35 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. Model on tl,t,t� which to form our selves. Or ruther to imitate

      Imitation makes another appearance, which (as mholder pointed out with Vico) "was one of the dominant methods of instruction in rhetoric up through the Enlightenment".

      I think imitation is particularly important in terms of women's education, as women often would have little to go by but a model, specifically one observed (over ones read about).

  2. Mar 2017
    1. When we are playing the role of observer, which is largely when we look at others, we make this fundamental attribution error. When we are thinking about ourselves, however, we will tend to make situational attributions
  3. Sep 2016
    1. sten to students discuss the classes they hoped to get, and visit departments to watch faculty advising students on course selection. She would want to observe secretaries typing, janitors sweeping, and maintenance personnel plowing snow from walks.

      If she observed from the points of view of so many people on the campus, she would not gain the full perspective of a single group of people: she could become biased or have knowledge that not everyone she's observing has access to. Researching the school from so many points of view could backfire and create a different kind of outside opinion.

  4. Jul 2016
    1. right insula (peak: 43,−13,−1)
      ID: 008
      Variable: gray matter density
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      Model: VBM
      AnatomicLocation: right insula
      PeakLocation: 43,−13,−1
      
    2. right globus pallidus (peak: 16,−2,−7)
      ID: 007
      Variable: gray matter density
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      Model: VBM
      AnatomicLocation: right globus pallidus
      PeakLocation: 16,−2,−7
      
    3. globus pallidus differences were driven by increased GM volume in BD compared to both HV and SMD.
      ID: 007
      Interpretation: increased GM volume in BD compared to both HV and SMD
      
    4. Post-hoc analyses indicated that between-group differences in the cortical clusters were driven mainly by increased GM volume in HV compared to both BD and SMD,
      ID: 006
      Interpretation: increased GM volume in HV compared to both BD and SMD
      
      ID: 008
      Interpretation: increased GM volume in HV compared to both BD and SMD
      
      ID: 009
      Interpretation: increased GM volume in HV compared to both BD and SMD
      
    5. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, BA 9/46, peak: 41,52,16)
      ID: 009
      Variable: gray matter density
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      Model: VBM
      AnatomicLocation: right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
      PeakLocation: 41,52,16
      
    6. bilateral pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, BA 6/8, peak: 4,26,53)
      ID: 006
      Variable: gray matter density
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      Model: VBM
      AnatomicLocation: bilateral pre-supplementary motor 
      PeakLocation: 4,26,53
      
    7. trend difference in TBV (p=0.09), driven by a trend for larger TBV in HV than BD (p=0.08)
      ID:004
      Variable: TBV
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      P: 0.09
      Model: ANOVA
      Interpretation: TBV trend different between groups
      
      ID: 005
      Variable: TBV
      Groups: HV, BD
      P: 0.08
      Model: T-test
      Interpretation: TBV trend larger in HV compared to BD
      
    8. Age at scan differed between groups (p=0.001); the SMD group was younger than the BD (p<0.01) and HV (p=0.02) groups.
      ID: 001
      Variable: Age
      Groups: SMD, BD, HV
      P: 0.001
      Model: ANOVA
      Interpretation: Age Differed between groups
      
      ID: 002
      Variable: Age
      Groups: SMD, BD
      P: <0.01
      Model: T-test
      Interpretation: SMD younger than BD
      
      ID: 003
      Variable: Age
      Groups: SMD, HV
      P: 0.02
      Model: T-test
      Interpretation: SMD younger than HV
      
  5. Mar 2016
    1. The regions of interest (ROIs) in this study consisted of the amygdala and hippocampus with all other subcortical structures included in an exploratory way

      ID: BPwPsyStructuralVolumes Measure: Brain structure volumes AnalysisWorkflow: VolumetricWorkflow Data: BPwPsyStructuralData

      ID: BPwoPsyStructuralVolumes Measure: Brain structure volumes AnalysisWorkflow: VolumetricWorkflow Data: BPwoPsyStructuralData

      ID: HCStructuralVolumes Measure: Brain structure volumes AnalysisWorkflow: VolumetricWorkflow Data: HCStructuralData

      ID: SZStructuralVolumes Measure: Brain structure volumes AnalysisWorkflow: VolumetricWorkflow Data: SZStructuralData

    2. Significant diagnostic differences were seen in the left and right cerebral volumes in interaction with sex (right: F3,93 = 2.9, P = .04; left: F3,93 = 3.1, P = .04).
      ObservationID: 001
      ObservationDepVar: Diagnostic Groups
      ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume
      ObservationStat: what test was run? Pointer to StatisticMethod
      ObservationStatP: 0.04
      ObservationStatF: 3.1
      ObservationStatFDOF: 3
      ObservationStatFN: 93
      LinktoSourcedata: ???
      LinktoStatExec: ???
      
      ObservationID: 002
      ObservationDepVar: Diagnostic Groups
      ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume
      ObservationStat: what test was run? Pointer to StatisticMethod
      ObservationStatP: 0.04
      ObservationStatF: 2.9
      ObservationStatFDOF: 3
      ObservationStatFN: 93
      
    1. Total cerebral volume (TCV) was defined as all gray and white matter in the cerebrum and did not include CSF, cerebellum or brainstem.

      ID: StructuralVolumes Measure: TCV AnalysisWorkflow: VolumeAnalysis Data:

    2. volumetric measures of the CC, we utilized a comprehensive white matter parcellation method to subdivide the cerebral WM into peripheral and deep divisions based upon a set of topographic relationships and geometric constraints related to cortical and subcortical structures as guided by known generalized white matter organizational principles (Makris et al. 1999; Meyer et al. 1999)
      ID: CCvolumes 
      Measure: CCvol, CC1vol, CC2vol, CC3vol, CC4vol, CC5vol, CC6vol, CC7vol 
      AnalysisWorkflow: VolumeAnalysis 
      Data:
      
    3. cross-sectional area measurements were obtained for total CC and the seven subregions based on the subdivisions described by Witelson

      ID: CCareas Measure: CCarea, CC1area, CC2area, CC3area, CC4area, CC5area, CC6area, CC7area AnalysisWorkflow: VolumeAnalysis Data:

    4. Significant effects for TCV (F=18.1, p<0.01) and for age group-by-diagnosis interaction term (F=6.97, p<0.01) for the CC4 volumetric measurements were found
    5. Significant effects of TCV (F=19.4, p<0.01) and for age group-by-diagnosis interaction term (F=4.60, p=0.01) for the volumetric measurements of total CC were found
      ObsID: 002
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: HC_young, HC_old, BPD_young, BPD_old
      CovariateID: TCV
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 19.4
      P: <0.01
      
      ObsID:003
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: age group-by-diagnosis interaction term
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 4.60
      P: 0.01
      
    6. For the area measurement of the total CC, significant effects were also found for TCV (F=5.15, p=0.03) and age group-by-diagnosis interaction term (F=3.08, p=0.05).
      ObsID: 004
      MeasureID: CC area
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: TCV
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 5.15
      P: 0.03
      
      ObsID:005
      MeasureID: CC area
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: age group-by-diagnosis interaction term
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 3.08
      P: 0.05
      
    7. For CC2, significant effects were found for TCV in CC2 volume (F=12.64, p<0.01) and area (F=5.18, p=0.03) measurements, respectively
      ObsID: 014
      MeasureID: CC2 vol
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: TCV
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 12.64
      P: <0.01
      
      ObsID: 015
      MeasureID: CC2 area
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: TCV
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 5.18
      P: 0.03
      
    8. For CC1, area measurement found age (F=5.28, p=0.03) to be a significant covariate.
      ObsID: 013
      MeasureID: CC1 area
      GroupID: HC, BPD
      CovariateID: age
      StatID: ANOVA
      F: 5.28
      P: 0.03
      
    9. There was no significant difference between the younger BPD the younger HC.
      ObsID: 012
      ObsType: GroupComparison
      GroupID: BPD_young, HC_young
      MeasureID: CC Vol
      StatID: TTEST
      P: not significant
      
    10. Volumetric and area measurements found that the older HC (15.5 cc) had significantly larger total CC than the younger HC group (13.1 cc), whereas there was not a significant difference among the BPD age groups (13.6 and 13.7 cc).
      ObsID: 006
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: HC_old, HC_young
      CovariateID: Group
      StatID: TTEST
      P: significant
      
      ObsID: 007
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: HC_old
      MeanValue: 15.5
      Units: cc
      
      ObsID: 008
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: HC_young
      MeanValue: 13.1
      Units: cc
      
      ObsID: 009
      MeasureID: CC Vol
      GroupID: BPD_old, BPD_young
      CovariateID: Group
      StatID: TTEST
      P: not significant
      
      ObsID: 010
      MeasureID: CC area
      GroupID: BPD_old
      MeanValue: 13.6
      Units: cc
      
      ObsID: 011
      MeasureID: CC vol
      GroupID: BPD_young
      MeanValue: 13.7
      Units: cc
      
    11. The youths with BPD had a mean MRS score of 20.8±9.5 (range 0–38)
      ObsID: 001
      GroupID: BPD
      MeasureID: MRS
      StatID: Descriptive
      Mean: 20.8
      Std: 9.5
      RangeMin: 0
      RangeMax: 38
      
  6. Feb 2016
    1. ouths with BPD without psychosis had a significant inverse correlation between the MRS score and amygdala volumes (right: r = –0.411, P = .02; left: r = –0.379, P = .004). No significant correlations were found in the BPD with psychosis group.

      result

    2. In the youths with SZ, there was a significant inverse correlation between GAS score and left amygdala volume (r = –0.634, P = .011). Also, there was a significant correlation between MRS scores and the right NA (r = 0.634, P = .03).

      result

    3. HCs had increasing volumes with age in the thalamus (right: r = 0.38, P = .04; left: r = 0.36, P = .06). In addition, the right amygdala volume correlated with GAS scores in the HCs (r = 0.470, P = .01).

      result

    4. significant sex differences were observed in bilateral cerebrum and pallidum volumes across groups, with females having significantly smaller volumes than males.

      result

    5. The asymmetry indices for all structures also did not differ significantly between groups.

      result

    6. There were no between-group differences in the amygdala; however, there was significant diagnostic-by-sex interaction in the left amygdala (F3,93 = 3.0, P = .04). SZ males had the smallest left amygdala volume (effect size relative to other males = 0.65–1.23); this structure was actually enlarged relative to HC in the BPD groups

      ObservationID: ObservationDepVar: ObervationIndVar: ObservationType: ObservationQualitative: LinktoSourcedata:

    7. For the subcortical structures, the omnibus statistics showed no diagnostic differences in the hippocampus but did show a trend for diagnostic-by-sex differences in the left hippocampus (F3,93 = 2.3, P = .08); post hoc analyses showed that the diagnostic reduction was particularly marked in the female patient groups

      ObservationID: ObservationDepVar: ObervationIndVar: ObservationType:<br> ObservationQualitative:<br> LinktoSourcedata:

    8. Post hoc comparisons showed that both bipolar groups (with and without psychosis) had significantly smaller left and right cerebral volumes than HCs; this difference was even more marked in the female BPD groups. The SZ group did not differ significantly from the other groups.

      ObservationID: 003 ObservationDepVar: BPDwoPSY vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 004 ObservationDepVar: BPDwPSY vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 005 ObservationDepVar: BPDwoPSY vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 006 ObservationDepVar: BPDwPSY vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 007 ObservationDepVar: Female BPDwoPSY vs. Female HC ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 008 ObservationDepVar: Female BPDwPSY vs. Female HC ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: smaller volume LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 009 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 010 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. BPDwoPSY ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 011 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. BPDwPSY ObervationIndVar: Left Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 012 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. HC ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 013 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. BPDwoPSY ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

      ObservationID: 014 ObservationDepVar: SZ vs. BPDwPSY ObervationIndVar: Right Cerebral volume ObservationType: Post hoc ObservationQualitative: same LinktoSourcedata:

  7. Sep 2015
    1. every intermediate stepin the visitors’experience must be sufficientlymotivating that they make the choice of continuing to invest time and attention there

      Perhaps it will be interesting to watch for this on Wednesday

  8. Feb 2014
    1. Interdependence and Regeneration2c5c7 A very important feature to be noted from the discussion in this section bears upon the interdependence among the various types of structuring which are involved in the H-LAM/T system, where the capability for doing each type of structuring is dependent upon the capability for doing one or more of the other types of structuring. (Assuming that the physical structuring of the system remains basically unchanged during the system's operation, we exclude its dependence upon other factors in this discussion.) 2c5c7a This interdependence actually has a cyclic, regenerative nature to it which is very significant to us. We have seen how the capability for mental structuring is finally dependent, down the chain, upon the process structuring (human, artifact, composite) that enables symbol-structure manipulation. But it also is evident that the process structuring is dependent not only upon basic human and artifact process capabilities, but upon the ability of the human to learn how to execute processes--and no less important, upon the ability of the human to select, organize, and modify processes from his repertoire to structure a higher-order process that he can execute. Thus, a capability for structuring and executing processes is partially dependent upon the human's mental structuring, which in turn is partially dependent upon his process structuring (through concept and symbol structuring), which is partially dependent upon his mental structuring, etc. 2c5c7b All of this means that a significant improvement in symbol-structure manipulation through better process structuring (initially perhaps through much better artifacts) should enable us to develop improvements in concept and mental-structure manipulations that can in turn enable us to organize and execute symbol-manipulation processes of increased power. To most people who initially consider the possibilities for computer-like devices augmenting the human intellect, it is only the one-pass improvement that comes to mind, which presents a picture that is relatively barren compared to that which emerges when one considers this regenerative interaction. 2c5c7c We can confidently expect the development of much more powerful concepts pertaining to the manner in which symbol structures can be manipulated and portrayed, and correspondingly more complex manipulation processes that in the first pass would have been beyond the human's power to organize and execute without the better symbol, concept, and mental structuring which his augmented system provided him. These new concepts and processes, beyond our present capabilities to use and thus never developed, will provide a tremendous increased-capability payoff in the future development of our augmentation means.

      I think these notions of interdependence and regeneration are a very key observation.

  9. Nov 2013
    1. Yet I add the observation that if they had applied as many months as I have years to judg-ing these precepts accurately and to arranging them in order, I certainly do not doubt that they would have left us arts that are far truer and more distinct.

      an astute observation, in consideration of the advantages of time and distance allowing objective critique.