167 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. In 1996, technology historian Jennifer S. Light compared the talk of “cyberoptimists” about virtual communities to city planners’ earlier optimistic predictions about shopping malls. As the automobile colonized U.S. cities in the 1950s, planners promised that malls would be enclosed public spaces to replace Main Streets. But as Light pointed out, the transition to suburban malls brought new inequities of access and limited the space’s functions to those that served commercial interests.

      Nice historical comparison.

  2. Jul 2021
    1. 1920's slang

      • dough, bread: money,
      • vamp: (of women)
      • Sheik: a attractive man (from Valentino film)
      • and how!: indeed!
      • putting on the Ritz: dressing up, 1929 Putting on the Ritz with reference to Ritz Hotel
      • Ragamuffin: a bedraggled or messy person
      • tomato: a pretty woman "ready for the picking"
      • wet blanket: a killjoy (used to put out a fire)
      • whopee: having a really good time (sex)
      • fried, smoked, bent, zozzled, ossified: drunk
      • bump off: to kill someone (from gangster culture)
      • cheaters: glasses
      • hot: stolen
      • hock: pawn something for quick cash
      • petting party: get together of men and women where kissing or petting occurred
      • bob: short haircut style
      • heebie jeebies: shaking or trembling as a result of psychological
      • it: sex appeal, from eponymous film title starring Clara Bow
  3. Jun 2021
    1. The viciousness of church politics can rival pretty much any other politics you can name; the difference is that the viciousness within churches is often cloaked in lofty spiritual language and euphemisms.

      It would be interesting to examine some of this language and these euphemisms to uncover the change over time.

  4. May 2021
    1. Why are there so many programming languages and frameworks? Everyone has their own opinion on how something should be done. Some of these systems, like AOL, Yahoo, etc... have been around for a decade, and probably not updated much.
    2. Simple fact is that HTML support is different in them because mail clients are so old, or others are allowed to operate in browsers where not all CSS or even HTML can be applied in a secure manner. Older clients have outdated browsers that you'll likely NEVER see brought up to standards; what with Opera's standalone aging like milk, and thunderbird lagging behind the firefox on which it's even built. Don't even get me STARTED on older clients like Eudora or Outlook.
  5. Apr 2021
    1. John Company offers players a new understanding of British history in the eighteenth and nineteenth century that reflects contemporary scholarship on the subject and extensive research into primary documents. John Company attempts to put the critical events of that time in their proper context and show how the imperial experience transformed the domestic culture of Britain. The East India Company lurked behind every building of a textile mill and every bit of wealth in a Jane Austen novel.  John Company is an uncompromising portrait of the people who made the Company and the British Empire what it was. It is as frank as it is cutting in its satire.  Accordingly, the game wrestles with many of the key themes of imperialism and globalization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and how those developments were felt domestically. As such, this game might not be suitable for all players. Please make sure everyone in your group consents to this exploration before playing. 
    1. Unfortunately, there is some urgency to this effort. As Shashi Tharoor writes in his book Inglorious Empire (2018), over the past 30 years, there has been a tremendous bout of collective amnesia, espeically in the UK, about the history of empire and its consequences. Into this vacuum, revisionist historians of the worst kind like Niall Ferguson have capitalized on historical blind spots of people living today to make an absurd case for the benefits of empire. This cannot be allowed to happen. Tharoor believes that one of the best bulwarks against this erasure is to do the work of inquiry and to make the history of empire accessible and apparent to the widest audience. It is into this effort that I submit my work. John Company is an unsparing portrait that hopefully will give its players a sense of the nature of empire and the long half-life of its cultural production. It is certainly not the only way to make a game about empire, but I hope that it does its part in adding to our understanding of that subject and its continued legacy.
    1. the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of a historical account.[1] It usually involves challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about an historical event or time-span or phenomenon, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved.
    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

      • Llyn Bochlwyd (lake gray cheek)
      • Foel Fawr
      • Coed Llugwy
      • Cwm Cneifion

      Erasure of culture

      Memory and place names

      "A nation which forgets its past has no future." - Winston Churchill (check quote and provenance)

    1. Around &Bigger the box is bigger: 75mm high instead of 45mm or so.That was the main reason for the name &Bigger. The first edition does fit in its box but very tight. Because the first factory used bigger cardboard than planned. They told me about this "upgrade" after they produced the game. The thicker tiles (about 2.5mm) did feel good for the game so the &Bigger edition has the same
  6. Mar 2021
    1. This has taken off hugely.

      hugely used in context

      Apparently Donald Trumpisms are leaking into broader society, though even here it seems to be used ironically, thus also making fun of Trump himself.

  7. Feb 2021
    1. Sass variables, like all Sass identifiers, treat hyphens and underscores as identical. This means that $font-size and $font_size both refer to the same variable. This is a historical holdover from the very early days of Sass, when it only allowed underscores in identifier names. Once Sass added support for hyphens to match CSS’s syntax, the two were made equivalent to make migration easier.
    1. Beware, though: What you are about to see is not particularly elegant. In fact, the TTY subsystem — while quite functional from a user's point of view — is a twisty little mess of special cases. To understand how this came to be, we have to go back in time.
    1. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/Dillad1/tips-and-notes

      This looks like the divergence of the idea of fox and vixen could appear here with mutations in these languages then later entering English.

      The pronunciation difference of ff and f also could factor here.

  8. Jan 2021
  9. Dec 2020
    1. It is choosing to adopt what some residents half-jokingly call the “Kumbaya” Montclair mentality.

      There's an interesting dichotomous meaning going on here. There's the common "peace, love, and happiness" meaning of the word from the 60's/70's hippies, but there's also the Gullah translation of the original song who's lyric was essentially, "Come by here".

    1. After the famous comedian Bob Hope popularized the catchphrase “now you’re cooking with gas!” on his 1930s-era radio show, the slogan became synonymous with “modern, efficient, clean.”

      Never knew Hope was the progenitor of this idiom.

  10. Oct 2020
    1. In React 0.12 time frame we did a bunch of small changes to how key, ref and defaultProps works. Particularly, they get resolved early on in the React.createElement(...) call. This made sense when everything was classes, but since then, we've introduced function components. Hooks have also make function components more prevalent. It might be time to reevaluate some of those designs to simplify things (at least for function components).
    1. Long, H., correspondentEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmail, H. L., Dam, rew V., Fowers, rew V. D. focusing on economic dataEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmailAlyssa, visualization, A. F. reporter focusing on data, data, analysisEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmailLeslie S. S. reporter focusing on, & storytellingEmailEmailBioEmailFollowEmail, multimedia. (n.d.). The covid-19 recession is the most unequal in modern U.S. history. Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/business/coronavirus-recession-equality/

  11. Sep 2020
    1. there's a incredible list and i think that hypothesis may still maintain it i've at least seen it a few times

      Here's the list. Getting a bit out of date. I didn't really even set out to create a list, but people kept telling me about more and more annotation projects and eventually it found it's way into a doc, and then a spreadsheet. A lot of the early efforts are in here, maybe not so many of the more recent ones.

    1. It was called a "virtual DOM" library because it didn't start out as isomorphic, but actually tied to the DOM from the start. It was an afterthought to make it isomorphic.
    1. The Storming of Seringapatam (1799)

      This battle, while less familiar to us, would have been familiar to Collins's original readers. Read more about it at the Wikipedia article, Siege of Seringapatam

  12. Aug 2020
    1. Historically, it was defined as one minute (1/60 of a degree) of latitude along any line of longitude. Today the international nautical mile is defined as exactly 1852 metres (about 1.15 miles).
  13. Jul 2020
    1. These seem to be better reasons to support sub-nanosecond resolution. I think either storing picoseconds or storing sec fraction as 64-bit integer are better approaches than storing a rational. However, either change would be very invasive, and it seems unlikely to be worth the effort.
    1. In the Set class we already called this - and difference, which it is ok but not really accurate because of the previous explanation, but probably not worthwhile to change it.

      Is this saying that the name difference is inaccurate?

      Why is it inaccurate? You even called it the "theoretic difference" above.

      Is that because "relative complement" would be better? Or because the full phrase "theoretic difference" [https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/set-theoretic_difference] is required in order for it to be accurate rather than just "difference"?

    1. L.E. Phillips

      I think that L.E. Phillips would be a useful subject of an article. He was an influential figure in Eau Claire, WI and the surrounding area. There is some historical information about him at lephillips.com.

  14. Jun 2020
  15. Mar 2020
    1. The treatment of quarantine reflects the latter. Courts and academics rarely expressed doubt about the validity of quarantine regulations, since the courts presumed that actions taken under the police power were constitutional.10,11 Challenges to the Fourteenth Amendment, usually successful when governmental intervention interfered with individual liberties, were not well received by the courts when communicable disease regulations, including quarantine, were involved.
    2. State police power was validated for the first time a few years after the end of the Revolutionary War, when Philadelphia was isolated to control the threat of yellow fever.
    3. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
  16. Dec 2019
    1. (40) Next I inquired, why the Hebrews were called God's chosen people, and discovering that it was only because God had chosen for them a certain strip of territory, where they might live peaceably and at ease, I learnt that the Law revealed by God to Moses was merely the law of the individual Hebrew state, therefore that it was binding on none but Hebrews, and not even on Hebrews after the downfall of their nation.

      Divine Law is historically situated

    1. Idee uniformi nate appo intieri popoli tra essoloro non conosciuti,debbon’avere un motivo comune di vero.
    1. 147 The nature of things is nothing but their coming into being (nasci- mento) at certain times and in certain fashions. Whenever the time and fashion is thus and so, such and not otherwise are the things that come into being.

      This principle seems to contradict the previous one: everything is historical!

    2. 144 Uniform ideas originating among entire peoples unknown to each other must have a common ground of truth.

      Unhistorical constants? Curious in Vico for whom everything is historical...

  17. whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com whokilledzebedee.wordpress.com
    1. I preferred leaving the police force.

      From The Law and the Lady to The Woman in White, Collins’s career-long engagements with British law in his fiction conveys a complex ethical code. Heroes commit crimes as often as the villains. For more discussion on British law in Collins and its social and biographical context, see Pykett.

    2. I had delicious kisses, thanks to Priscilla.

      This story hints as Collins’s contemporary liberal views of sexuality and marriage. Suggestive of an illicit liaison (at least in terms of an officer engaging with a investigative subject), Collins reifies Victorian morality by engaging the two to be married but then disrupts that again by the revelation that Priscilla murdered Zebedee. The narrator’s love for the criminal Priscilla, however, may suggest a movement beyond Victorian social conventions. Collins’s work, as always, is morally complex. For more information on Collins’s own affairs, see the Peters biography in the further reading tab.

    3. smelling her breath

      Though Priscilla is deemed sober, the influence of drugs and alcohol are prevalent throughout Collins’s oeuvre. Collins himself suffered from opium addiction. Addiction is showcased in Armadale (1866) and The Moonstone (1868). See Peters for biographical information on Collins’s addiction.

  18. Nov 2019
  19. May 2019
    1. restoration of peace

      This was in reference to the peace Treaty of Amiens in 1802:

      "Treaty of Amiens, (March 27, 1802), an agreement signed at Amiens, Fr., by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars." (https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Amiens-1802).

  20. Apr 2019
    1. The West Indians," she continued, "whom I look upon as the most desirable of the two, as the best of the good, prove to be a Mrs. Griffiths and her family

      Austen criticizes the value system of rich people. They believe West Indians are more desirable than a college that prepares students for a clerical profession. This is both racist and ignorant at the same time.

    2. Let me feel your ankle. That's right; all right and clean

      ANKLES come up 8 times in Sanditon - why? A few articles note that ankles were only considered scandalous in the Victorian era, not Regency era, because ankle boots only became in vogue during the Victorian era. Perhaps the overfixation of ankles is not due to it being scandalous, but just poking fun at how OCD the characters of the novel were for Mr. Parker’s (minorly injured) sprained ankle.

  21. Dec 2018
    1. one family of children who came from London for sea air after the whooping cough

      In the 18th century English physicians would prescribe cold sea water and sea air to cure a variety of sicknesses. It was common for ailing people to be dunked in the freezing sea, as "the adrenaline from the shock of cold was thought to have soothing effects on the body, calming anxiety and restoring the body-soul balance".

      https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/08/the-historic-healing-power-of-the-beach/279175/

      This historical question has been debated up to the twenty-first century:

      Does the Sea Air Have Curative Powers? - WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/does-the-sea-air-have-curative-powers-1407797285

      Does the sea air have healing powers? | Fox News https://www.foxnews.com/health/does-the-sea-air-have-healing-powers

      Out of the blue: The healing power of the sea - ABC News www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-26/could-sea-help-manage-mental-illness/8343932

    2. physic

      (old-fashioned term) a medicine that purges; cathartic; laxative.

      https://www.dictionary.com/browse/physic

    3. chamber-horse

      An eighteenth-century exercise machine.

      "…A special type of chair, commonly called a 'Chamber Horse', because the motion made as you sat on it was similar to that of a trotting horse."

      http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/uIVOye4BRy-Sh5k7_PF_iQ

    4. liberal

      what are the connotations of this in this historical context? I'm not sure how to look this up but I'd like to know.

  22. Oct 2018
    1. While machines and algorithms are indeed coming for tasks currently being performed by lawyers, these tasks tend to be labour-intensive and/or low-value and/or process driven.

      Is this the first time that such a transformation has taken place? Can you think of other historical cases where labour-intensive, low-value, or process-driven work has been automated?

    1. I cannot help but wonder, would things have been different if Mrs Lee Kuan Yew had continued to attend these meetings?

      How do you think Singapore's history might have been different if women were included among the founders of independent Singapore?

    2. Discrimination on the basis of gender or sex is omitted

      Can you think of reasons for why this might have been the case?

  23. Sep 2018
    1. rimination on the basis of gender or sex is omitted.

      Can you think of reasons why this might have been the case?

    2. “Although Mrs Lee Kuan Yew was one of the first women to sign up as a PAP member, she was never admitted into the inner sanctum of the party.Truth be told, she attended the first meeting with S. Rajaratnam, K. M. Byrne, Philip Hoalim Jr and his wife Miki.

      Why do you think Mrs Lee Kuan Yew was excluded from the "inner sanctum" of the PAP? Do you think this could have been a justifiable decision in the circumstances?

    3. Was it only by this twist of fate and chance –Lee Kuan Yew wanting to stop the wife of another colleague from attending –that the founding team became and then stayed an All Men’s group?

      How do you think Singapore's history might have been different if women were included among the founders of independent Singapore?

  24. Aug 2018
    1. This text analysis that it contains words written in hebrew and deciphering of the first sentence of the text using hebrew translation seems to align with what this author is saying about the text being passed down through the family.

      She made recommendations to the priest, man of the house and me and people.

      [Source] (https://hyp.is/GB7sZKjvEeidoGeGo8L6jA/www.independent.co.uk/news/science/mysterious-manuscript-decoded-computer-scientists-ai-a8180951.html)

    1. Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.

      Sukhwant Singh's analysis here seems to fit with a lot of other's partial analysis/observations such as multiple characters representing the same character, certain characters only appearing at the end of words etc. It seems quite compelling. The dates however, are a century too early although that does not necessarily dispel his theory that it is written in Landa Khojki.

    2. Many "words" differ by only one character and are found in each other's vicinity

      This might suggest the same thing as Tiltman's analysis in that a single character may take several forms.

    3. Tiltman treats f as a variant form of k and p as a variant form of t

      When learning that there were over 100 characters used in the manuscript my first thought was that perhaps variations of a character were used to represent the same character.

    4. Speaking generally, each character behaves as if it has its own place in an 'order of precedence' within words; some symbols such as o and y seem to be able to occupy two functionally different places.

      This is very interesting. It seems to suggest that each word may be scrambled based on the characters used.

    1. Here is a copy of the full manuscript.

    2. The text seems to be split into four parts (based on the drawings); botanicals, astrological charts, women bathing, and what appears to be recipes. For this reason it's theorized that the Voynich Manuscript is an encoded medical book.

    3. Both the mineral pigments used in the paint as well as the large and consistent quality of the parchment indicates the text would have cost quite a bit of money to produce.

    4. The Voynich Manuscript has not been deciphered despite people dedicating their entire lives to the challenge. Even modern deciphering computerized methods have not picked up a pattern.

    5. Interestingly, the drawings of some of the plants seem to show cellular level detail. The first microscope didn't exist until centuries later.

    6. The Voynich Manuscript was carbon dated to 1404-1430. The dovetail wall in one of the drawings given the time period indicates the author probably lived in Italy as that's the only known place during that time period with that style of architecture.

  25. Jun 2018
    1. William Holman Hunt,

      William Holman Hunt place of burial is at St. Paul's Cathedral.

    2. Royal Academy Schools

      Two letters from Henry Sass were published in the Royal Academy along with one of his books you can access these at royal academy online catalogue.

  26. May 2018
    1. Irish dance halls were very popular during the 1950's amongst Irish-Americans. They allowed people to have fun, dance, and also meet possible romantic partners. The image above parallels this moment in the text because it showcases how women tended to stay together in groups (like Patty, Diana, and Eilis) and wait for men to ask them to dance.

    1. Bartocci’s, the department store Eilis works at was likely inspired by Abraham and Strauss. Abraham and Strauss, also known as A&S, was a famous department store located at the corners of Hoyt and Fulton in Brooklyn. Abraham and Strauss was unlike the small and specialized shops (like Miss Kelly’s general store) that an Irish immigrant would have been used to at this time. A&S sold many different kinds of products, including clothing for all ages, furniture, and sporting goods. This was done in order to compete with other Brooklyn retailers and offer customers one-stop shopping.

  27. Apr 2018
    1. Melchor

      n. Saint Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi along with Caspar and Balthazar who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus.

    2. San Dionisio

      n. Denis of Paris;Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint. According to his hagiographies, he was bishop of Paris in the third century and, together with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, was martyred for his faith by decapitation.

    3. Descartes

      n. a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

    4. Bacon

      n. an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves.

    5. Santo Tomás

      n. an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

    6. Aristóteles

      n. an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy"

    7. Padre Anastasio

      n. served as Pope from 27 November 399 to his death in 401.

  28. Mar 2018
    1. the effect of the color caste system on the North American Negro has been both good and bad, its effect on white America has been disastrous.

      This is an interesting inversion of the usual narrative about segregation (which would say that segregation hurt black Americans, and would rarely discuss its impacts on white Americans). It feels both like it grants agency-- in that black Americans are not being presented as a continually downtrodden group-- and that it is an attempt to legitimize the struggle against segregation, because if segregation is disastrous for white America then it is truly bad for America.

  29. Feb 2018
    1. chúige

      ‘what you yourself and the late John O’Daly, following in the footsteps of Edward Walsh, to some extent accomplished for Munster, more than thirty years ago’ (iv)

      John O’Daly (1800-1878) was an editor and publisher. He published Edward Walsh’s Reliques of Irish Jacobite Poetry (1844), as well as two series of Poets and Poetry of Munster, the first by James Clarence Mangan (1849), and the second by George Sigerson (1860). In another of his works, Mise agus an Conradh (1937), Hyde wrote ‘Ní raibh éinne, lena linn, a rinne níos mó ar a shlí féin chun Gaeilge a leathnú agus a shaothrú’ (There was noone, during O’Daly’s time, who did as much as he did to popularize Gaelic’, my trans.) The most comprehensive biography of John O’Daly is that in Beathaninéis, vol. 2, by Diarmuid Breathnach and Mairéad Ní Mhurchú. It is available online at https://www.ainm.ie/Bio.aspx?ID=1193

      The most comprehensive biography I have found in English is the entry in The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, edited by Robert Welch.

    2. grádh

      ‘My Dear Dr. Sigerson’ (iv)

      The Dr. Sigerson in question is George Sigerson (1836-1925), a physician and an eminent translator of Gaelic poetry. When the Gaelic League was founded in 1893, Hyde was elected as its present, and so absented his role as president of the National Literary Society. Sigerson succeeded him, and was the society’s incumbent present when Love Songs of Connacht was published.

      A direct address to the National Literary Society was famously performed by Hyde in 1892. The central idea of his speech titled ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’ was that there was an indissoluble link between a nation’s language and its culture, and that it was a sign of cultural weakness to mimic English ways and habits of thought.

      The beginning of Love Songs of Connacht reminds us of the ideological backdrop from which the book emerges. For in-depth accounts of the development of the idea that language and nationhood are inextricably linked, see Diarmuid Ó Giolláin’s Locating Irish Folklore: Tradition, Modernity, Identity (2000), and Joep Leerssen’s National Thought in Europe: A Cultural History (2006). You can read the text of Hyde’s 1892 speech to the National Literary Society at http://historymuse.net/readings/HYDENecessityforDeAnglicizingIreland1892.html

  30. Oct 2017
    1. the longue durée.

      Not a term I am familiar with. Found this Oxford Dictionary definition helpful: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/longue_duree

    2. There are further projects we might undertake, i

      To do list going forward as suggested by Bethany Nowviskie.

      1. more effective communication
      2. foster collaborations
      3. find nobility in metadata enhancement, project maintenance & forward migration
      4. more agendas of empathy
      5. greater attention to matters of accessibility, minimal c computing (not sure what this is exactly!!)
      6. Libraries - need robust discourse around ephemerality. ( this is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly.)
      7. attend to the environmental & human cost of DH : CARBON FOOTPRINT , PRICE TAG
      8. bring technological savvy & deep historical conscience into the politics of 21st century.
      9. Amplify our voices
  31. Sep 2017
    1. This is hardly less arbitrarily unjust or patriarchal than the actualsystem of patrilineal inheritance consolidated in the eighteenth century, formingthe backbone of the British economy and its law, and providing the historicalbackground to Jane Austen’s novels

      The connection between the unfair genealogical model of literary and artistic inheritance and patrilineal inheritance laws is interesting here, as several of Jane Austen's novels, especially Sense and Sensibility, are shaped by the deleterious effects of this system upon their characters.

  32. Jul 2017
    1. erm Marx refers to all the practical know-how, theoretical knowledge and other socialresources available to any particular historical society or group within

      Marx refers to all Historical Materialism as ways of producing and reproducing the means of human existence. Marx puts value to this theoretical knowledge, according to him this knowledge is passed on from generation to generation, society to society therefore it has great historical value.

    2. it. This is what he means by referring to his method of social, economic and political analysis as 'historical materialism' -nature, both 'out there' and our own biological possibilities, is 'the raw material' which we work on and transform in order to produce what we need to s

      definition of historical materialism

    3. Whereas animals can survive by consuming what they need, humans need to make everything they need -from clothing to shelter to food -out of materials from their natural environment. Without burrows, lacking fur or claws, in this vulnerable state humans need to work together to survive, hence they need to develop social relationship

      I find this comment very important an appealing to internalize. perhaps why humans have been "successful' as a species is that we have to make everything we need, but perhaps we have gotten too successful. As we become more inventive, we continue to develop tools that help us become more independent more easily, and often these tools hinder our ability to develop social relationships which then creates a discord between the ideal and true self leading to greater amounts of negative affects.

    4. 'historical materialism

      Marx recognizes that the specific knowledge and tools shared in a community during a particular historical moment plays a role in those peoples' productive capabilities. This conception recognizes the productive qualities of the natural world and the social processes that occur to complete the conversion of natural resources into use-able goods

    1. Modes of Production

      Socities developmental stages that are successive: Primitive Communism, Slave Society (ancient), Feudalism, Capitalism, Communism

      this a type of economic system, that is about all the different ways humans produce the means of survival (the needs) and enhance socialness. history is then characterized by predominant methods production. there then will be succesive socities in evolving patterns formed

    2. Historical Materialism

      Marx is looking at how that society is organized to satisfy material needs, and whenthese are altered from natural resources, it then changes across time what we will need to acquire. This can also give rises to different classes of power based on material.

  33. Jun 2017
    1. December 29, 1931.

      Consider this date. What of importance was going on around the time that Carl Becker gave this speech before the American Historical Association?

  34. May 2017
    1. house was handsome and handsomely fitted up

      This saying refers to a home in the eighteenth or nineteenth century that had elegant furniture throughout the home; and elegant dishes and dinnerware. The servants lived in brand new liveries. (janeaustens world)

    1. Yermak

      Vasiliy “Yermak” Timofeyevich Alenin was a Cossack who started the conquest of Siberia under the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.

      Forsyth, James. A history of the peoples of Siberia: Russia's north Asian colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.

  35. Apr 2017
  36. Mar 2017
    1. we're always making a fiction/history that always has to be re-mad

      Nice, this takes me back to Rickert's theory of rhetoric that takes on a kind of historical materialism

    1. in an obvious circle,

      So who do we think was in the audience when this was delivered? We know it was delivered at Notre Dame, so I assume the audience was primarily faculty, right? All historical moments are political, but this was a historical moment in which it was particularly political just to be a college student or faculty member, so I can only imagine the room at this point in his lecture. I wish we had more information about the immediate reception of this ideas, here.

  37. Feb 2017
    1. Fowler

      I don't think it was necessary to include that it was her fiance who made these decisions which destroyed so much of what she had worked for. Certainly, it adds an element of human interest, but to mention that it was her fiance seems to imply that this was largely the result of a domestic drama. I think it is important to remember that even if it had not been Fowler, he could have been replaced by literally any other man at the time and there is a fair chance that the results would have been much the same. This situation resulted from a society that denigrated and oppressed women for being women, not just for being a woman who refused to marry Fowler, in particular. It was surely an extra twist of the knife that these changes were implemented by a man she had once trusted, but we shouldn't forget that this is a system which allowed #historicalshitheads like Fowler to destroy the work of women on a whim.

  38. Nov 2016
    1. before Saint Francis

      The church contains, in the first chapel, Gherado delle Notti’s Christ Mocked alongside the St Michael of Guido, which is not mentioned in the narrative. In the second chapel, which Miriam and Donatello have apparently passed over. is a Transfiguration (Mario Balassi) and a Nativity scene (Lanfranco). It is to Domenichino’s Saint Francis receives stigmata that Donatello turns. There is a certain similarity to the structure of the two paintings, which feature an upright principal figure and a secondary figure in the bottom-right corner, but while St Francis turns his face upwards to the heavens, St Michael’s face is turned downwards at the devil whom he tackles. St Francis, the first to receive the stigmata, died while reciting Psalm 142, which has as its closing lines “In the path where I walk people have hidden a snare for me”. One may speculate about whether Donatello recollects this fact, as the innocent ensnared by people around him is a facet of the Donatello character in both Hawthorne and Wilde’s novels (although Hawthorne makes it more explicit by blaming Miriam’s look for Donatello’s murder of the model). On the other hand, the turn to St Francis may be a commentary by Wilde on Donatello-as-Faun, as St Francis was known for preaching sermons to animals.

    1. Cardinal Pamphili

      Giovanni Battista Pamphili became Pope Innocent X in 1644. The rivalry between him and Cardinal Antonio Barberini is well documented.

    2. Church of the Cappuccini

      The Church of the Capuchins, originally of St Mary of the Conception, stands next to Piazza Barberini at the end of Via Veneto.

    1. a little way

      Palazzo Cenci is only a short distance from Via di Tor Millina, on the other side of Piazza Navona. The Borghese Gardens, however, are much further away, in much the same direction as Kenyon’s studio. The suggestion is that Miriam has been delaying her meeting with Donatello, perhaps for the purposes of avoiding the model who haunts her step.

    2. the history of Beatrice

      Beatrice Cenci became legendary after plotting with her brothers and mother to murder her father, Francesco Cenci, along with some of their servants. The plot to poison him failed, and so he was beaten and thrown from a high window in order to conceal the crime. The crime was discovered, and the conspirators were executed, Beatrice being beheaded. She is believed to haunt the bridge where she was executed, and has become a symbol of the people’s resistance against aristocratic arrogance.

    1. Mahaffy

      In 1875, after his first year at Oxford, Wilde undertook a trip to Italy with his former professor from Trinity College, Dublin, Rev John Pentland Mahaffy. Their tour included Florence, Bologna, Venice, Padua, and Milan. The tour that might have ended in Rome was cut short by Wilde’s dearth of funds. The idea, however, did not leave Wilde. Having contemplated visiting the “Scarlet Woman” in the company of Oxford friends, Wilde eventually undertook the journey in 1877, after a wide-ranging trip, again with Mahaffy, including visits in late March to Genoa, Ravenna, Brindisi and Corfu. Tafani’s absence is unsurprising, given that Wilde was already in company, and that this trip ran into the start of the next Oxford term, a transgression for which Wilde was fined and rusticated.

    2. Genoa

      This letter is sadly lost to us. No copy remains either from Wilde’s collection or from Tafani’s. Any response that Tafani might have made is also lost. The first exchange of letters available, hailing from Ravenna, is not reproduced here.

    3. relic

      The word “relic” retains an important significance in Oxford Aestheticism.

    1. to which other friendships between painters have given rise

      It is amusing to speculate here as to whether Wilde may have in mind any of his contemporaries, although this chapter precedes by several months Ruskin’s criticism of Whistler (in his Fors Clavigera letter of July), and the subsequent libel case.

    1. galleries

      Wilde pokes here at the “tapestry effect” of the style of hanging paintings in many British galleries and museums of the early- and mid-nineteenth century. It was only with the work of Anna Jameson and Charles Lock Eastlake that the practices of such museums began to change, although Michael Field record in the 1890s still the ease with which a sought-out painting, such as a Giorgione, might be easily mistaken for another hung haphazardly near it in the National Gallery’s dimly lit chambers.

  39. Jun 2016