208 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Faria, N. R., Mellan, T. A., Whittaker, C., Claro, I. M., Candido, D. da S., Mishra, S., Crispim, M. A. E., Sales, F. C. S., Hawryluk, I., McCrone, J. T., Hulswit, R. J. G., Franco, L. A. M., Ramundo, M. S., Jesus, J. G. de, Andrade, P. S., Coletti, T. M., Ferreira, G. M., Silva, C. A. M., Manuli, E. R., … Sabino, E. C. (2021). Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2644

    1. Trevor Bedford. (2021, January 14). After ~10 months of relative quiescence we’ve started to see some striking evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with a repeated evolutionary pattern in the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern emerging from the UK, South Africa and Brazil. 1/19 [Tweet]. @trvrb. https://twitter.com/trvrb/status/1349774271095062528

    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

  2. Apr 2021
  3. Mar 2021
    1. Originally he had used the terms usage scenarios and usage case – the latter a direct translation of his Swedish term användningsfall – but found that neither of these terms sounded natural in English, and eventually he settled on use case.
    1. Studies of great ape behavior show that they are good at cooperating in situations where there is no potential of deception, but behave egotistically in situations where there are motives for deception, suggesting that their "lack of cooperativeness" is not a lack of a cognitive ability at all, but rather a necessary adaptation to a society full of deception.[citation needed] This suggests that human cooperativeness began when proto-humans began to successfully avoid competition, which is also supported by the fact that the oldest evidence of care for the long-term sick and disabled are from shortly after the first emigration of hominins out of Africa about 1.8 million years ago

      successfully avoiding competition was key to humans doing super well vs the egotistical, competitive, & deceiving ways of apes

      being able to cooperate and get around deception/defection was key to humans doing so well

      .. and you can see how we evolved white sclera so others can better follow our gaze, hence work with us

      wow! (ape sclera is dark)

    1. What's more, watching the debates happening in real-time has really driven home that this approach doesn't just scale, it scales well. For a personal site, incremental improvement measured against real-world testing feels okay. For an industry-level protocol or specification, it feels like it should just collapse. Yet with the IndieWeb, not only is their work surprisingly resilient, it's far more adaptable as a result.

      think also "move slow and fix things"...

    1. This creates what is essentially an evolution process for the program, causing it to depart from the original engineered design. As a consequence of this and a changing environment, assumptions made by the original designers may be invalidated, introducing bugs.
    1. There's an interesting suggestion associated with this, that periodic fasting causes autophagy, which Taleb claims is an evolutionary process by which the weaker proteins are broken down first. If this is true, then always having a full stomach is another way of subsidizing the unfit and weakening the organism.

      This will depend on a very specific and narrow definition of fitness--perhaps one from a very individualistic and libertarian perspective.

      There is fitness at the level of the gene, the organ, the individual, and the group, and even possibly larger groupings above that.

      What if, by starving out and leaving "uneducated" people like Srinivasa Ramanujan, for example, who surely was marginalized for his time, society is left without them? While on an individual level Ramanujan may have been less fit on some levels as G.H. Hardy and may have otherwise dwindled and disappeared, Hardy adopted him and made both mathematicians better while also making dramatic strides for mankind.

      From a statistical mechanics perspective, within some reasonable limits, we should be focusing on improving ourselves as well as the larger group(s) because the end results for humanity and life in general may be dramatically improved. (Though what we mean by improved here may be called into question from a definitional perspective.)

      Compare this with [Malcolm Gladwell]]'s argument in My Little Hundred Million.

      On a nationalistic level within human politics, Republicans should be less reticent to help out marginalized Americans because it may be from this pool of potential that we may find life saving improvements or even protection from other polities (ie, in our competition or threats from countries like China, Iran, North Korea). Consider how different things may have been had the U.S. not taken in Jewish or other foreign nationals like Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, etc. in the early to mid-1900s.? Now consider, which life changing geniuses we may be preventing reaching their potential by our current immigration policies? our current educational policies?

    2. This, of course, makes it possible to report observations without specifying causes. One of the observations Taleb makes is that "Humans tend to do better with acute than with chronic stressors, particularly when the former are followed by ample time for recovery." (70) Is this true? In what domains? Probably in weight training. I'm not so sure in response to Black Swans.

      acute famine is better than chronic famine as an example.

      What are some examples of Black Swans in this instance? If there are any solid examples of Black Swans, they're most likely to cause death and not be survivable.

    1. I think that over time the distinction is lost. My math teacher, 35 years ago stated "formulas are used in chemistry, in math we have equations". To this day, the word 'formula' in math seems wrong, but I'd accept it's used commonly.
  4. Feb 2021
    1. which have recently become umbrella terms referring to any piece of quickly-consumed comedic or relatable content
    1. The Chicago Manual of Style and the Associated Press (AP) both revised their formerly capitalized stylization of the word to lowercase "internet" in 2016.[3] The New York Times, which followed suit in adopting the lowercase style, said that such a change is common practice when "newly coined or unfamiliar terms" become part of the lexicon.
    2. The spelling "internet" has become often used, as the word almost always refers to the global network; the generic sense of the word has become rare in non-technical writings.

      rare to see "internet" used to mean an internetwork in the general sense

    1. Teilhard consistentlyargued that,“the main movement in the universe has been, and is, a groping towards consciousness.”262Evolution, in hisview, exhibits a tendency towards increasing complexity and “cerebralisation.”263To date, this process has resulted in the emergence of humans, highly complex creatures thathave in turn given rise to a new “‘thinking layer,’” or noosphere—the complex web of collective thought and technologies that have dramatically extended humanity’s reach within the biosphere.264

      The tendency to ascribe a telos to evolution is an interesting trend here. It's essentially anthropomorphizing Darwin's ideas in ways that don't really track the reality. Natural selection is after what is adaptive in a particular context, it does not actually have to trend towards greater complexity and greater minds.

    1. Hodcroft, E. B., Domman, D. B., Oguntuyo, K., Snyder, D. J., Diest, M. V., Densmore, K. H., Schwalm, K. C., Femling, J., Carroll, J. L., Scott, R. S., Whyte, M. M., Edwards, M. D., Hull, N. C., Kevil, C. G., Vanchiere, J. A., Lee, B., Dinwiddie, D. L., Cooper, V. S., & Kamil, J. P. (2021). Emergence in late 2020 of multiple lineages of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein variants affecting amino acid position 677. MedRxiv, 2021.02.12.21251658. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.12.21251658

  5. Jan 2021
    1. Strongly influenced by Darwin’s ideas about evolution, the British anthropologist Edward Tylor (1832–1917), and his American counterpart Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881), both published important works in the 1870s arguing that human societies had evolved from a state of savagery (primitive hunting) through barbarism (simple farming) to civilization (the highest form of society). Morgan’s book, Ancient Society (1877), was partly based on his great knowledge of living Native Americans.
    2. There was no awareness that any kind of coherent history of the periods before the development of writing was possible at all. In the words of the Danish scholar Rasmus Nyerup (1759–1829): Everything which has come down to us from heathen-dom is wrapped in a thick fog; it belongs to a space of time which we cannot measure. We know that it is older than Christendom, but whether by a couple of years or a couple of centuries, or even by more than a millennium, we can do no more than guess.

      This is particularly interesting in light of the research of Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell who within about 50 years dramatically changed the viewpoint of history.

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    1. Progress is made of compromises, this implies that we have to consider not only disadvantages, but also the advantages. Advantages do very clearly outweigh disadvantages. This doesn’t mean it perfect, or that work shouldn’t continue to minimize and reduce the disadvantages, but just considering disadvantages is not the correct way.
    2. I don’t find the software slow, I find the startup time for snap packages when the start for the first time on a session slow, but that has been improved, and it’s public that the snapcraft team has been working hard to improve that.
  6. Dec 2020
    1. This is known as multilevel selection, which “recognises that fitness benefits can sometimes accrue to individuals through group-level effects, rather than always being the direct product of the individual’s own actions”, as Dunbar defines it.

      Group level effects. An argument against religion being maladaptive.

    2. Any human phenomenon that exists is a human phenomenon that became what it is.

      There is a starting point to everything.

  7. Nov 2020
    1. In the case of email, it can be argued that the widespread use of the unhyphenated spelling has made this compound noun an exception to the rule. It might also be said that closed (unhyphenated) spelling is simply the direction English is evolving, but good luck arguing that “tshirt” is a good way to write “t-shirt.”
    1. The deletions leading to SP formation were nearly always flanked by short, near-perfect sequence homologies with lengths of 7–15 base pairs (Supplementary Table 1), suggesting that SPs may form through RecA-independent processes

      deletion in plasmid fragments evolution

  8. Oct 2020
    1. As a social enforcement mechanism, gossip does not scale.

      Gossip does not scale to larger groups as an enforcement mechanism for social norms.

    2. Human evolution produced gossip. Cultural anthropology sees gossip as an informal way of enforcing group norms. It is effective in small groups.

      Gossip evolved as a strategy to enforce group norms and it is effective in small groups.

    1. Les tendances qui se dessinentL’évolution du droit européen en la matière semble entrevoir un cadre plus libéral, c’est notamment en ce sens que l’on appelle la liberté de panorama
    1. In the meantime, the classification of viruses remains unclear. Tupanviruses seem to be dependent on their hosts for very little, and other viruses, according to one preprint, even encode ribosomal proteins. “The gap between cellular organisms and viruses is starting to close,” Deeg said.

      Is there a graph of known viruses categoriezed by the machinery that they do or don't have? Can they be classified and sub-classified so that emergent patterns come forward thus allowing us to trace back their ancestry?

    2. “It’s remarkable that viruses seem to mingle into the translational domain so extensively,” said Matthias Fischer, a virologist at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Germany who was not involved with either study.
    1. Henrich, who directs Harvard’s Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, is a cultural evolutionary theorist, which means that he gives cultural inheritance the same weight that traditional biologists give to genetic inheritance. Parents bequeath their DNA to their offspring, but they—along with other influential role models—also transmit skills, knowledge, values, tools, habits. Our genius as a species is that we learn and accumulate culture over time. Genes alone don’t determine whether a group survives or disappears. So do practices and beliefs. Human beings are not “the genetically evolved hardware of a computational machine,” he writes. They are conduits of the spirit, habits, and psychological patterns of their civilization, “the ghosts of past institutions.”
  9. Sep 2020
    1. HARs are short stretches of DNA that while conserved in other species, underwent rapid evolution in humans following our split with chimpanzees, presumably since they provided some benefit specific to our species. Rather than encoding for proteins themselves, HARs often help regulate neighboring genes. Since both schizophrenia and HARs appear to be for the most part human-specific, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between the two.dfp.loadAds("right2","MPU2","dfp-right2-article-1")Advertisement

      Schizophrenia is unique to humans. There are also regions that human and other species have, but have undergone more rapid evolution in humans called Human Accelerated regions (HAR).

      Maybe these HARs and Schizophrenia are linked.

      Also HARs are regions whose purpose is to regulate the expression of other genes, not so much directly code for a protein.

    1. Subsequent research produced a picture of how differently Ju/’hoansi and other small-scale forager societies organised themselves economically. It revealed, for instance, the extent to which their economy sustained societies that were at once highly individualistic and fiercely egalitarian and in which the principal redistributive mechanism was “demand sharing” — a system that gave everyone the absolute right to effectively tax anyone else of any surpluses they had. It also showed how in these societies individual attempts to either accumulate or monopolise resources or power were met with derision and ridicule.
  10. Aug 2020
    1. Candido, D. S., Claro, I. M., Jesus, J. G. de, Souza, W. M., Moreira, F. R. R., Dellicour, S., Mellan, T. A., Plessis, L. du, Pereira, R. H. M., Sales, F. C. S., Manuli, E. R., Thézé, J., Almeida, L., Menezes, M. T., Voloch, C. M., Fumagalli, M. J., Coletti, T. M., Silva, C. A. M. da, Ramundo, M. S., … Faria, N. R. (2020). Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd2161

    1. Guo, L., Boocock, J., Tome, J. M., Chandrasekaran, S., Hilt, E. E., Zhang, Y., Sathe, L., Li, X., Luo, C., Kosuri, S., Shendure, J. A., Arboleda, V. A., Flint, J., Eskin, E., Garner, O. B., Yang, S., Bloom, J. S., Kruglyak, L., & Yin, Y. (2020). Rapid cost-effective viral genome sequencing by V-seq. BioRxiv, 2020.08.15.252510. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.15.252510

    1. Alfred Russel Wallace, who came up with the idea of natural selection independently of Charles Darwin, was an implacable opponent of the smallpox vaccine during the late 19th Century

      Being an anti-vaxxer makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint.

      Fixing any disease that could kill an individual before his/her childbearing age is only helping weaknesses (diseases) propagate in the human populous.

  11. Jul 2020
  12. Jun 2020
    1. I think this makes a strong case that you want somewhere between 0 and 100% competition so that you can climb out of wells in an energy landscape. It also identifies group selection as only being possible in two level systems where evolution is happening at both levels.

    1. If a screwed up word or phrase is useful and people like it, it becomes a word. Language nazi’s hate this - but it’s true. Dictionary writers love it because it keeps them employed.
  13. May 2020
    1. In evolutionary terms, certainly, because the individuals that show these traits have a higher chance of survival in the long term.

      Not surprisingly, nature is a great teacher. Not until the 1950s and Johnny von Neumann did game theory get developed, but it was found that tit for tat with forgiveness is the optimal model. In other words, altruism or as Henry Ford called it, enlightened self-interest (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Game_theory)

  14. Apr 2020
    1. While Web site is still doing well in the U.S., it is all but dead in the U.K. Current Google News searches limited to U.K. publications find only about one instance of Web site (or web site) for every thousand instances of website. The ratio is similar in Australian and New Zealand publications. In Canada, the ratio is somewhere in the middle—about 20 to one in favor of the one-word form.
    1. English tends to build new compound nouns by simply writing them as separate words with a blank. Once the compound is established (and the original parts somewhat "forgotten"), it's often written as one word or hyphenated. (Examples: shoelaces, aircraft...)
    2. Web site / website seems to be somewhat in a transitional stage, being seen as an "entity" that web page hasn't reached yet. Depending on which dictionary you check you will find web site and website, but only web page, not webpage.
    1. Networks  of civic engagement increase the potential cost to defectors who risk  benefits from future transactiaction. The same networks foster norms of  reciprocity that are reinforced by the networks of relationships in  which reputation is both balued and discussed. The same social networks  facilitate the flow of reputational information.

      How can we build some of this into social media networks to increase the level of trust and facts?

    2. Norms that  support social trust evolve because they lower transaction costs and  facilitate cooperation, conferring benefits upon cooperators.
    1. Nous vivons déjà une nouvelle révolution sexuelle, grâce aux technologies qui ont transformé la façon dont nous sommes reliés les uns les autres dans nos rapports intimes. Mais nous croyons qu’une deuxième vague de technologies sexuelles commence à se manifester, et qu’elles transforment la façon dont certaines personnes perçoivent leur propre identité sexuelle.

      "Nous croyons" implique ici que l'auteur ne se base pas sur des faits prouvés. Il est possible que, plus que le début d'une nouvelle vague, la deuxième vague de technologie est l'evolution naturelle de la première vague technologique. Avec la première vague a débuté un développement d'addiction à internet, comme présenté par Kimberley Young en 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOSYmLER664; cette addiction a pu mener à une société qui devient de plus en plus incomfortable avec le vrai contact humain et qui se tourne donc naturellement vers des partenaires virtuels.

  15. Mar 2020
    1. Mon fils ou ma fille vont-ilspouvoir passer les épreuves écrites du DNB? A quelle date?Les dates des épreuves écrites terminales du DNB ont été publiées: il s’agit des 29 et 30 juin 2020 pour la métropole. A ce jour, ce calendrier est maintenu. Mais évidemment les choses peuvent évoluer en fonction des évolutions de la situation. Une idée préside à toutes les décisions: ne pas léser les élèves.
    2. Les sujets du DNB vont-ils être adaptés à la situation?(programmes allégés?)A ce jour, aucune suppression ou modification des examens nationaux, ni aucun allègement de programmes ne sont prévus. En tout état de cause, il sera tenu compte des circonstances exceptionnelles que notre pays traverse.
    3. Mon fils ou ma fille vont-ilspasser son épreuve orale du DNB? A quelle date?Les parents d’élèves seront informés régulièrement de l’évolution de la situation et des prescriptions applicables via tous les canaux usuels (courriels, SMS, affichages extérieurs à l’entrée de l’établissement ainsi qu’en mairie).La situation étant évolutive, vous êtes invités à consulter régulièrement l’ENT, la messagerie et/ou le site de l’établissement.
    1. The development of bilateral symmetry was a critical step in the evolution of animal life, giving organisms the ability to move purposefully and a common, yet successful way to organize their bodies. A multitude of animals, from worms to insects to dinosaurs to humans, are organized around this same basic bilaterian body plan.

      How does this work?

  16. Nov 2019
    1. In his Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, Rousseau, anticipating the language of Darwin, states that as the animal-like human species increased there arose a "formidable struggle for existence" between it and other species for food.[34] It was then, under the pressure of necessity, that le caractère spécifique de l'espèce humaine—the specific quality that distinguished man from the beasts—emerged—intelligence, a power, meager at first but yet capable of an "almost unlimited development". Rousseau calls this power the faculté de se perfectionner—perfectibility.[35] Man invented tools, discovered fire, and in short, began to emerge from the state of nature. Yet at this stage, men also began to compare himself to others: "It is easy to see. ... that all our labors are directed upon two objects only, namely, for oneself, the commodities of life, and consideration on the part of others."
  17. Sep 2019
    1. Evolution, as we understand it, and as it must be studied by the human intellect, is the story of the evolution of consciousness, and not the story of the evolution of the form. This latter evolution is implicit in the other, and of secondary importance from the occult angle. ~Alice Bailey

    1. “In biology, you never have a single cell doing something. You have a group of cells,” Emonet said. “The diversity will affect the average performance of the group.”

      Important even at the level of companies and nations. Diversity is a good thing.

  18. Jul 2019
    1. If all giant viruses turn out to share translation-related genes that are unique to their group, then it would mean they had a large common ancestor, an ancient virus that diversified over time, and it would lend support to the idea that giant viruses started out big and constitute their own domain of life.
    2. That mingling has sparked contentious debate among scientists about when and how giant viruses evolved. All of viral evolution is murky: Different groups of viruses likely had very different origins. Some may have been degenerate “escapees” from cellular genomes, while others descended directly from the primordial soup. “Still others have recombined and exchanged genes so many times in the course of evolution that we will never know where they originally came from,” Fischer said.
  19. Jun 2019
    1. volatility and leverage are co-determined and arepro-cyclical; that is, together, they amplify the impact ofshocks. The mechanism, to be specific, is that decliningvolatility reduces the cost of taking on more leverage andfurthers a buildup of risk. The lesson: Risk managers mustresist the temptation to sell volatility when it is low andfalling. The AMH implicitly embraces modeling suchbehavior with heterogeneous agents that use heuristics.
  20. May 2019
    1. ical. Evolutionary history shows not only how humans have steered the evolution of other species through breeding, hybridization, and direct genetic manipulation but also how human actions have produced unintended evolutionary consequences, such as pesticide res

      Evolution by natural selection vs. breeding by deliberate selection.

    1. En général, nous croyons que l’évolution est une sorte de lutte pour la sélection du meilleur. C’est une lecture inventée par les darwinistes sociaux, qui va donner naissance à toute une série d’horreurs, comme l’eugénisme. Pour Darwin, le processus de l’évolution sélectionne non le meilleur mais le plus adapté, ce qui est complètement différent.
    1. virtue of his possession of an immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity

      Therefore our ethics must be an ethics of increasing complexity.

  21. Mar 2019
    1. Like in evolution, the process does not change toward some fixed goal according to some fixed rules, methods or standards, but rather it changes away from the pressures exerted by anomalies on the reigning theory (Kuhn 1962, 170–173). The process of scientific change is eliminative and permissive rather than instructive.

      This is similar to evolution: not guided, but not random. Does this view contradict the idea of progression?

      It also suggests a complex dynamic system that possess path dependence and environmental interaction.

  22. Feb 2019
    1. n they will share similar genes, but it 18is the phenotype –upon which selection acts –which is crucia

      There two important things to note.

      1. If the same genetic programme leads to two phenotypes because of the environment, this falls in the category of epigenetics. Epigenetic processes are usually not tree-like, hence, poorly modelled by inferring a tree.

      2. You implicitly assume (via your R-script) that homoiologies (in a strict sense, i.e. parallelism) are rare and not beneficial (neutral). But if the homoiology is beneficial (i.e. positively selected for), it will be much more common in a clade of close relatives than the primitive phenotype (the symplesiomorphy). We can further assume that beneficial homoiologies will accumulate in the most-derived, advanced, specialised taxa, in the worst case (from the mainstream cladistic viewpoint) mimicking or even outcompeting synapomorphies. A simply thought example: let's say we have a monophylum (fide Hennig) with two sublineages, each sublineage defined by a single synapormorphy. Both sublineages radiate and invade in parallel a new niche (geographically separated from each other) and fix (evolve) a set of homoiologies in adaptation to that new niche. The members of both sublineages with the homoiologies will be resolved as one clade, a pseudo-monophylum, supported by the homoiologies as pseudo-synapomorphies. And the actual synapomorphies will be resolved as plesiomorphies or autapomorphies.

      Without molecular (and sometime even with, many molecular trees are based on plastid in plants and mitochondria in animals, and both are maternally inherited, hence, geographically controlled) or ontological-physiological control it will be impossible to make a call what is derived (hence a potential homoiology) and what ancestral in a group of organisms sharing a relative recent common origin and a still similiar genetic programme.

    1. Yet, Lysenkoism is first of all a method of inserting ideology into scientific discussions. This is true for historical Lysenkoism, which appealed to Marxism-Leninism to prove Mendelian genetics wrong.

      Isn't it true also for Neo-Darwinists who disguise themselves with a fake objectivity while providing a full support for the existing world-order, and not acknowledging any potential bias they (may) have? If it's the pigheadedness that's criticized there, why isn't it framed as such? Propaganda side of biology cannot be dismissed that easily as in, say, physics, simply because biology deals with higher-level constructs that are more familiar and hence, more relevant for day-to-day life of an ordinary human being. ==> see Biology as ideology by Richard Lewontin

    2. Despite the fact that some environmentally induced changes are heritable, these effects are not stable [30Becker C. Weigel D. Epigenetic variation: origin and transgenerational inheritance.Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2012; 15: 562-567Crossref PubMed Scopus (62) Google Scholar]. Specifically, it has been shown that in large populations of Arabidopsis most ‘epi-mutations’ are labile — after only a few generations, these base-pair methylations revert to their original state. Hence, epigenetic modifications in plants are of very limited significance for evolutionary processes. Accordingly, neo-Lamarckian (including Lysenkoist) concepts have been experimentally refuted by these trans-generational epigenetic analyses [30Becker C. Weigel D. Epigenetic variation: origin and transgenerational inheritance.Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2012; 15: 562-567Crossref PubMed Scopus (62) Google Scholar].

      Just one citation and that to an opinion article? Interesting...

    1. In amplifying our intelligence, we are applying the principle of synergistic structuring that was followed by natural evolution in developing the basic human capabilities. What we have done in the development of our augmentation means is to construct a superstructure that is a synthetic extension of the natural structure upon which it is built. In a very real sense, as represented by the steady evolution of our augmentation means, the development of "artificial intelligence" has been going on for centuries.

      Engelbart explicitly noted that what he was trying to do was not just hack culture, which is what significant innovations accomplish, but to hack the process by which biological and cultural co-evolution has bootstrapped itself to this point. Culture used the capabilities provided by biological evolution -- language, thumbs, etc. -- to improve human ways of living much faster than biological evolution can do, by not just inventing, but passing along to each other and future generations the knowledge of what was invented and how to invent. Engelbart proposes an audio-visual-tactile interface to computing as a tool for consciously accelerating the scope and power of individual and collective intelligence.

    2. there is not enough mutation and selection activity, nor enough selection feedback, to permit very significant changes.

      This was written in 1962! I wonder how he would reflect on things today. He's basically describing the need for more technology mutation as a means of cognitive evolution; more complex augmentation. The dependency dynamic is interesting.

    1. Speech and thought arc inseparable, in Vico'., view: They evolve together.

      Is this in terms of the individual or a communal/societal sense? Or both? I took it to mean both on the individual and societal levels, but I want to make sure I am interpreting this correctly.

  23. Jan 2019
    1. My argument is that today the critical posthumanities are emergingas post-disciplinary discursive fronts not only around the edges ofthe classical disciplines but also as o

      What if we view the posthumanities as it's own evolutionary process? Much like the "Dawn of Humanity" film explained with human evolution, the posthumanities could be seen as evolving as a braided stream alongside the classical disciplines.

  24. Dec 2018
  25. Sep 2018
    1. variability amongst males

      Does it need to be a mate-related thing? Why not an environmental one. I seem to recall that external temperature had a marked effect on the sexual selection within alligator populations such that a several degree change during gestation would swing the sex proportion one way or another. Could these effects of environment have caused a greater variability?

      Further, what other factors may be at play? What about in sea horse populations where males carry the young? Does this make a difference?

    2. Our prehistoric ancestors were not doing higher mathematics, so we would need to think of some way that being on the spectrum could have caused a man at that time to become highly attractive to women.

      One needs to remember that it isn't always the men that themselves need to propagate the genes directly (ie, they don't mate with someone to hand their genes down to their progeny directly). Perhaps a man on the autism spectrum, while not necessarily attractive himself, has traits which improve the lives and fitness of the offspring of his sister's children? Then it's not his specific genes which are passed on as a result, but those of his sister's which have a proportion of his genes since they both share their parent's genes in common.

    1. keenest attachments, and whose natural gifts may be, if we do not squander or destroy them, exactly what we need to flourish and perfect ourselves—as human beings.

      Kass' implications in the quote indicates the potential biotechnology has on the human psyche. Although biotechnology has the ability to forge new paths in curing feeble human (or in essence, any living thing) traits, such as sickness and suffering, it can be further exploited to enhance physical traits. However, Kass' tonality shines light that when this technology is fully developed, humans will lose sight of what they formerly relied on "keenest attachments" Therefore, it is of great significance that the limbs (keenest attachments) are used to "...perfect ourselves-as human beings." and not misused or ultimately destroyed.