero in real life and in fiction, my favourite virtue in woman, and so forth.

      The form of some of these questions in confession albums is similar to modern day security questions asked by banks and personal accounts as a sort of personal password or shibboleth.

  4. Jul 2021
    1. The Activity and Art of Reading 15 If you ask a living teacher a question, he will probably answer you. If you are puzzled by what he says, you can save yourself the trouble of thinking by asking him what he means. If, however, you ask a book a question, you must answer it yourself.

      What effect might this have on the learning process of purely oral cultures?

    1. we should ask: (a) is the platform essentially new, and therefore productive of new organizational forms?; (b) is the platform essentially digital?; and (c) if the answer to both is ‘no’ then what do organization studies, technology studies and media studies miss by treating platforms as both new and essentially digital?

      RQs

    1. A top down view of some learning strategies to begin teasing out which may be better than others.

      Are they broadly applicable or domain specific?

      What learning methods and pedagogy piece are best and for which domains.

      How can we balance learning and doing an overview of theory versus practice?

      Which methods are better for beginners versus domain specific experts?

      Which are better for overview versus creating new knowledge?

      https://www.scotthyoung.com/blog/2021/07/13/against-the-real-thing/

    1. the underprivileged are priced out of the dental-treatment system yet perversely held responsible for their dental condition.

      How does this happen?

      Is it the idea of "personal responsibility" and "pull yourself up by the bootstraps" philosophy combined with lack of any actual support and/or education?

      There has to be a better phrase or word to define the perverse sort of philosophy espoused by many in the Republican party about this sort of "personal responsibility".

      It feels somewhat akin to the idea of privatize profits and socialize the losses. The social loss is definitely one that is pushed off onto the individual, but who's profiting? Is it really so expensive to fix this problem? Isn't the loss to society and public health akin to the Million Dollar Murray problem?

      Wouldn't each individual's responsibility be better tied to the collective good as well as their own outcomes? How can the two be bound together to improve outcomes for everyone all around?

  5. Jun 2021
    1. Giving peers permission to engage in dialogue about race and holding a lofty expectation that they will stay engaged in these conversations throughout the semester or year is the first of the four agreements for courageous conversation. While initially, some participants may be eager to enter into these conversations, our experience indicates that the more personal and thus risky these topics get, the more difficult it is for participants to stay committed and engaged." Singleton and Hays

    1. a good friend of mine says i don't answer questions i kind of respond to them

      I love this quote by Christopher R. Rogers referring to a friend (and himself).

      Sometimes this may be more interesting, especially when questions may not have "answers".

    1. The mechanical clock, which came into common use in the 14th century, provides a compelling example. In Technics and Civilization, the historian and cultural critic Lewis Mumford  described how the clock “disassociated time from human events and helped create the belief in an independent world of mathematically measurable sequences.” The “abstract framework of divided time” became “the point of reference for both action and thought.”

      Description of how a technology the clock changed the human landscape.

      Similar to the way humans might practice terraforming on their natural environment, what should we call the effect our natural environment has on us?

      What should we call the effect our technological environment has on us? technoforming?

      Evolution certainly indicates that there's likely both short and long-term effects.

      Who else has done research into this? Do we have evidence of massive changes with the advent of writing, reading, printing, telegraph, television, social media, or other technologies available?

      Any relation to the nature vs nurture debate?

    1. Butler then moves on toquote—not Cicero, as Wilson does—but Quintilian, who among classical authorities is the mostskeptical about the art of memory’s efficacy (see endnote 4). Echoing Quintilian’s complaint, Butlersays that it is probably more difficult to construct a memory palace than simply to remember thingsby rote (54–55).

      Construction is definitely work. The question about how much it may be should be addressed on a continuum of knowing or understanding particular concepts as well.

      Creating palaces for raw data de-novo, as in a memory championship, takes a lot of practice for speed and the lack of relationships. However in a learning setting, it may be better to read, grasp, and understand material and then create a palace to contain the simple raw facts which might then also bring back other bits of the knowledge and understanding.

      This might be a useful idea to explore further, gather some data, and experiment with.

    2. Though he doesnot discuss mnemonics, Thomas Sloane similarly argues that classical invention—a process thattakes not only logic but also“sense, imagination, and emotions”into consideration—is irreparablyneutered by Ramism (137).

      This makes me wonder what the relation of this mode of "limited" thinking (represented by Ramism) has with Max Weber's ideas of Protestant work ethic? If we're not being creative like we may have been in the past, does it help us to focus on the mundane drudgery of our work at hand?

    3. Ong puts it this way:“Ramus can adopt memory intodialectic because his entire topically conceived logic is itself a system of local memory”(Ramus280).However, it is a simplified systemunlike the classical one: The ancient precepts about images and theirfacilitation of invention have been dropped.

      What is gained and lost in the Ramist tradition versus the method of loci?

      There is some simplicity to be sure and structure/organization aid in the structured memory.

      We lose the addition work, creativity, and invention. We also loose some of the interest that students might have. I recently read something to the effect that we always seem to make education boring and dull. (cross reference this, which I haven't read: https://daily.jstor.org/why-school-is-boring/)

      How does this interact with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's idea of flow? Does Ramism beat out the fun of flow?

      How also, is this similar to Kelly's idea of the third archive as a means of bringing these all back together?

  6. May 2021
    1. The researchers had asked everyone in their game a set of questions: Did people follow the game? Did they understand the rules? Did they think it was fair? These questions were designed to measure which salespeople had “entered the magic circle,” meaning that they agreed to be bound by the game’s rules rather than the normal rules that ordinarily guide their work. After all, if people haven’t entered a game mentally, there’s no real point to it.Sure enough, the salespeople who felt that the basketball game was a load of baloney actually felt worse about work after the game was introduced, and their sales performance declined slightly. The game benefited only the salespeople who had fully bought into it—they became significantly more upbeat at work.

      Ethan Mollick and Nancy Rothbard experiment https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2277103 about gamification in a sales setting shows that gamification only works for those who buy into it.

      Is this similar to ideas like the placebo effect or potentially for cases like Eastern Medicine where one might need to buy into it for the effects to matter to them?

    1. I had always assumed – without realising the assumption – that the ancient knowledge keepers would have progressed around the henge posts or stones much as I do around a memory palace. It hadn’t occurred to me that there may be experts on each topic, ‘owning’ each post or stone and the knowledge it represented. Is there any way the archaeology could ever tell us if this is the case?

      Personally, I had assumed from Kelly's work that individual knowledge keepers may have done this. Particularly in the cases of the most advanced and protected knowledge based on the private spaces she discussed.

      The question about archaeology being able to tell us is a very good one. Nothing immediately comes to mind, but it's worthwhile to look at this. Could some artifacts indicate different artists through their own craft be a way of differentiation?

    1. The country “leftout” of the model is Slovakia.

      what does this mean?

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    1. The use of physical location, even in an imagined environment, as a memory aid likely arose as a result of the fact that so much of the essential information stored in memory can be linked to foraging-type behaviours.

      I've thought this before, and sees like I've possibly read, though not captured it. Is there any solid proof of this fact?

      Rat studies of mazes show this sort of spacial memory, but are there similar learned studies in lower animals? C. elegans, drosophila, slime molds, etc.?

    2. Consistent with the notion that exploitation of spatial memory is among the most effective memorization techniques, an early MRI study of competitors in the World Memory Championships showed that 90% of the memory athletes employed some variation of the method of loci for rapid learning and accurate recall of information [30].

      What were the others using? Only the major system perhaps? Or were they the marginal under-performers?

      If there were solid performers in the other 10%, what method(s) were they using?

    3. Further, while the notion of ‘steps’ is often used in education as a way to scaffold knowledge, in the case of the Australian Aboriginal memory technique, there is also literal use of the term ‘steps’ as the following quote highlights: “[w]alking around and looking at the trees was a good visual tool to relate to corresponding steps in the cycle”. Kelly [1, p. 20] concurs and refers to the way Indigenous cultures use geography and landscape to create “memory spaces” and even “narrative landscapes”.

      Steps, diagrams, and other structures have been almost all that is left of potential mnemotechniques following educational reform in the late 1500s.

      Is there any research on these sorts of knowledge scaffolds in modern education?

      A classic example in Western culture can be seen in Eusebius' breaking the Bible down into smaller pieces using verses, though I don't think it was made canonical until during the Renaissance.

    4. Following the 20-minute rest, a final recall test was performed, this time without the opportunity for students to review the list prior to recall testing.

      It would be highly useful to do another test at a larger interval, say a week or a month later as well, both with and without the suggestion of spaced repetition with all three groups.

    5. Systems for encoding, transmission, and protection of essential knowledge for group survival and cohesion were developed by multiple cultures long before the advent of alphabetic writing.

      Focusing in on the phrase:

      essential knowledge for group survival

      makes me wonder if we haven't evolutionarily primed ourselves to use knowledge and group knowledge in particular to create group cohesion and therefor survival?

      Cross reference: https://hyp.is/LWtjtLhjEeuTqHPwUUMUbA/threadreaderapp.com/thread/1381933685713289216.html and the paper https://www.academia.edu/46814693/The_Signaling_Function_of_Sharing_Fake_Stories

    6. The Australian Aboriginal method resulted in approximately a 3-fold greater probability of improvement to accurate recall of the entire word list (odds ratio = 2.82; 95% c.i. = 1.15–6.90), vs. the memory palace technique (odds ratio = 2.03; 95% c.i. = 0.81–5.06) or no training (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% c.i. = 0.54–4.59) among students who did not correctly recall all list items at baseline.

      Keep in mind that these numbers are likely to show even greater disparity in the broader population as the test group, based on their selection as advanced medical students, are likely to be some of the smartest and best studied students to begin with.

    1. Compare that to the traditional way of exploring your files, where the computer is like a dutiful, but dumb, butler: "Find me that document about the chimpanzees!" That's searching. The other feels different, so different that we don't quite have a verb for it: it's riffing, or brainstorming, or exploring. There are false starts and red herrings, to be sure, but there are just as many happy accidents and unexpected discoveries. Indeed, the fuzziness of the results is part of what makes the software so powerful.

      What is the best word/verb for this sort of pseudo-searching via word or idea association for generating new ideas?

      I've used the related phrase combinatorial thought before, but he's also using the idea of artificial intelligence to search/find and juxtapose these ideas.

    1. 130 years on, privacy is still largely conceived of as an individual thing, wherein we get to make solo decisions about when we want to be left alone and when we’re comfortable being trespassed upon.

      How could one design a mathematical balancing system to help separate individuals embedded within a variety of societies or publics to enforce a balance of levels of privacy.

      • There's the interpersonal level between the individuals
      • There's the person's individual privacy and the public's reaction/response to the thing captured, for which the public may shun or not
      • There's the takers rights (possibly a journalist or news outlet) to inform the broader public which may shame or not
      • There's the publics' potential right to know, the outcome may effect them or dramatically change society as a whole
      • others facets?
      • how many facets?
      • how to balance all these to create an optimum outcome for all parties?
      • How might the right to forget look like and be enforced?
      • How do economic incentives play out (paparazzi, journalism, social media, etc.?)
    1. Yet apart from a few megastar “influencers”, most creators receive no reward beyond the thrill of notching up “likes”.

      But what are these people really making? Besides one or two of the highest paid, what is a fair-to-middling influencer really making?

  7. Apr 2021
    1. Is there an OS agnostic way of doing this? I like the script command on macOS because you don't have to wrap the command in quotes. The script runs and sends output to the tty which is duplicated in the supplied file, but I can't seem to get the linux version to behave the same way... I'm probably doing something wrong. So what's the equivalent linux script command for this on macOS: script -q -t 0 tmp.out perl -e 'print "Test\n"' Test cat tmp.out Test
    1. Arguing in favor of cosmic connectivity, à la Whitley: why would anybody create art in places that are very difficult to see and dangerous to enter, if the goal is purely aesthetic or decorative?

      If these were used for societal memory purposes, the privacy of the caves as well as the auditory and even halucinatory effects could have helped as well.

      What sorts of other things would we expect to see in such instances? Definitely worth looking at Lynne Kelly's ten criteria in these situations, though some of them are so old as to be unlikely to have as much supporting evidence.

    1. It seems more likely, however, that Waun Mawn contributed only a small pro-portion of Stonehenge’s 80 or so bluestones. This raises the question of whether multiplemonuments in Wales contributed monoliths to Stonehenge and Bluestonehenge

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    1. At Slow Art Day events, museums generally ask visitors to look at five objects for 10 minutes each — enough time, often, to keep them looking a little longer. But the practice varies. Jennifer Roberts, an art history professor at Harvard University and a proponent of slow art, has her students look at an individual artwork for three hours. “Approach it as if you were a visitor from another planet with no prior knowledge of the configuration or content of earthly art,” she tells them.

      Why isn't there a slow reading movement that does this with books? What would that look like? What might it accomplish?

  8. Mar 2021
    1. What Fukuyama and a team of thinkers at Stanford have proposed instead is a means of introducing competition into the system through “middleware,” software that allows people to choose an algorithm that, say, prioritizes content from news sites with high editorial standards.

      This is the second reference I've seen recently (Jack Dorsey mentioning a version was the first) of there being a marketplace for algorithms.

      Does this help introduce enough noise into the system to confound the drive to the extremes for the average person? What should we suppose from the perspective of probability theory?

    1. In the Camerer, Loewenstein and Weber's article, it is mentioned that the setting closest in structure to the market experiments done would be underwriting, a task in which well-informed experts price goods that are sold to a less-informed public. Investment bankers value securities, experts taste cheese, store buyers observe jewelry being modeled, and theater owners see movies before they are released. They then sell those goods to a less-informed public. If they suffer from the curse of knowledge, high-quality goods will be overpriced and low-quality goods underpriced relative to optimal, profit-maximizing prices; prices will reflect characteristics (e.g., quality) that are unobservable to uninformed buyers ("you get what you pay for").[5] The curse of knowledge has a paradoxical effect in these settings. By making better-informed agents think that their knowledge is shared by others, the curse helps alleviate the inefficiencies that result from information asymmetries (a better informed party having an advantage in a bargaining situation), bringing outcomes closer to complete information. In such settings, the curse on individuals may actually improve social welfare.

      How might one exploit this effect to more proactively improve and promote social welfare?

    1. I've broken down each base medium with some of its benefits, tips, and opportunities to make your content more accessible.

      Accessibility is definitely a great goal, but how can one also make it more memorable/rememberable or more sticky?

      What methods are there outside of [[Made to Stick]]?

    2. No matter how engaging, funny, well-produced the video is, I will not be able to retain it unless I cannot read along.

      I'm wondering how people of various stripes like this and other versions may or may not relate to the variety of mnemotechniques out there.

    1. So I was wondering: do you have any examples of broken source maps caused by this approach? I don't use source maps so it'd be nice to have something to start from.
    1. Posting an issue on the discussion boards for a three year old game, yesterday, I wasn't holding my breath for a reply. Earlier, this morning, a dev. responded, stating they'd look at fixing it, and it was just a few hours before it were sorted!
  9. Feb 2021
    1. Only fifteen of the thirty-seven commonplace books were written in his hand. He might have dictated the others to a secretary, but the nature of his authorship, if it existed, remains a matter of conjecture. A great deal of guesswork also must go into the interpretation of the entries in his own hand, because none of them are dated. Unlike the notes of Harvey, they consist of endless excerpts, which cannot be connected with anything that was happening in the world of politics.

      I find myself wondering what this study of his commonplace books would look like if it were digitized and cross-linked? Sadly the lack of dates on the posts would prevent some knowledge from being captured, but what would the broader corpus look like?

      Consider the broader digital humanities perspective of this. Something akin to corpus linguistics, but at the level of view of what a single person reads, thinks, and reacts to over the course of their own lifetime.

      How much of a person could be recreated from such a collection?

    1. Maps and power

      Based on Foucauldian notion of power, J.B. Harley argues that maps served both as instruments and representation of expanding European influence into the world. Harley's argument rejects the conventional notion of modern cartography as objective and scientific, and therefore superior than other traditional modes of mapping. Instead, according to Harley, "all cartography is an intricate, controlled fiction." Based on such development of scholarship, this section asks us to think about alternative ways (other than accuracy) to compare between so-called "Western" maps and aboriginal maps. One of them is the range and degree of workability or usability. Do you agree with the author's claim that "Western" maps are more universal, compared to aboriginal maps that are more culturally specific? And can this factor really explain why "Western maps are more powerful" than others?

    1. Aboriginal- Australian maps

      This section is linked to earlier sections in that Aboriginal Australian maps raise the following questions:

      • What are maps, and what are their functions?
      • What are the differences between map and other graphic representations (picture, diagram, etc).
      • What is the map's relation to the landscape it depicts?
      • What is the meaning of reading the map?
    1. NO support whatsoever will be given for the moment unless I gave you the program personally. This is because all of this is work in progress and I can't code while constantly writing documentation and answering questions.
    1. Eternal September or the September that never ended[1] is Usenet slang for a period beginning in September 1993,[2][3] the month that Internet service provider America Online (AOL) began offering Usenet access to its many users, overwhelming the existing culture for online forums.

      This makes me wonder at what level a founder community can manage to maintain its founder effects for incoming new members?

      Is there existing research on this? Are there potential ways to guard against it in the future?

      What happens to the IndieWeb community if it were to see similar effects?

  10. Jan 2021
    1. Asking questions is a powerful tool to seek clarity or offer a new perspective. Below are some suggestions to use in conversations when racist behavior occurs: Seek clarity: “Tell me more about __________.” Offer an alternative perspective: “Have you ever considered __________.” Speak your truth: “I don’t see it the way you do. I see it as __________.” Find common ground: “We don’t agree on __________ but we can agree on __________.” Give yourself the time and space you need: “Could we revisit the conversation about __________ tomorrow.” Set boundaries. “Please do not say __________ again to me or around me.

      An excellent list of questions for framing discussions.

    1. The switching fabric connects the router’s input ports to its output ports. This switching fabric is completely contained within the router—a network inside of a network router!

      what the FUCK is this

    1. I use sheets for organizing lists of people, topics and grades, as well as managing budgets, ideas and plans.

      Use case #1. How might I use it? How might others use it?

    1. If the hand behind the invisible hand is also invisible, we have invisible hands operating, as it were, at different levels. The signalling device at the individual dimension (let’s call this Level 1) will be the price system. If the hand behind the invisible hand is also invisible, then the HUMS explanation amounts to the claim that the system is spontaneously generating the kind of institutions (Level 2) necessary for the invisible hand to operate at Level 1. We would then have spontaneous or unintended order at Level 1 and Level 2.

      Interesting introduction of the different levels at which the Invisible hand operates - Level 1 - individual dimension (Burning man) and Level 2 - institutional arrangements (Rules, Order, Planning, Organization). If the order (Level 2) that emerges at Level 1 is spontaneous and unintended then the hand behind the invisible hand is also invisible. Here, it is also introduced the 'price system' as a term. For now, I cannot understand how exactly are the price system and Level 1 interrelated.

    2. Two hands appear in Mittermaier’s title and at least one is invisible. Is the other also invisible? By considering answers to the question, Mittermaier classifies a stance on the free market as either dogmatic or pragmatic.

      What is considered a dogmatic market? What is considered a pragmatic market?

    3. Mittermaier asks the question, does the institutional setup also emerge spontaneously via an invisible hand? As the 1996 watershed year specification makes clear, a decision was made to insist on arrangements deliberated upon with an idea to prevent chaos. In other words, in terms of Mittermaier’s argument we could say that in the case of the Burning Man event, the hand behind the invisible hand is visible, which amounts to a pragmatic rather than a dogmatic stance on the emergence of the institutions involved.

      In the initial highlights I asked the question of what a pragmatic stance on the free market doctrine means and this highlights a general answer to my question.

    1. de quelle manière les différents courants en apprentissage de langues médiatisé réagissent-ils aux débats portant sur l'indissociabilité du social et du culturel (notamment technologique) en apprentissage et en cognition ? Que nous disent les mutations actuelles en Alao sur la pertinence de cette approche ? Quel serait son potentiel pour les discussions théoriques et méthodologiques en Alao ?
    1. Give the user as much information as you can to help inform them on what’s about to happen. Anticipating and answering the following questions can help
  11. Dec 2020
    1. How to Hire an In-house Python & Django Developer: Python/Django Interview Questions, Tips, and Advice

      The questions you ask during a Python and Django interview are important, since the right Django interview questions can help you define whether an applicant is the right fit for your company. In this article, we talk about the most crucial stage in the hiring process — the in-person interview — outline Python and Django interview questions, and conclude with dos and don’ts

    1. The settlement of the res-titution claims made by the Italian government against the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Getty Museum in Malibu, and the Cleveland Museum of Art and the return to Italy of looted antiquities raise ques-tions about the integrity of some museum directors and trustees – well-informed people whom one would expect to be the guardians and defenders of the past, not par-ticipants in the commercial processes which lead to its destruction.

      The museum directors definitely should know and have some subject area expertise here, but likely the trustees wouldn't have. While the museum directors should educate them, the financial position the trustees have will almost always tend to drown out the better angels of the museum directors who rely on those trustees' support.

      Part of the question is how to redesign the structural support underpinning the system to help ensure more ethical outcomes.

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  12. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. Research on concrete advance organizers provides encouraging evidence that students learn more deeply from a text lesson when it is preceded with a familiar concrete model or analogy (Mayer, 2008).

      How do you tease out concretizing from connecting new content to prior knowledge? Are these two different principles?

    2. The rationale is that an instructor using a human voice is more readily accepted as a social partner (Nass & Brave, 2005), thereby fostering deeper cognitive processing during learning.

      Again, this seems related to the principle of social presence.

      Are any of these experiments done in vivo during real online classes or just in the lab with one exchange? It seems like social connectedness needs more time and interactions to become a factor in learning.

    3. The rationale is that people try harder to make sense of the presented material (i.e., engage in the cognitive processes of organizing and integrating) when they feel they are in a social partnership with the instructor.

      Is this effect stronger in distance learning? It seems related to social presence research.

  13. Nov 2020
  14. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. For example, Mayer and Chandler (2001) found that compared to viewing a continuous 2.5 min narrated animation on lightning formation, students performed better on a transfer test after viewing a narrated animation on lightning formation that paused after each of 16 segments until the learner clicked a “Continue” button. Similarly, compared to viewing continuous narrated animation on how an electric motor works, students performed better on a transfer test in two experiments if they could see the presentation broken into five segments, each started by the learner’s mouse click (Mayer et al., 2003). Overall, across three experiments conducted in our lab, the median effect size across these three experiments was d  =  0.98, favoring the segmented group over the continuous group.

      I have a hard time believing that just splitting a video up into shorter segments with a continue button leads to better learning with an effect size so high. I think I will need to look at some of these studies closer. Chunking is a good principle, but how small should the chunks be? Is it because students get to pace the lesson themselves? Does it keep them more engaged when they need to click a button to continue?

    2. Overall, there is strong and consistent evidence for the coherence principle based on well-controlled laboratory studies

      Are there any in vivo studies of the coherence principle?

    1. about information used and processes involved in the development of children’s STVs

      How are subjective task values developed in adults?

    2. change over time in children’s ASCs and STVs

      Has any research been done on academic self concept or subjective task value in adult learners?

    3. 3.2.3. Attainment STV

      I'm not really sure I understand attainment STV

    4. perceptions of task difficulty

      Is this a factor in anyone's model of self-regulated learning?

    1. In-depth questionsThe following interview questions enable the hiring manager to gain a comprehensive understanding of your competencies and assess how you would respond to issues that may arise at work:What are the most important skills for a data engineer to have?What data engineering platforms and software are you familiar with?Which computer languages can you use fluently?Do you tend to focus on pipelines, databases or both?How do you create reliable data pipelines?Tell us about a distributed system you've built. How did you engineer it?Tell us about a time you found a new use case for an existing database. How did your discovery impact the company positively?Do you have any experience with data modeling?What common data engineering maxim do you disagree with?Do you have a data engineering philosophy?What is a data-first mindset?How do you handle conflict with coworkers? Can you give us an example?Can you recall a time when you disagreed with your supervisor? How did you handle it?

      deeper dive into [[Data Engineer]] [[Interview Questions]]

    1. some abilities (e.g., binding pieces of information together in memory, the ability to provide specific memories, metamemory during retrieval) show relative decline with aging while others (collaborative memory, emotional and motivated memory, acquisition and maintenance of existing knowledge base) show relative preservation with aging

      Look at these areas in further detail

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  15. Oct 2020
    1. from tuka al-salani 60:48 and well actually it is a question but it's something that will probably 60:52 is out beyond our scope here but how would 60:56 social annotation be used as a research tool so not research into it but how 61:00 would we use it as a research tool

      Opening up social annotation and connecting it to a network of researchers' public-facing zettelkasten could create a sea-change of thought

      This is a broader concept I'm developing, but thought I'd bookmark this question here as an indicator that others are also interested in the question though they may not have a means of getting there (yet).

    1. to what extent is there value in breaking down the wall between blogging and wiki, and to what extent are these two technologies best left to do what they do best?
    2. Should Wikity follow the wiki tradition of supplying editable source to collaborators? Or the web syndication model of supplying encoded content. (Here, actually, I come down rather firmly on the source side of the equation — encoded content is a model suited for readers, not co-authors).

      What does he mean by "encoded" content? and why is it a problem?

    1. being able to follow links to “follow a conversation” that is threaded on Twitter.

      This is one of my favorite parts about my website and others supporting Webmention: the conversation is aggregated onto or more closely adjacent to the source. This helps prevent context collapse.

      Has anyone made a browser tool for encouraging lateral reading? I'd love a bookmarklet that I could click to provide some highly relevant lateral reading resources for any particular page I'm on.

    1. Commonplace books, during the Renaissance, were used to enhance the memory. Yeo writes, This reflected the ancient Greek and Roman heritage. In his Topica, Aristotle formulated a doctrine of ‘places’ (topoi or loci) that incorporated his ten categories. A link was soon drawn between this doctrine of ‘places’ (which were, for Aristotle, ‘seats of arguments’, not quotations from authors) and the art of memory. Cicero built on this in De Oratore, explaining that ‘it is chiefly order that gives distinctness to memory’; and Quintilian’s Institutio Oratoria became an influential formulation. This stress on order and sequence was the crux of what came to be known as ‘topical memory’, cultivated by mnemonic techniques (‘memoria technica’) involving the association of ideas with visual images. These ideas, forms of argument, or literary tropes were ‘placed’ in the memory, conceived in spatial terms as a building, a beehive, or a set of pigeon holes. This imagined space was then searched for the images and ideas it contained…. In the ancient world, the practical application of this art was training in oratory; yet Cicero stressed that the good orator needed knowledge, not just rhetorical skill, so that memory had to be trained to store and retrieve illustrations and arguments of various kinds. Although Erasmus distrusted the mnemonic arts, like all the leading Renaissance humanists, he advocated the keeping of commonplace books as an aid to memory.

      I particularly love the way this highlights the phrase "'placed' in the memory" because the idea of loci as a place has been around so long that we tacitly use it as a verb so naturally in conjunction with memory!

      Note here how the author Richard Yeo manages not to use the phrase memory palace or method of loci.Was this on purpose?

    1. Ideas on how to analyze and predict network behavior have been informed by concepts arising from the computational and social sciences, which are themselves increasingly concerned with understanding networks. The interesting thing about these ideas is that they work at scales ranging from the molecular to the population level.

      scale free networks perhaps?

    1. Is it possible to avoid the public goods problem altogether?

      As Lynne Kelly indicates, knowledge is a broad public good, so it is kept by higher priests and only transferred in private ceremonies to the initiated in indigenous cultures. In many senses, we've brought the value of specific information down dramatically, but there's also so much of it now, even with writing and better dissemination, it's become more valuable again.

      I should revisit the economics of these ideas and create a model/graph of this idea over history with knowledge, value, and time on various axes.

    1. I’ve alluded to the deeply philosophical nature of this problem; in a sense, it’s politicized within the software communities. Some folks believe that platform developers should shoulder the costs of compatibility, and others believe that platform users (developers themselves) should bear the costs. It’s really that simple. And isn’t politics always about who has to shoulder costs for shared problems?So it’s political. And there will be angry responses to this rant.

      This idea/philosophy cuts across so many different disciplines. Is there a way to fix it? Mitigate it? An equation for maximizing it?

    1. In1915, the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) wasformed to help protect academic freedom by securing the employment ofU.S. college faculty. A set of policy statements was prepared (now publishedannually—see AAUP,2005) that outlined the conditions under which fac-ulty members could be fired from their positions.

      look up the current policy for any reference of teaching quality

    2. In the latter instance, satisfactory teaching—thatis, neither extraordinarily good nor bad—may be sufficient in the promotiondecision, since research and publication are often deemed more important.In institutions where teaching is more important, a poor research publicationrecord may be ignored, while a moderate or good publication record mayoffset some deficiencies in teaching ability.

      What value is placed on student evaluations in UMS? Is it different on each campus/department?

    3. Candidates for tenure and promotion must collect evidence of their suc-cess in teaching. At most colleges and universities, at the end of each semesterin every course, evaluation data are collected from students.

      Is this the only evidence of teaching effectiveness that is used in tenure decisions?

    4. The higher education institutions also suffer. Part-time faculty typicallyhave no voting rights in the organizational decision-making structure. Theymay seldom attend faculty meetings and participate infrequently in decisionsabout important faculty or institutional matters. Partly as a result, they maynot be fully committed to promoting the interests of the institution. Theirinvolvement in the life of the institution—for example, advising students orparticipating in institutional events and ceremonies—is limited.

      This is really important. It will be difficult for an institution to ensure that part-time faculty understand how adults learn and how to teach in distance education using evidence based strategies. What are the proportions of tenure, tenure-eligible, and part-time faculty at the 7 campuses?

    5. We should also note that faculty participation in governance is especiallycomplex on unionized campuses, due to collective bargaining agreementsand formal grievance procedures

      What does the AFUM contract say about distance education and the SOTL?

    6. a faculty council or senate (variously named at differentcolleges and universities) is the representative body for the discussion of mat-ters of cross-departmental or cross-school concern to faculty in the institu-tion.

      How have the faculty senates at the campuses addressed distance education and teaching?

    7. faculty engage in decision making about mattersof direct concern to their primary common activities—curriculum andteaching

      How is decision making about teaching methods, instructional design, and faculty development conducted at the 7 universities?

    8. Hence, thereare often faculty in the different schools who teach similar courses and belongto the same discipline but seldom interact due to the highly differentiatedstructure of the typical academic organization.

      How does this structure impact peer learning among faculty?

    9. Statewide governing boards seek to ensure responsible use of public re-sources.

      Does Maine have a state governing board? Are they involved in any decision making or policy making regarding distance education or faculty development?

    10. Increasingly of late, many in-stitutions are offering long-term, renewable contracts instead of tenure, andare relying more extensively on adjunct faculty appointments. In fact, morethan half of all new faculty members are hired into positions that are noteligible for tenure (Schuster,2003).

      Does this affect instructional design?

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    1. By the time Protestantism came along, people had already internalized an individualist worldview. Henrich calls Protestantism “the WEIRDest religion,” and says it gave a “booster shot” to the process set in motion by the Catholic Church. Integral to the Reformation was the idea that faith entailed personal struggle rather than adherence to dogma. Vernacular translations of the Bible allowed people to interpret scripture more idiosyncratically. The mandate to read the Bible democratized literacy and education. After that came the inquiry into God-given natural (individual) rights and constitutional democracies. The effort to uncover the laws of political organization spurred interest in the laws of nature—in other words, science. The scientific method codified epistemic norms that broke the world down into categories and valorized abstract principles. All of these psychosocial changes fueled unprecedented innovation, the Industrial Revolution, and economic growth.

      Reading this makes me think about the political break in the United States along political and religious boundaries. Some of Trumps' core base practices a more personal religion and are generally in areas that don't display the level of individualism, but focus more on larger paternalistic families. This could be an interesting space for further exploration as it seems to be moving the "progress"(?) described by WEIRD countries backward.

    1. He says that he sees the combination of long form pieces and Q&A as a new level of support. “We used to have level one, which was sending a ticket to the help desk, and it was something we could easily resolve for you. Level two was a more complex problem that maybe required an engineer or specialist from a certain team to figure out. I look at this new system as a level zero.” Before sending us a ticket, folks can search Teams. If they find a question that solves the problem, great. If they need more details, they can follow links to in-depth articles or collections that bring together Q&A and article with the same tags.“
    2. In an effort to rethink how documentation works, we recently introduced Articles, longer-form prose that can sit side by side with shorter Q&A.
  16. Sep 2020
    1. Nailing the interview takes an in-depth preparation and a huge amount of practice. We have compiled for you the most frequently asked 50 top tableau interview questions based on the difficulty level.

    1. What is another personal fact that an attacker could easily find with Google?