176 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2021
  2. Apr 2021
    1. Trevor Bedford. (2021, January 14). After ~10 months of relative quiescence we’ve started to see some striking evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with a repeated evolutionary pattern in the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern emerging from the UK, South Africa and Brazil. 1/19 [Tweet]. @trvrb. https://twitter.com/trvrb/status/1349774271095062528

  3. Feb 2021
  4. Nov 2020
    1. gametes

      These are an organisms reproductive cells which are commonly called sex cells. There are female gametes which are ova or egg cells and the male gametes which are called sperm. Gametes are haploid cells that carry only one copy for each chromosome.

  5. Oct 2020
    1. Passive transport

      The process of moving ions and other atomic/molecular substances across the cell membranes without the need of an input of energy. Instead, it relies on the system to grow during entropy.

    1. micro9laments

      Microfilaments are also known as actin filaments; which, are protein filaments that are within the cytoplasm that form part of the cytoskeleton of an Eukaryotic Cell. They help in the process of cell movement via the actin working with another protein myosin that create muscle movements, cytoplasmic streaming, and cell division.

    1. messenger RNA (mRNA)

      This is a single strand on an RNA molecule that leaves the the nucleus of a cell in order to relocate to the cytoplasm. This is where the mRNA can help create the protein for the cell in a process known as protein synthesis. The mRNA takes in information passed into it by DNA and decode it for the ribosomes to make more protein for the cell to live on.

  6. Sep 2020
    1. Le Bert, N., Tan, A. T., Kunasegaran, K., Tham, C. Y. L., Hafezi, M., Chia, A., Chng, M. H. Y., Lin, M., Tan, N., Linster, M., Chia, W. N., Chen, M. I.-C., Wang, L.-F., Ooi, E. E., Kalimuddin, S., Tambyah, P. A., Low, J. G.-H., Tan, Y.-J., & Bertoletti, A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls. Nature, 584(7821), 457–462. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2550-z

  7. Aug 2020
    1. Mateus, J., Grifoni, A., Tarke, A., Sidney, J., Ramirez, S. I., Dan, J. M., Burger, Z. C., Rawlings, S. A., Smith, D. M., Phillips, E., Mallal, S., Lammers, M., Rubiro, P., Quiambao, L., Sutherland, A., Yu, E. D., Antunes, R. da S., Greenbaum, J., Frazier, A., … Weiskopf, D. (2020). Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd3871

    1. Ferretti, A. P., Kula, T., Wang, Y., Nguyen, D. M., Weinheimer, A., Dunlap, G. S., Xu, Q., Nabilsi, N., Perullo, C. R., Cristofaro, A. W., Whitton, H. J., Virbasius, A., Olivier, K. J., Baiamonte, L. B., Alistar, A. T., Whitman, E. D., Bertino, S. A., Chattopadhyay, S., & MacBeath, G. (2020). COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2. MedRxiv, 2020.07.24.20161653. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.20161653

    1. Unterman, A., Sumida, T. S., Nouri, N., Yan, X., Zhao, A. Y., Gasque, V., Schupp, J. C., Asashima, H., Liu, Y., Cosme, C., Deng, W., Chen, M., Raredon, M. S. B., Hoehn, K., Wang, G., Wang, Z., Deiuliis, G., Ravindra, N. G., Li, N., … Cruz, C. S. D. (2020). Single-Cell Omics Reveals Dyssynchrony of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Progressive COVID-19. MedRxiv, 2020.07.16.20153437. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20153437

  8. Jul 2020
  9. Jun 2020
    1. Governments’ use of purchased location data has exploded in recent months, as officials around the world have sought insights on how people are moving around during the Covid-19 pandemic. In general, governments have assured their citizens that any location data collected by the marketing industry and used by public health entities is anonymous. But the movements of a phone give strong clues to its ownership—for example, where the phone is located during the evenings and overnight is likely where the phone owner lives. The identity of the phone’s owner can further be corroborated if their workplace, place of worship, therapist’s office or other information about their real-world activities are known to investigators.

      private data is not anonymous as is purported

  10. May 2020
    1. Grifoni, A., Weiskopf, D., Ramirez, S. I., Mateus, J., Dan, J. M., Moderbacher, C. R., Rawlings, S. A., Sutherland, A., Premkumar, L., Jadi, R. S., Marrama, D., de Silva, A. M., Frazier, A., Carlin, A., Greenbaum, J. A., Peters, B., Krammer, F., Smith, D. M., Crotty, S., & Sette, A. (2020). Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals. Cell, S0092867420306103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015

  11. Dec 2019
  12. Nov 2019
    1. in Figure 1A,B: (I) The NP reaches the membrane surface via diffusion. (II) The NP diffuses over the water–membrane interface

      In fact, in the simulation a potential is applied to drive the particles towards the membrane so neither (I) nor (II) can be described as free diffusion.

  13. Oct 2019
    1. Based on the values of the partition function as well as the difference in time scale between the leakage process and the entry process (seconds or minutes vs nanoseconds), we assume that a steady-state condition is rapidly reached. Therefore, by comparing eq 5 with eq 4, we find that

      These words are confusing. If they assume that I(t) is proportional to [GDQ]m then equations 4 and 5 are simply identical with two different notations. I can see no reasonable reason to assume that though.

  14. Sep 2019
    1. c is a constant that depends on

      How does it depends on these things? How can the authors compare experimental results to theory without explaining this information?

    2. the GQD concentration inside the vesicle and the bilayer

      "inside the bilayer" and "inside the vesicle" are two different things.

    3. 2 to 8

      "2 to 8 nm" is a huge range given; the range covered by figure 5 does not extend beyond 2.5 nm. One can guess that the probability of a low density lipid fluctuation extending over 8 nm is essentially zero.

    4. biolabeling

      Ref 6 (2013) does not demonstrate wide use in biolabelling. It is a synthesis and proof of principle paper. 6 years later, no biologist are using these materials for their imaging needs. However there are tons more of papers about the "emerging" carbon nanomaterials for imaging. The paper has a figure about uptake in cells. It says nothing about the mechanisms of uptake and it is not possible to conclude from the data provided.

    5. wound disinfection

      Carbonaceous NPs are not widely used in wound disinfection. This 2014 paper propose the idea and doing experiments on bacteria and on mice. It contains very little about interaction of the NPs with cells.