47 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. with perhaps a dash of British formality and wit

      type design is cultural

    2. created a Greek alphabet carefully honed to convey scientific meaning rather than typical Greek-language prose

      type design as a means to convey scientific meaning

  2. Oct 2019
    1. When you request a file from raw.githubusercontent.com, gist.githubusercontent.com, bitbucket.org or gitlab.com, they are usually served (in the case of JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and some other file types) with a Content-Type of text/plain. As a result, most modern browsers won't actually interpret it as JavaScript, HTML, or CSS.
    1. Let's make the example even easier. function convertDate<T extends string | undefined>(isoDate?: string): T { return undefined } 'undefined' is assignable to the constraint of type 'T' Means: What you return in the function (undefined), matches the constraints of your generic type parameter T (extends string | undefined). , but 'T' could be instantiated with a different subtype of constraint 'string | undefined'. Means: TypeScript does not consider that as safe. What if you defined your function like this at compile time: // expects string return type according to generics // but you return undefined in function body const res = convertDate<string>("2019-08-16T16:48:33Z") Then according to your signature, you expect the return type to be string. But at runtime that is not the case! This discrepancy that T can be instantiated with a different subtype (here string) than you return in the function (undefined) is expressed with the TypeScript error.
    1. In the body of the function you have no control over the instantiation by the calling context, so we have to treat things of type T as opaque boxes and say you can't assign to it. A common mistake or misunderstanding was to constraint a type parameter and then assign to its constraint, for example: function f<T extends boolean>(x: T) { x = true; } f<false>(false); This is still incorrect because the constraint only restricts the upper bound, it does not tell you how precise T may really be.
    1. These typeof type guards are recognized in two different forms: typeof v === "typename" and typeof v !== "typename", where "typename" must be "number", "string", "boolean", or "symbol". While TypeScript won’t stop you from comparing to other strings, the language won’t recognize those expressions as type guards.
    2. Type Guards
  3. Sep 2019
  4. Jun 2019
  5. varsellcm.r-forge.r-project.org varsellcm.r-forge.r-project.org
    1. missing values are managed, without any pre-processing, by the model used to cluster with the assumption that values are missing completely at random.

      VarSelLCM package

  6. May 2019
  7. Mar 2019
    1. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator can be one way to learn about oneself as a student or teacher and can be a way to help teachers consider how they should present information so as to reach learners of all types (and/or how they should be careful to present information for types other than their own). This is the main site; others can be found that focus specifically on education, but I thought their own site should be featured. Rating 3/5

  8. Feb 2019
  9. Jan 2019
    1. De nition of the evolution model by SPL main-tainer.
    2. Validations provided bySPLEmmainclude structural veri- cations onfms and mappings (YourCastde nes a meta-model for the de nition of relationships) as well as correctconstruction ofContributions. As the previous evolutions in-volvefmchanges, we use generic preconditions related tofmconsistency
    3. roblem Space(PS),containing feature models, can also need modi cationson theCon guration Knowledge(CK) or mappingsand theSolution Space(SS)
    4. Currently, as soonas we let anyone contributing, we have to ensure thecorrectness of the code through continuous integrationservices.
  10. Oct 2018
    1. a design briefing a development methodology or tools an interaction technique an interactive system a reflective analysis results from fieldwork and ethnography, e.g., findings, guidelines, etc. results from laboratory studies, e.g., findings, techniques, methods, etc. theory or model.

      type of contributions

    1. Pharmacologic Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes

      ADA-EASD Consensus Report reflects current treatment recommendations as endorsed by the ADA and the PPC.

      On October 5, 2018, the consensus report “Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: ADA-EASD Consensus Report 2018” was published. The consensus report was developed by a writing group consisting of representatives from the ADA and EASD. The consensus report addresses approaches to glycemic management in adults with type 2 diabetes with the goal of reducing complications and maintaining quality of life in the context of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management and patient-centered care. The ADA Professional Practice Committee (PPC) was involved in the review and approval of the final consensus report. The consensus recommendations and approach to glycemic management in adults with type 2 diabetes presented within the report reflects the current view of the ADA. Please find a link to the consensus document here: http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dci18-0033

      Reference:

      Davies MJ, D’Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G, Rossing P, Tsapas A, Wexler DJ, Buse JB: Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care Oct 2018; DOI: 10.2337/dci18-0033

      Rationale/Reason for Change:

      Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: ADA-EASD Consensus Report 2018 reflects current treatment recommendations as endorsed by the ADA and the PPC.

      Annotation published: October 5, 2018. Annotation approved by PPC: September 20, 2018.

      Suggested citation: American Diabetes Association. 8. Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018 [web annotation]. Diabetes Care 2018;41(Suppl. 1):S73–S85. Retrieved from https://hyp.is/1p2zesvFEeioRdNqCoou5A/clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/1/14

    1. You have to tell Java the type of the variable because Java needs to know how many bits to use and how to represent the value.

      Why do we have to include the type when declaring a variable?

  11. Mar 2018
  12. Nov 2017
  13. Aug 2017
    1. The first note in Biovista Vizit the free unbiased visual pubmed search tool using hypothes.is

      Here is an example graph (click to go to the live graph)

  14. Jul 2017
  15. Jan 2016
    1. Neurons within a type also tended to have the same dendritic arborization pattern and electrophysiological properties, but as for L23 interneurons, these properties were often not cell type–specific (figs. S3, C and F, and S4).

      So, dendritic patterns not unique but axonal patterns unique.

    2. The remaining five types have not been previously described in L5, and we named them as follows: neurogliaform cells (L5NGCs), basket cells (L5BCs), shrub cells (SCs), horizontally elongated cells (HECs), and deep-projecting cells (DCs)

      New classifications for layer 5 interneurons

    3. L23 Martinotti cells

      Layer-based classification

    4. owever, many of them (~60%) had atypical axonal projection patterns compared to those previously described for SBCs, and their axon arborized mostly within L1, with only one or two side branches extending to deep layers (not deeper than L4). Despite their variable axonal projection patterns, non-neurogliaform L1 neurons shared similar dendritic and electrophysiological features (tables S1 and S2) and similar connectivity profiles (table S3) that correspond to SBCs in rat somatosensory cortex (5, 12). We thus refer to this group as SBC-like cells

      Qualification: SBC-like cells

    5. neurogliaform cells
  16. Dec 2015
    1. Since ducks can both swim and fly, each duck is found twice inC, once labeled as aflyer and once labeled as a swimmer. The typesAandBare kept disjoint inC, whichjustifies the name “disjoint union.”

      The disjoint union reminds me of algebraic datatypes in functional programming languages, whereas a set-theoretic union is more like a union in CS: the union has no label associated with it, so additional computation (or errors) may arise due to a lack of ready information about elements in the union.

    2. An aspect of a thingxis a way of viewing it, a particular way in whichxcan be regardedor measured. For example, a woman can be regarded as a person; hence “being a person”is an aspect of a woman. A molecule has a molecular mass (say in daltons), so “havinga molecular mass” is an aspect of a molecule. In other words, byaspectwe simply meana function. The domainAof the functionf:A—Bis the thing we are measuring, andthe codomain is the set of possible “answers” or results of the measurement.

      Naïvely (since my understanding of type theory is naïve), this seems to mesh with the concepts of inheritance for the "is" relationships, and also with type-theory more generally for "has" relationships, since I believe we can view any object or "compound type", as defined here, as being a subtype of another type 'o' if one of its elements is of type 'o'. Though we have to be careful for functional mapping when thinking of aspects: we can't just say Int is an aspect of Pair(Int, Int), since this is ambiguous (there are two ints) --- we must denote which Int we mean.

    3. We represent eachtype as a box containing asingular indefinite noun phrase.
    4. In 1980 Joachim Lambek showed that the types and programs used in computerscience form a specific kind of category. This provided a new semantics for talking aboutprograms, allowing people to investigate how programs combine and compose to createother programs, without caring about the specifics of implementation. Eugenio Moggibrought the category theoretic notion of monads into computer science to encapsulateideas that up to that point were considered outside the realm of such theory.
  17. Jul 2015
    1. The line breaking algorithm can also be used to correct the line breaks made by the browser. The easiest way to do is to split a text up into lines and adjust the CSS word-spacing property. Unfortunately, Webkit based browsers do not support sub-pixel word-spacing. Alternatively, we can absolute position each word or split the line into segmants with integer word spacing. You can see the latter approach in action on the Flatland line breaking example.

      Notes on how to apply TeX line-breaking algorithm to web content by using CSS word-spacing property

  18. Apr 2015
  19. Feb 2014
    1. Chapter 1, The Art of Community We begin the book with a bird’s-eye view of how communities function at a social science level. We cover the underlying nuts and bolts of how people form communities, what keeps them involved, and the basis and opportunities behind these interactions. Chapter 2, Planning Your Community Next we carve out and document a blueprint and strategy for your community and its future growth. Part of this strategy includes the target objectives and goals and how the community can be structured to achieve them. PREFACE xix Chapter 3, Communicating Clearly At the heart of community is communication, and great communicators can have a tremendously positive impact. Here we lay down the communications backbone and the best practices associated with using it

      Reading the first 3 chapters of AoC for discussion in #coasespenguin on 2013-02-11.