112 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Mar 2021
    1. Your validation functions should also treat undefined and '' as the same. This is not too difficult since both undefined and '' are falsy in javascript. So a "required" validation rule would just be error = value ? undefined : 'Required'.
    1. here is my set of best practices.I review libraries before adding them to my project. This involves skimming the code or reading it in its entirety if short, skimming the list of its dependencies, and making some quality judgements on liveliness, reliability, and maintainability in case I need to fix things myself. Note that length isn't a factor on its own, but may figure into some of these other estimates. I have on occasion pasted short modules directly into my code because I didn't think their recursive dependencies were justified.I then pin the library version and all of its dependencies with npm-shrinkwrap.Periodically, or when I need specific changes, I use npm-check to review updates. Here, I actually do look at all the changes since my pinned version, through a combination of change and commit logs. I make the call on whether the fixes and improvements outweigh the risk of updating; usually the changes are trivial and the answer is yes, so I update, shrinkwrap, skim the diff, done.I prefer not to pull in dependencies at deploy time, since I don't need the headache of github or npm being down when I need to deploy, and production machines may not have external internet access, let alone toolchains for compiling binary modules. Npm-pack followed by npm-install of the tarball is your friend here, and gets you pretty close to 100% reproducible deploys and rollbacks.This list intentionally has lots of judgement calls and few absolute rules. I don't follow all of them for all of my projects, but it is what I would consider a reasonable process for things that matter.
    1. This creates what is essentially an evolution process for the program, causing it to depart from the original engineered design. As a consequence of this and a changing environment, assumptions made by the original designers may be invalidated, introducing bugs.
    1. Personal and professional development will follow andultimately these very same characteristics and approaches will naturally transfer intopractice and in direct contact with young people

      what we learn when becoming youth workers is transferable to our practice, reflective of the necessity of openness and transparency. when we learn the value of these skills, we can demonstrate their value to the young people, and continue the learning journey together

    2. the better a student/youth worker knows himself/herself the more likely he/shewill be able to help others know themselves;

      the quality of training and the development of skills will impact on the growth of the young person



  3. Feb 2021
    1. step :direct_debit

      I don't think we would/should really want to make this the "success" (Right) path and :credit_card be the "failure" (Left) track.

      Maybe it's okay to repurpose Left and Right for something other than failure/success ... but only if we can actually change the default semantic of those signals/outputs. Is that possible? Maybe there's a way to override or delete the default outputs?

    2. This connects the failure output to the previous task, which might create an infinity loop and waste your computing time - it is solely here for demonstrational purposes.
  4. Jan 2021
    1. For the future, you should: Install LTS (Long-term support) versions as they have an 8-year life span (with Extended Security Maintenance) or 5 years without. The current LTS version is Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS Bionic Beaver released on July 26, 2018 with an EOL in April 2023. OR Carefully watch the EOL of the interim / development releases and upgrade frequently.
    1. Progress is made of compromises, this implies that we have to consider not only disadvantages, but also the advantages. Advantages do very clearly outweigh disadvantages. This doesn’t mean it perfect, or that work shouldn’t continue to minimize and reduce the disadvantages, but just considering disadvantages is not the correct way.
    2. I don’t find the software slow, I find the startup time for snap packages when the start for the first time on a session slow, but that has been improved, and it’s public that the snapcraft team has been working hard to improve that.
    1. There is seldom any good reason to use this option. Mixing ERB into your controllers defeats the MVC orientation of Rails and will make it harder for other developers to follow the logic of your project. Use a separate erb view instead.
    1. When you use target="_blank" with Links, it is recommended to always set rel="noopener" or rel="noreferrer" when linking to third party content. rel="noopener" prevents the new page from being able to access the window.opener property and ensures it runs in a separate process. Without this, the target page can potentially redirect your page to a malicious URL. rel="noreferrer" has the same effect, but also prevents the Referer header from being sent to the new page. ⚠️ Removing the referrer header will affect analytics.
  5. Dec 2020
  6. Nov 2020
  7. Oct 2020
    1. Teaching Tolerance offers some clear practices that can help establish connectedness:

      Are these not "techniques", "exercises", "manoeuvers", from the "front of the room"? I suppose the answer is that technique and leadership are necessary but not sufficient for building community, and that unlike a "best practice" in a controllable process, they may or may not resonate (and thus work) for any given person or group.

  8. Sep 2020
    1. With Svelte, components and files have a one-to-one relationship. Every file is a component, and files can't have more than one component. This is generally a "best practice" when using most component frameworks.
  9. Jul 2020
  10. Jun 2020
    1. Human Resource is a part that has changed step by step. Everything from an individual’s examination, the recruiting procedure to programming frameworks, has developed. Since HR patterns continue transforming, it is fundamental for you to keep awake to-date on the present patterns. Throughout the previous 10 years, the consideration of HR has been on worker fulfillment and representative commitment. Today, there are a few instruments just as must-have assets that help you to fabricate an illuminate HR culture. The following are seven developing HR trends. Audit Culture & Ceaseless Input One of the most anticipated HR patterns is the way of life of audits and ceaseless input in the working environment. The techniques that individuals use to give criticism have changed throughout the years. As an HR chief or an administrator, you should concentrate on improving your specializations by giving continuous and productive input. As indicated by a few examinations, most workers would incline toward constant audits or input rather than the yearly execution surveys. This is on the grounds that the training encourages them to know where they may be turning out badly, and offer them an opportunity to address themselves before the yearly assessment. They don’t need to trust that a year will realize where they turned out badly. Ceaseless criticism will likewise enable the association to develop and stay away from huge losses. Review Culture & Continuous Feedback We have come to discover that activity fulfillment and execution go together. Both appear to create whenever representatives have a chance to investigate their inventiveness. Most driving endeavors apply this information to offer the development of their workers. By creating frameworks that gauge and furthermore oversee execution, you can have the option to accelerate development and notice the noteworthy change. It is indispensable to elevate the solid execution of the executive hiring to both individual-level and hierarchical level on the off chance that you need your organization to succeed. Digitized Prizes & Acknowledgment Probably the best spark for most workers has been getting applause and acknowledgment from their chiefs. Each individual anticipates that the pattern should progress. We as a whole plan to see digitized prizes and acknowledgment. Consequently, to make your representatives beneficial, advanced acknowledgment is a pattern you have to execute. Another HR pattern expected is shared acknowledgment. Start by utilizing the social stages and offer a reasonable stage for your representatives to perceive and remunerate their commitment. HR Bots (AI Driven HR) Another intriguing HR pattern to the center is AI-driven HR. Despite the fact that it isn’t required to dispense with the standard human HR, it will change and help to investigate the information. It will likewise aid the essential redundant HR assignments. At the point when you utilize Artificial knowledge in selecting the workforce, you will have the option to kill inclination. It will assist with getting to the competitors dependent on their requirements without partiality. Learning the Executives Frameworks The requirement for aptitudes advancement is significant for every one of your representatives regardless of which phase of the profession they are right now. Steady learning is required to be among the most well known and developing HR inclines. It is basic for any association that needs to develop to give learning chances to all representatives. Through learning, your representatives can have the option to improve their abilities and have the option to give the best while working. Your association can have to learn the board frameworks that will assist you with checking and track your workers learning process precisely, and furthermore help to advance cooperation between different offices in your organization. Increment in Low Maintenance Business & Unexpected Workforce The Board In most progressive nations, there is a standard pattern where in excess of 40 percent of representatives are being employed on an unforeseen premise. This implies you have to become familiar with your workforce structure and whether you can reevaluate organizing it. You have to learn and comprehend the sort of frameworks and advances that can be actualized in your association. Despite the fact that it isn’t down to earth for any association to receive another workforce structure in a flash, it is fundamental to know about the rising HR patterns. Remember that your workforce is the most basic resource in your association. Utilization of Online Expertise Evaluations Online evaluations have likewise gotten progressively famous as a successful ability to the executive’s device. Representative evaluation is not, at this point pretty much agreeing to an association’s rules. It is presently an indispensable piece of the executive system. In the present profoundly serious worldwide economy, an association must have a grasp of what precisely the workforce knows, or doesn’t have the foggiest idea. Online appraisals including tests, overviews, tests, and tests have been utilized to alleviate the dangers of depending on negligible self-evaluation. Wellness & Health Applications to Create Representative Commitment Another essential HR functions pattern that most associations are required to concentrate on is wellness and wellbeing applications. Most organizations nowadays are concentrating on making life and work balance. In the event that you need your representatives to be beneficial, and to have the option to assemble a practical workforce, you have to adjust work and life. To accomplish this target, you can present health and wellness application for your workers. The applications will assist with making harmony between their expertise and their own lives. For instance, your representatives can approach dietary directing, yoga, and work and life advising among numerous others. From People Analytics to Analytics For The Individuals An absence of trust can impact numerous workforce investigation endeavors. On the off chance that the emphasis is fundamentally on productivity and control, workers will question if there are any advantages for them. In general there is a move to more worker driven associations, albeit now and again you can question how real the endeavors are to improve the representative experience. Posing the inquiry: “By what method will the representatives profit by this exertion?” is a decent beginning stage for a great many people examination ventures. It additionally assists with making purchase in, which turns out to be progressively significant. Simply estimating the “disposition” of workers, and other key individuals markers (efficiency, residency) doesn’t really carry advantages to representatives. It may really reverse discharge: workers feel that they are controlled, and their voice isn’t heard. Learning In the Progression of Work It has any kind of effect if a representative must look effectively for a learning module that the individual needs, or if that the small scale learning module is offered at a suitable second in the work process, in light of on-going perceptions of the conduct the worker. In the event that there is a gathering with organization X in your journal, your own learning help may ask: “Would you like to study organization X?”. In the event that you are stuck in structuring a troublesome Excel large scale, the Excel chatbot asks you: “Would I be able to assist you with designing the full scale?”. On the off chance that you have a gathering planned with a representative with a low presentation rating (the PC gets this data in the HRIS), you are offered a short module “how to manage to fail to meet expectations workers”. During your online deals call, you get recommendations in your screen on the most proficient method to improve the discussion (“Ask a few inquiries”, “Attempt to close”), and thereafter your discussion is contrasted and top tier models, bringing about some learning focuses. Comprehensive authority The desires workers and different partners have of authority, are frequently excessively high. Frequently you hear: “Change needs to begin at the top”, and “Pioneers need to show others how its done”. These kinds of articulations can be deadening. On the off chance that workers are sitting tight for directions from the top and get debilitated if their pioneers are not immaculate people, associations will be in an awful shape. Changing initiative into progressively comprehensive administration can be gainful to associations. Comprehensive initiative has been centredaround the attributes of the comprehensive head. It is additionally about the attributes of the association and the way to deal with initiative turn of events. I despite everything see numerous administration improvement educational plans that are develop customarily: a restrictive program for the best, a program for centre administrators and the leader program for high possibilities. Set-ups like this don’t strengthen comprehensive authority. Time for HR to start new methodologies. Efficiency In the most recent years, there has not been a great deal of spotlight on efficiency. We see a moderate change at the skyline. Generally, limit issues have been fathomed by enlisting new individuals. This has prompted a few issues. I have seen this multiple times in quickly developing scale-ups. As the development is constrained by the capacity the find new individuals, the choice rules are (regularly unknowingly) brought down, the same number of individuals are required quick. These new individuals are not as gainful as the current group. Since you have more individuals, you need more directors. Lower quality individuals and more administrators brings down profitability. Another methodology is, to concentrate more on expanding the profitability of the current representatives, rather than recruiting extra staff, and on improving the choice measures. Utilizing individuals examination, you can attempt to discover the qualities of top performing individuals and groups, and the conditions that encourage top execution. These discoveries can be utilized to build efficiency and to choose competitors that have the attributes of top entertainers. At the point when profitability expands, you need less individuals to convey similar outcomes. Corporate & Representative Activism Numerous associations are still deep down centered. The key inquiry is more “How might we take care of our issues?” than “how might we take care of issues in our general public?”. Taking responsibility for corporate social duty can be more than offering representatives the chance to do great on one day out of every year. Research by Povaddo indicated that the greater part of those working in America’s biggest organizations feel that corporate America needs to assume a progressively dynamic job in tending to significant cultural issues. There are sufficient issues to handle. Representatives are eager to contribute. HR can assume a significant job in encouraging and invigorating corporate/representative activism. Main concern While no individual can determine what HR patterns 2018 will offer, specialists and various examinations focuses towards representative fulfillment and advanced devices. In any case, one thing to be certain is that innovation will affect the HR office, and how they work. To remain on top of things, you should begin setting up your association at the earliest opportunity. Be that as it may, however the above HR patterns guarantee astounding occasions ahead, you ought to be mindful.You ought to think about computerized instruments as a help for your association procedures, and not for them to drive your association completely. It is urgent to be open and adaptable before grasping new innovations to help your HR office. Likewise, don’t dismiss the master plan in view of the accessibility of apparatuses and rising patterns. You have to learn, comprehend, break down and counsel generally before responding to any of the rising patterns. For instance, AI is a phenomenal device that is the eventual fate of HR and different offices. Notwithstanding, you have to become familiar with the advantages and the issues that can’t be unravelled by the Bots. Today, the HR office is not, at this point a help work. Henceforth, it is important to have appropriate framework this basic office

      HR Practices are very essential for your business to organize your business. In this article, we bring you top 10 Trending HR Practices In Organization.

    1. On April 24, the U.S. National Security Agency published an advisory document on the security of popular messaging and video conferencing platforms. The NSA document “provides a snapshot of best practices,” it says, “coordinated with the Department of Homeland Security.” The NSA goes on to say that it “provides simple, actionable, considerations for individual government users—allowing its workforce to operate remotely using personal devices when deemed to be in the best interests of the health and welfare of its workforce and the nation.” Again somewhat awkwardly, the NSA awarded top marks to WhatsApp, Wickr and Signal, the three platforms that are the strongest advocates of end-to-end message encryption. Just to emphasize the point, the first criteria against which NSA marked the various platforms was, you guessed it, end-to-end encryption.
  11. May 2020
  12. Apr 2020
    1. If you force people to frequently change their passwords, they will use bad passwords.
    2. Stop forcing users to change their passwords every 30, 60, or 90 days, and stop forcing users to include a mixture of uppercase, lowercase, and special charactersForcing users to change their passwords should only happen if there is reason to believe an organization has been breached, or if a new third-party data breach affects employees or users.
    3. These massive dumps of free passwords lower the cost of an attack dramatically. Password reuse or password guessing attacks are script kiddie stuff. Defending your organization against such threats is basic due diligence.
    1. it reminds me of IT security best practices. Based on experience and the lessons we have learned in the history of IT security, we have come up with some basic rules that, when followed, go a long way to preventing serious problems later.
    2. The fact is that it doesn’t matter if you can see the threat or not, and it doesn’t matter if the flaw ever leads to a vulnerability. You just always follow the core rules and everything else seems to fall into place.
    1. One suggestion is to check user's passwords when they log in and you have the plain text password to hand. That way you can also take them through a reset password flow as they log in if their password has been pwned.
    1. In 2017 NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) as part of their digital identity guidelines recommended that user passwords are checked against existing public breaches of data. The idea is that if a password has appeared in a data breach before then it is deemed compromised and should not be used. Of course, the recommendations include the use of two factor authentication to protect user accounts too.
    1. When processing requests to establish and change memorized secrets, verifiers SHALL compare the prospective secrets against a list that contains values known to be commonly-used, expected, or compromised.
    1. Once common practice, websites emailing you your password is now severely frowned upon. You'd often see this happen if you'd forgotten your password: you go to the "forgot password page", plug in your email address and get it delivered to your inbox. In fact, this is such a bad practice that there's even a website dedicated to shaming others that do this.
  13. Feb 2020
    1. Do Browse like a user wouldTake natural pauses that users would take to consume page contentFocus on the most common use cases, rather than all the possible use casesTake note of pages where forms/logins occur, you will likely need to complete some scripting there
    1. “the process of acquiring syntactic and lexical competence” in a language does not happen in a semester or in a year

      taking the time to read over what past consultants have worked on with this writer can be important to reinforcing the skills taught. comprehensive reporting is important as well. It's not enough to say that you worked on X with a writer; expand on where you think their progress is at. have they become proficient in this skill or is further support/reinforcement needed?

  14. Nov 2019
    1. This blog is aimed to help you figure out the most common UX fails that breakdown the mobile experience. Make sure to learn from the mistakes done by others and create a UX that would be loved and appreciated by the majority of your target audience.

    1. Published by the American Sociological Association, the article addresses best practices for meeting the needs of military students in sociology classes in higher education. Drawing on Knowles' andragogy, the authors give tips for course organization, feedback, content, and communication.


  15. Oct 2019
    1. Yes, absolutely, no two projects are alike. This step is moving towards a direction where we have a set of best practices for webpack isolated in a bundled package and can be maintained in isolation without impacting upgrades or end-user experience. If you have seen next.js or create-react-app they sort of do they same thing for ease and maintainability. Rails is a great example for this - there are some built-in best practices, opinionated defaults and gems that are hidden behind the scene plus power to do advance things where needed.
    1. make the teaching and learning problems caused by copyright the core issue we are solving with OER

      I still wonder to what degree open educational practices are necessarily or always tied to copyright. That is, can OEP be implemented on copyrighted texts?

  16. Sep 2019
    1. Supporting Personalised Learning Frequently mentioned throughout the interviews was the goal of allowing learners to explore their personal interests, culture and social context through assessment. Several participants sought to design assessment that allowed learners to tap into these aspects of their personal lives. Where learners could exercise choice and pursue projects of personal interest, a greater sense of ownership was observed. James commented that “they love the idea that they are in control of what they do”, when given more choice around assessment. Other participants suggested it was possible to have learners working on projects that could benefit their personal lives or professional trajectories as part of formal coursework. In her final assignment, Olivia provides the learners “absolute free reign in terms of what kind of a thing they produced.” Learners use their creative interests to develop resources for the course, as Olivia reflects “some opted for essays still, but other students created digital timelines, infographics, podcasts, comic books, videos.” Personalisation of assessment was suggested to allow learners to represent and situate themselves authentically and creatively through their work.

      Giving learners more autonomy in their learning is a great pedagogical principle, and in the context of the article focusing on learning design, I can see how this fits with "open" as it does require that the course design needs to be more "open" as in flexible to allow for this kind of learner autonomy. There is overlap here between authentic learning and open pedagogy.

  17. Apr 2019
    1. Two commonly used change strategies are clearly not effective: developing and testing “best practice” curricular materials and then making these materials available to other faculty and “top‐down” policy‐making meant to influence instructional practices.

      Would this be predicted by the Cynefin framework? Teaching problems are rarely obvious enough for "best" practices; "better" practices may be the best we can hope for.

  18. Mar 2019
    1. teachthought This particular page is entitled '20 simple assessment strategies you can use every day' but the reason it is listed here is because the page itself serves as a jumping off point for reviewing or learning about many educational theories and principles. This site may have been designed for K-12 teachers - I am not sure, but it is quite usable for those who teach adults. This is a place to come if you are interested in browsing - not if you have a specific thing you need at the moment. Rating 3/5

  19. Feb 2019
  20. Jan 2019
    1. onstrains and enables

      Is discourse seen as enforcing "hard" or "soft" boundaries? A hard boundary might be something outside of which all sense is lost, like "stars function mustard." A soft boundary might be something forbidden by custom, decorum, etc., like complaining about your spouse to a person who very recently lost their spouse in an accident.

    2. summary,

      super helpful summary. Commenting just to tag it.

    1. Inevitably, what I find reaffirms aspects of writing pedagogy I’m familiar with while giving me fresh ways to express it to the new audiences with whom I’m working.

      Teaching writing in STEM disciplines is beneficial for the students and the teacher.

  21. Nov 2018
    1. The paradox of resistance: critique, neoliberalism, and the limits of performativity

      I found this post from Sherri Spelic's post, "A Convention In My Mind.

    2. Relatedly, given the level of agreement among academics about the general direction of these changes, engagement with developing long-term, sustainable alternatives to exploitative modes of knowledge production has been surprisingly scattered.

      Alternative practices to exploitative knowledge production have not kept up with critiques.

  22. Sep 2018
    1. Unit 5 (Adding new article) Values and Practices and the Benefits (and challenges) Joung, Kyoung Hee, and Jennifer Rowley. “Scholarly Communication and Open Access: Perspectives from Korea.” Learned Publishing 30.4 (2017): 259–267. Web. This detailed article is a fantastic introduction to the South Korean scholarly publishing industry and its gradual shift to a Creative Commons licensed open access. Joung and Rowley describe a distinct tradition of scholarly publishing in Korea, most of which is in the not-for-profit sphere. While most Korean published journals make their articles freely available upon publication either at journal or society Web sites or at one of the vigorous government or research institute supported open repositories, the articles have not been technically open access in the sense that they can be shared and reused. Authors have as a rule retained control of their copyrights although this is changing as more authors seek to publish in prestigious international for-profit journals. The Korean government is committed to raising the profile of Korean research and development and it seeks to do this through CC licensed open access. The medical repository KoreaMed Synapse requires all journals in its repository to be open access with CC licensing. Similarly, OAK, the repository managed by the National Library of Korea, requires all papers deposited to be CC licensed. This tends to be true for the major national repositories. Joung and Rowley describe the different journal models and the ways in which they are moving to a sustainable CC OA.

  23. Aug 2018
    1. Numerous studies have suggested an association  between exclusionary discipline  practices and an array of serious educational, economic and social problems, including school avoidance and diminished educational engagement; decreased academic achievement; increased behavior problems; increased likelihood of dropping out; substance abuse; and involvement with juvenile justice systems. All of these problems are costly to the victims and to our society. They drive up the public costs associated with the aftermath of violence, substance abuse counseling, unemployment or underemployment, policing and the justice system, and much, much more.
  24. Jul 2018
    1. When we meet up, it’s not like, here’s my proprietary curriculum that you guys can buy from me. We’re realizing that we’ll all do better if we share parts of what we do, rather than trying hold on to these little pieces and sell it or charge for it. There’s other ways that us working together can help us find funding in other places and stay alive, and also be more relevant to the young people that we work with, which is really important.
  25. Jan 2018
    1. The frequent assessment of the use of standardized leading practices and processes

      How can I monitor and evaluate the use of our project management processes and practices for better project performance?

  26. Nov 2017
    1. This is certainly how the debate about licensing has played out.

      In fact, Rory McGreal adamantly argues that CC-BY-NC material is too restrictive to be called “OER”. We had a short exchange about this. In Quebec’s Cégep system, NC was the rule for reasons which are probably easy to understand. So the focus is on licenses, in this scene, not on practices. Hence the whole thing about Open Textbooks. Often made me wonder if any of these people had compared textbook-based teaching to any of the other modalities. In my teaching, textbooks are a problem, even when they’re open. Sure, some of those problems can be solved when you have access to the code and can produce your own textbook from that. That’s the typical solution offered in the GitHub sphere:

      Just Fork It!

      But the core problem remains: if you’re teaching with a textbook, you may not really be building knowledge with learners.

      (Should probably move this here.)

  27. Jul 2017
    1. (It's usually a mistake to pass back the concrete type of an error rather than error, for reasons discussed in the Go FAQ, but it's the right thing to do here because ServeHTTP is the only place that sees the value and uses its contents.)

      Good clarifying comment on when to pass back the concrete type of an error.

  28. May 2017
    1. group discussion

      Link to Lewis et al (2006) Lesson Study, Afflerbach et al (2008) modeling and explaining

  29. Jan 2017
    1. Component classes should be lean. They don't fetch data from the server, validate user input, or log directly to the console. They delegate such tasks to services.

      A really good point! Lean-ness is something to strive for.

  30. Oct 2016
  31. Jul 2016
    1. Page 6

      Computer-assisted research in the humanities, by contrast to the Cartesian story and traditional humanities practices, has almost always been collaborative. This is due to the variety of skills needed to implement digital humanities projects. It is also linked to the relationship between the practices of interpretation in the development of the tools of interpretation, be the tools for analyzing text or digital editions. Anyone who has used tools forged by another person is in collaboration, even if one isn't personally influencing the provider of the tools. The need to collaborate, though acknowledged in various ways, has been a professional hindrance, as anyone who submits a curriculum vitae for promotion listing nothing but co-authored papers knows.

    1. Page 223

      This is Borgman discussing the role of priority in the humanities

      cultural and historical events can be reinterpreted repeatedly. Prizes are based on the best interpretation rather than on the first claim to a finding.

    2. Page 219

      Humanities scholars integrate and aggregate data from many sources. They need tools and services to analyze digital data, as others do the sciences and social sciences, but also tools that assist them interpretation and contemplation.

    3. Page 215

      Borgman discussing the half-life of citations and humanities :

      while the half-life of literature is considered to be the longest in humanities, the large comparative study discussed earlier found the shortest citation age of an average article in humanities…. [another study] also found that the usage of history articles was much more concentrated in recent publications and was the usage of articles in economics or mathematics (the three fields studied). A close inspection revealed that the use of history articles was widely scattered across countries, without the clustering around classic articles from the other two fields. Although history can be considered within the humanities or the social sciences, comparisons between these findings do reinforce others conclusions that humanists’ may read current journal articles to keep up with their fields, but rely more heavily for their research on sources not covered by journal indexes. The findings also amplify concerns about the validity of citation studies of journal literature in humanities, given the reliance on monographic and archival sources. In sum, the humanities draw on the longest literature time span of any of the disciplines, and yet have the least amount of their scholarly literature online. So far, they are the discipline most poorly served by the publications component of the content later.

    4. Page 214

      Literature in the Humanities goes out-of-print long before it goes out of date, so efforts to make older, out-of-copyright books available greatly benefit these fields.

    5. Page 214

      Borgman notes that the bibliographic coverage of journal literature is shallow in the humanities. The ISI Arts and humanity citation Index only goes back to 1975. In Sciences it goes back to 1900. In the social sciences it goes back to 1956. Also SCOPUS does not include the humanities.

      What is interesting about this is that the humanities are the least cumulative of all the disciplines in the sense that they do not build on previous knowledge so much as we examine previous thought.

    6. Page 203

      Citation age of an average article is longest in the social sciences.

  32. Jun 2016
  33. screen.oxfordjournals.org screen.oxfordjournals.org
    1. ficially,then, the initiation of discursive practices appears similar to thefounding of any scientific endeavour, but I believe there is a funda-/ mental difference

      How initiators of discursive practices are different from founders of scientific schools or disciplines.

    2. other hand, Marx and Freud, as'initiators of discursive practices', not only made possible a certainnumber of analogies that could be adopted by future texts, but,as importantly, they also made possible a certain number of dif-ferences. They cleared a space for the introduction of elementsother than their own, which, nevertheless, remain within the fieldof discourse they initiated. In saying that Freud founded psycho-analysis, we do not simply mean that the concept of libido or thetechniques of dream analysis reappear in the writings of KarlAbraham or Melanie Klein, but that he made possible a certainnumber of differences with respect to his books, concepts, andhypotheses, which all arise out of psychoanalytic discourse.

      How Freud and Marx shift the paradigm: "not only made possible a certain number of analogies that could be adopted by future texts, but, as importantly, they also made possible a certain number of differences."

      I don't find the "differences" part convincingly expressed, but I think he means that they created domain-boundaries: not just, "here's the id, you can use it" but also "hey, we can analyse dreams."

    3. The distinctive contribution of these authors is that they pro-duced not only their own work, but the possibility and the rulesof formation of other texts. In this sense, their role differs entirelyfrom that of a novelist, for example, who is basically never morethan the author of his own text. Freud is not simply the author ofThe Interpretation of Dreams or of Wit and its Relation to theUnconscious and Marx is not simply the author of the CommunistManifesto or Capital: they both established the endless possibilityof discourse. Obviously, an easy objection can be made. The authorof a novel may be responsible for more than his own text; if heacquires some 'importance' in the literary world, his influence canhave significant ramifications. To take a very simple example, onecould say that Ann Radcliffe did not simply write The Mysteriesof Udolpho and a few other novels, but also made possible theappearance of Gothic Romances at the beginning of the nine-teenth century. To this extent, her function as an author exceedsthe limits of her work. However, this objection can be answeredby the fact that the possibilities disclosed by the initiators of dis-cursive practices (using the examples of Marx and Freud, whomI believe to be the first and the most important) are significantlydifferent from those suggested by novelists. The novels of AnnRadcliffe put into circulation a certain number of resemblances andanalogies patterned on her work - various characteristic signs,figures, relationships, and structures that could be integrated intoother books. In short, to say that Ann Radcliffe created the GothicRomance means that there are certain elements common to herworks and to the nineteenth-century Gothic romance: the heroineruined by her own innocence, the secret fortress that functions as

      Really useful passage to compare to Kuhn. This is basically an argument about paradigm shifters and normal science as applied to literature.

    4. I believe that the nineteenth century in Europe produced asingular type of author who should not be confused with 'great'literary authors, or the authors of canonical religious texts, andthe founders of sciences. Somewhat arbitrarily, we might call them'initiators of discursive practices'.

      Has another category: people like Marx and Freud (and I'd say Darwin) who constructed theories that are productive in other works as well. These are "initiators or discursive practices."

      This ties in well with Kuhn's paradigms.

    5. alue of a text by ascertaining the holiness of its author. In

      prove the value of a text by asserting the holiness of its author.

      This is ironically what T&P committees do.

    1. ights (1, 3, 5) are summed to(a) estimate each individual’s overall contribution, whichcan range from 1–35 (735 being the maximum possiblescore), and (b) determine the sequence in which coauthors’names are listed on the resultant publication.

      Insanely detailed matrix: function by contribution level

    2. To date, more than 500 journals have adopted theICMJE’s (1997) principles of authorship as laid out in the5th edition of theUniform Requirements for ManuscriptsSubmitted to Biomedical Journals(Klein, 1999; Stern,2000). According to these concrete guidelines, candidateauthors must satisfy three conditions. They must make:“. . . substantial contributions to (a) conception and design,or analysis and interpretation of data; and to (b) drafting thearticle or revising it critically for important intellectualcontent; and on (c) final approval of the version to bepublished.” Laudable though these guidelines are, it is un-likely that they will solve the problem. A study by Hoen etal. (1998) in the Netherlands found that authors and theircoauthors did not always agree with one another’s assess-ments that the ICMJE criteria had been met. In the UK,Bhopal et al.’s (1997) survey of medical researchers dis-covered that, although most respondents concurred with thethree criteria (more than 80% in each case), a majority(62%) did not feel that all three conditions should have to besatisfied to warrant author status. F

      problems with the ICMJE's author definition

    3. Rennie, Yank, andEmanuel (1997) that the distinction between the two modesof credit allocation is inherently artificial. Consequently,they have argued for explicit description of all individualcontributions as a means of eliminating ambiguity. Such aproposal would remove both authorship and acknowledg-ment from the frame, a really quite significant break withscholarly publishing tradition. This alternative amounts to aradical model of authorship attribution in contrast to thestandard model

      Rennie, Yank, and Emanuel 1997 argue that acknowledgements and authorship can't be disentangled.

    4. The explosion of coauthorship naturally raises the ques-tion why authorial surplus could not be accommodated inthe acknowledgment sections that accompany the great ma-jority of scientific articles.

      Why can't explosion of coauthors be contained in acknowledgements?

      [[because "authorship" (in the sense of writing) is simply not important enough to be an above the fold thing

    5. eceiving credit under false pretenses,are cause for grave concern (Anderson, 1991).

      on receiving credit under false pretences

    6. Under the standard model, the rights and responsibilitiesof authorship are clearly apprehended by all parties: authors,editors, referees, and readers. In appending my name to thisarticle I am nailing my colors to mast; if the article attractscritical approval, is discussed, quoted, and, in due course,cited in the scholarly literature, I shall be happy to bank thesymbolic capital which accrues to me as author and origi-nator. If the paper is challenged because of exiguity oftheoretical, historical, or empirical heft, I shall simply haveto face the music: there are no coauthors to help deflectcriticism. Likewise, if I am challenged for drawing toosparingly, selectively, or generously on the ideas and workof others, I understand the possible consequences. However,I have chosen not to hide behind the cloak of anonymity, orbypass the rigors of peer review by posting a version of thispaper on my Web site; rather, I want to publicize my ideasamong my peers, and the best way to do that, and signify mytrustworthiness, is to pursue publication in an accreditedforum. As a serial author, I am fully cognizant of the rightsand responsibilities of authorship. I understand the norms ofscholarly publishing, and I am aware of the sanctions thatmay be invoked if infractions occur. Should the argumentsin this paper prove flawed, no one but myself is to blame,and that includes those whom I have named in the acknowl-edgments section. If the paper attracts attention, I shall behappy to bask in the glow.

      Great discussion of why scientists/scholars author and what they accept and risk as a result

    7. n the realm of periodical publications,the sovereignty of the standard model is being most hotlycontested in biomedical research fields, where intense levelsof professional collaboration and coauthorship are common-place (Croll, 1984; Rennie & Flanagin, 1994; Rennie, Yank,& Emanuel, 1997; Rennie & Yank, 1998; King, 2000).Proposals for reform, which seek to retire the concept ofauthorship and replace it with a scheme for the allocation ofspecific, task- or job-related credits (e.g., Squires, 1996;Smith, 1997) are not only being debated by editors andothers, but are being adopted by leading scientific journal

      On how credit and authorship is being debated in medical publishing (with bibliography)

    8. ncidentally, parallel,though not quite so dramatic, growth has been observed inthe number of individuals being formally acknowledged inscholarly journals for their multifarious contributions: whathas become known as subauthorship collaboration (Patel,1973; Heffner, 1979, 1981; Cronin, 1995, Cronin,2001)—an important, if underappreciated, indicator of in-formal scientific collaboration

      on underappreciated nature of acknowledgements

    9. s Rennie and Flanagin(1994) remind us, there is no standard method for determin-ing order, nor any universalistic criteria for conferring au-thorship status:

      bibliography on authorship practices

    10. lphabetization through weightedlisting to reverse seniority (e.g., Spiegel & Keith-Spiegel,1970; Riesenberg & Lundberg, 1990).

      bibliography on authorship ranking and practices

  34. Feb 2014
    1. For example, imagine you are annotating the second page of a New York Times article. You probably want to see your annotation when you are looking at the article later as a single page, right? Or perhaps you've annotated the HTML for a PLOS ONE article. Wouldn't you like to see those annotations when you are looking at the PDF version of the same article? If annotations were only associated with the URL you happened to be looking at in your browser then the scenarios above would not work, because the documents being annotated all have different URLs.

      Publisher Best Practices is a great idea that I would like to see codified in the authoring and publishing tools to make the practices commonplace by default.

      I would like to mix PBP with other techniques, though, for richer connection between source and rendering-- I have some source mapping ideas that make it possible to keep annotations linked even as the original source is edited over time.

  35. Jan 2014
    1. This primer describes a few fundamental data management practices that will enable you to develop a data management plan, as well as how to effectively create, organize, manage, describe, preserve and share data

      Data management practices:

      • create
      • organize
      • manage
      • describe
      • preserve
      • share
    1. data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing
      • data accessibility
      • discovery
      • re-use
      • preservation
      • data sharing