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  1. Sep 2021
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhgwIhB58PA

      Learning styles have been debunked.

      Learning styles: V.A.R.K. model originated by Neil Flemiing stands for:

      • visual
      • auditory
      • reading/writing
      • kinesthetic

      References:

      Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105-119. — https://ve42.co/Pashler2008

      Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G. (2015). The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266-271. — https://ve42.co/Willingham

      Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style?. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(4), 321-335. — https://ve42.co/Massa2006

      Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 42(5), 32-35.— https://ve42.co/Riener2010

      Husmann, P. R., & O'Loughlin, V. D. (2019). Another nail in the coffin for learning styles? Disparities among undergraduate anatomy students’ study strategies, class performance, and reported VARK learning styles. Anatomical sciences education, 12(1), 6-19. — https://ve42.co/Husmann2019

      Snider, V. E., & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 873–886. doi:10.1002/pits.20272 — https://ve42.co/Snider2007

      Fleming, N., & Baume, D. (2006). Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!. Educational developments, 7(4), 4. — https://ve42.co/Fleming2006

      Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P. (2015). Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of educational psychology, 107(1), 64. — https://ve42.co/Rogowskyetal

      Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall, Elaine; Ecclestone, Kathryn (2004). — https://ve42.co/Coffield2004

      Furey, W. (2020). THE STUBBORN MYTH OF LEARNING STYLES. Education Next, 20(3), 8-13. — https://ve42.co/Furey2020

      Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. S., & Klavas, A. (2002). Survey of research on learning styles. California Journal of Science Education II (2). — https://ve42.co/Dunn2002

    1. The minds of other people can also supplement our limited individual memory. Daniel Wegner, a psychologist at Harvard, named this collective remembering “transactive memory.” As he explained it, “Nobody remembers everything. Instead, each of us in a couple or group remembers some things personally — and then can remember much more by knowing who else might know what we don’t.” A transactive memory system can effectively multiply the amount of information to which an individual has access. Organizational research has found that groups that build a strong transactive memory structure — in which all members of the team have a clear and accurate sense of what their teammates know — perform better than groups for which that structure is less defined.

      Transactive memory is how a group encodes, stores, and shares knowledge. Members of a group may be aware of the portions of knowledge that others possess which can make them more efficient.

      How can we link this to Cesar Hidalgo's ideas about the personbyte, etc.?

      How would this idea have potentially helped oral cultures?

      She uses the example of a trauma resuscitation team helping to shorten hospital stays, but certainly there are many examples in the corporate world where corporate knowledge is helpful in decreasing time scales for particular outcomes.

    2. Some studies in the field of physics education found that students’ understanding of the subject is less accurate after an introductory college physics course.

      The idea of learning by doing may have even more profound effects based on the idea of grounding. Experience in the physical world may dramatically inform experiences with the theoretical world.

    1. Social learning does not mean learning without tension or argument. In “Thinking with Peers”, Paul shows that argument and conflict are useful ways to focus attention and strengthen ideas, so long as the arguing is done with a certain amount of openness to new ideas. She approvingly quotes Stanford Business School professor Robert Sutton’s formula for productive conflict: “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” The brain, it seems, likes conflict. Or, at least, conflict helps strengthen attention.

      I wonder how this may be leveraged with those who are using Hypothes.is for conversations in the margins in classrooms?

      cc: @remikalir, @jeremydean, @nateangell

      Could teachers specifically sow contention into their conversations? Cross reference the idea of a devil's advocate.

      I love the aphorism:

      “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” — Robert Sutton, Stanford Buisness School professor's formula for productive conflict

    2. Imitation, Paul says, allows us to think with other people’s brains. It is a key technique — globally and transhistorically — for learning, from babies imitating parents to apprentices imitating masters. And yet imitation is seen in contemporary US society, and schooling especially, as so debased that it is frequently punished. In fact, if Paul is correct (and I think she is, and have thought so for years when teaching writing), we should build imitation into many more of our lesson plans.

      On the importance of imitation...

      I'm reminded of Benjamin Franklin imitating what he thought were good writers to make his own writing more robust.

      See: https://via.hypothes.is/https://www.gutenberg.org/files/20203/20203-h/20203-h.htm

      Maybe the aphorism: "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery," should really be "Imitation is the sincerest form of learning."

    1. Researchers of online courses in community colleges found that the level of interpersonal interaction was the best predictor of how well an online course did.

      Research shows that the level of interpersonal interaction is the best predictor for how well an online course does.

      Reference for this??

    1. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons decreased with long-day exposure and increased with short-day exposure in relation to control

      A decreased amount of TH-IR neurons means that less dopamine is being produced; this was observed when the rats were given long-day exposure (19 hours of light, 5 hours of darkness). Short-day exposure (5 hours of light, 19 hours of darkness) resulted in the number of TH-IR neurons increasing, a sign of greater dopamine production. These results were all relative to the control group, rats that experienced a balanced-day with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

    2. Genetic programs establish initial expression patterns of neurotransmitters in different classes of neurons (1–3), and activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification modifies them during development, either adding or switching transmitters (4–9). It is unknown, however, whether sensory stimuli promote transmitter switching in addition to other neuroplastic changes (10) in the adult brain.

      It is known that the young developing brain is able to add or switch the transmitters that their neurons express. The question guiding this research is whether sensory stimuli can cause the already mature (adult) brain to experience changes in the types of transmitters that are produced by their neurons.

    1. 27

      The dual coding theory, proposed in the 1970s by Allan Palvio, suggests that the brain processes information using two primary channels: verbal and visual.

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    1. a class of attacks that were enabled by Privacy Badger’s learning. Essentially, since Privacy Badger adapts its behavior based on the way that sites you visit behave, a dedicated attacker could manipulate the way Privacy Badger acts: what it blocks and what it allows. In theory, this can be used to identify users (a form of fingerprinting) or to extract some kinds of information from the pages they visit
    1. https://fs.blog/2021/07/mathematicians-lament/

      What if we taught art and music the way we do mathematics? All theory and drudgery without any excitement or exploration?

      What textbooks out there take math from the perspective of exploration?

      • Inventional geometry does

      Certainly Gauss, Euler, and other "greats" explored mathematics this way? Why shouldn't we?

      This same problem of teaching math is also one we ignore when it comes to things like note taking, commonplacing, and even memory, but even there we don't even delve into the theory at all.

      How can we better reframe mathematics education?

      I can see creating an analogy that equates math with art and music. Perhaps something like Arthur Eddington's quote:

      Suppose that we were asked to arrange the following in two categories–

      distance, mass, electric force, entropy, beauty, melody.

      I think there are the strongest grounds for placing entropy alongside beauty and melody and not with the first three. —Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM, FRS (1882-1944), a British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician in The Nature of the Physical World, 1927

  2. Aug 2021
    1. These applications also rely on sending a large amount of information to the cloud, which causes a new set of problems. One regards the sensitivity of the information. Sending and storing so much information in the cloud will entail security and privacy challenges. Application developers will have to consider whether the deluge of information they’re sending to the cloud contains personally identifiable information (PII) and whether storing it is in breach of privacy laws. They’ll also have to take the necessary measures to secure the information they store and prevent it from being stolen, or accessed and shared illegally.

      See federated machine learning for a discussion on how we might avoid some of these challenges.

    1. Empower managers to facilitate effective learning transfer As Fergal explains, managers have a key role to play in facilitating effective learning transfer. “Research shows that managers play the most critical role in learning transfer - especially in the post-training environment. Every learner needs a manager who understands them, and how they want to learn and grow. They need to have the right coaching style, and they need the right resources.”In most organizations, instructional design focuses on the needs of the learner. But as Fergal explains, focusing on the needs of your managers can pay dividends. “Ideally, you’d have the manager attend the same training as the learner. The problem is, managers are always stretched. So, what you can do instead is develop specific guidance for your managers.” Provide a script for managers to support their team’s learning

      many managers are not used to the coaching-for development approach, or take a hands-off approach to supporting learning and development - managers need to be proactive, and can use support from the L&D team on how to facilitate effective learning transfer / discussions with their teams

    1. Effective self-directed learning requires a careful blend of employee autonomy and manager support. Employees want to learn to be better at their jobs, advance their skills, and further their careers, but they often don’t know where to start. More than half of employees report they would happily spend more time training if their managers offered specific guidance and recommendations. Encourage employees to set their own learning goals under the supervision of their managers.

      self-directed learning still needs support, and can be a common mistake for operational managers to think that providing a budget, and a course catalog is enough to get the most out of L&D programs - this is a mistake.

    2. Conversely, a proactive training environment is more democratic. Learning is typically bottom-up, with employees playing an active role in identifying potential learning needs, setting their own learning paths, and even contributing to course materials.
      • I like the phrasing of proactive training environment, might be a better term to use than 'permissive learning environment'
      • democratize learning at work
    3. Reactionary training is an expense

      need to move from reactionary training to proactive and anticipatory training

    1. The first step in translating experience, either of other men's writing, or of your own life, into the intellectual sphere, is to give it form. Merely to name an item of experience often invites you to explain it; the mere taking of a note from a book is often a prod to reflection. At the same time, of course, the taking of a note is a great aid in comprehending what you are reading.

      on the purpose of taking notes, annotating one's reading, or commonplacing

      highlight is a quote from

      C. Wright Mills' profound "Appendix: On Intellectual Craftsmanship," as found in his book on The Sociological Imagination.[16]

    1. When I follow a tutorial, I like to play with the code. Instead of copy/pasting the provided code verbatim, try experimenting with it: what happens if you omit one of the lines? Or if you change some of the values?
  3. Jul 2021
    1. There is no inactive learning, just as there is no inactive reading.

      This underlies the reason why the acceleration of the industrial revolution has applied to so many areas, but doesn't apply to the acceleration of learning.

      Learning is a linear process.

    2. Here by "learning" is meant understanding more, not remem­bering more information that has the same degree of intelli­gibility as other information you already possess.

      A definition of learning here. Is this the thing that's missing from my note above?

    1. When I'm at the very beginning of a learning journey, I tend to focus primarily on guided learning. It's difficult to build anything in an unguided way when I'm still grappling with the syntax and the fundamentals!As I become more comfortable, though, the balance shifts.

      Finding the right balance while learning. For example, start with guided and eventually move to unguided learning:

    2. I try and act like a scientist. If I have a hypothesis about how this code is supposed to work, I test that hypothesis by changing the code, and seeing if it breaks in the way I expect. When I discover that my hypothesis is flawed, I might detour from the tutorial and do some research on Google. Or I might add it to a list of "things to explore later", if the rabbit hole seems to go too deep.

      Soudns like shotgun debugging is not the worst method to learn programming

    3. Things never go smoothly when it comes to software development. Inevitably, we'll hit a rough patch where the code doesn't do what we expect.This can either lead to a downward spiral—one full of frustration and self-doubt and impostor syndrome—or it can be seen as a fantastic learning opportunity. Nothing helps you learn faster than an inscrutable error message, if you have the right mindset.Honestly, we learn so much more from struggling and failing than we do from effortless success. With a growth mindset, the struggle might not be fun exactly, but it feels productive, like a good workout.

      Cultivating a growth mindset while learning programming

    4. I had a concrete goal, something I really wanted, I was able to push through the frustration and continue making progress. If I had been learning this stuff just for fun, or because I thought it would look good on my résumé, I would have probably given up pretty quickly.

      To truly learn something, it is good to have the concrete GOAL, otherwise you might not push yourself as hard

    1. Following are strategies for facilitating SDL. The teacher can help the learner to Conduct a self-assessment of skill levels and needs to determine appropriate learning objectives. Identify the starting point for a learning project. Match appropriate resources (books, articles, content experts) and methods (Internet searches, lectures, electronic discussion groups) to the learning goal. Negotiate a learning contract that sets learning goals, strategies, and evaluation criteria. Acquire strategies for decision-making and self-evaluation of work. Develop positive attitudes and independence relative to self-directed learning. Reflect on what he/she is learning.
    2. SDL can be difficult for adults with low-level literacy skills who may lack independence, confidence, internal motivation, or resources.

      there can be reasons why some learners might not prefer the self-directed learning approach, or know how to make the most use of it - instead of dismissing them as 'non-learners', it'd be a good idea to figure out what their expieriences around learning are, what learning looks like to them - and how to support them.

    1. A top down view of some learning strategies to begin teasing out which may be better than others.

      Are they broadly applicable or domain specific?

      What learning methods and pedagogy piece are best and for which domains.

      How can we balance learning and doing an overview of theory versus practice?

      Which methods are better for beginners versus domain specific experts?

      Which are better for overview versus creating new knowledge?

      https://www.scotthyoung.com/blog/2021/07/13/against-the-real-thing/

    2. Pure discovery learning is the idea of not giving instructions at all. Simply present the pupil with the problem situation and let them figure it out for themselves. Unfortunately, the research seems to be against this.1 Discovery learning is a lot less efficient than telling people what they ought to do and then getting them to do it.

      Discovery learning is less efficient that telling people what to do and then getting them to do it.

      Reference: Kirschner, Paul, John Sweller, and Richard E. Clark. “Why unguided learning does not work: An analysis of the failure of discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning and inquiry-based learning.” Educational Psychologist 41, no. 2 (2006): 75-86.

    3. Play may trump problem solving. When working on a problem without a specific goal, the student can try lots of things to figure out what works. In contrast, only one answer is needed to solve a problem with a single goal. A playful, exploratory mindset may map out the patterns of interactions better than a narrowly, solution-oriented perspective. As an example of this, Sweller asked students to solve some math problems. One group was asked to solve the problems for a particular variable, and the other group was asked to solve for as many variables as they could. The latter group did better later, which Sweller explained in terms of cognitive load.4

      exploratory play >> problem solving

      How does this compare to the creativity experience of naming white things in general versus naming white things in a refrigerator? The first is often harder for people, while the second is usually much easier.

    4. John Sweller’s cognitive load theory argues that problem solving is often inefficient.2 His studies showed that students learned to solve algebra problems faster when they were shown lots of examples of solved problems, rather than trying to solve them on their own.3

      Problem solving is often inefficient, seeing lots of solved problems may be better than solving them on one's own.

      (This was the sort of model I used in learning most of my math over the years, though solving a few problems along the way also helped to reinforce things for me.)

      Sweller, John. “Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning.” Cognitive science 12, no. 2 (1988): 257-285. Sweller, John, and Graham A. Cooper. “The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra.” Cognition and instruction 2, no. 1 (1985): 59-89.

    1. "The main lesson is that even though they were all good at recognizing letters, the writing training was the best at every other measure. And they required less time to get there," lead author Professor Robert Wiley, from the University of North Carolina, Greensboro, said in a statement. "With writing, you're getting a stronger representation in your mind that lets you scaffold toward these other types of tasks that don't in any way involve handwriting." Every participant in the study was an adult but the scientists are confident that the same for children. The key, they argue, is that handwriting reinforces what is being learned about the letter, such as the sound, beyond their shape. "The question out there for parents and educators is why should our kids spend any time doing handwriting," explained senior author professor Brenda Rapp, from Johns Hopkins University. "Obviously, you're going to be a better hand-writer if you practice it. But since people are handwriting less then maybe who cares? The real question is: Are there other benefits to handwriting that have to do with reading and spelling and understanding? We find there most definitely are."

      Handwriting (as opposed to typing) has been shown to improve the speed at which one learns alphabets.

      https://www.iflscience.com/brain/writing-by-hand-most-effectively-increases-reading-skills/

      Is the effect also seen in other types of learning? What about reading and taking notes by hand versus typing them out?

    1. Making online learning more engaging for students is becoming an increasingly high priority today. In this article, you will find 3 strategies (and tools) to make online learning more engaging for your students.

      To read the full article: https://www.learnable-europe.eu/3-strategies-and-tools-to-make-online-learning-more-engaging-for-students/

    1. 3. Keep it interactiveScience tells us that passive learning—dull lectures, pages of written text—don’t work nearly as well as when learners interact in one way or another with the learning material or instructor. You should use opportunities to build interaction into your in-person, online, synchronous, and asynchronous courses:

      Learning needs to move past the the one-way information model of learning.

      The upskilling Imperative talks about this a bit when talking about

      • instructivist model of learning vs constructionist model of learning

       instructivist model of learning vs constructionist model of learning

    2. 1. It’s not about physical vs. digital, but synchronous vs asynchronousIn L&D teams’ minds, the big split used to be between training that happened in-person and training that happened online. 

      In general, being able to adapt to asynchronous styles of working and learning will be important

    1. Similarly, in Alex’s 3D arts class, students learned about traditional art concepts like perspective and color theory to create 3D clay models that then became digital creations, and in an esports class he created, students wrote backstories for characters and scripts for esports broadcasts. One student had previously struggled with writing assignments, but writing within the context of esports helped him realize that he could write—and that he enjoyed it.
    1. Against Canvas

      I love that he uses this print of Pablo Picasso's Don Quixote to visually underline this post in which he must feel as if he's "tilting at windmills".

    2. All humanities courses are second-class citizens in the ed-tech world.

      And worse, typically humans are third-class citizens in the ed-tech world.

    1. Why isn’t there anything on our class’s Canvas page? Because Canvas and Blackboard are evil and must be destroyed. So-called “learning management software” is very possibly the worst software ever created by anyone for any purpose, and I will not add to the store of suffering in the world by making use of it. I explain in more detail my objections to Canvas here.

      Awesome AND true.

    1. Open-ended activity often languishes from a lack of completeness

      Unless it's something like learning in general, which is never complete.

  4. Jun 2021
    1. "Music education students enter universities from diverse backgrounds that include musical experiences in “subaltern” musical practices (rock bands, music theatre, hip hop, and other genres). After four years or so in the institutional environment, we send them out to the world somehow convinced that what they ought to be teaching is the Western canon."

    1. The problem is, algorithms were never designed to handle such tough choices. They are built to pursue a single mathematical goal, such as maximizing the number of soldiers’ lives saved or minimizing the number of civilian deaths. When you start dealing with multiple, often competing, objectives or try to account for intangibles like “freedom” and “well-being,” a satisfactory mathematical solution doesn’t always exist.

      We do better with algorithms where the utility function can be expressed mathematically. When we try to design for utility/goals that include human values, it's much more difficult.

    2. many other systems that are already here or not far off will have to make all sorts of real ethical trade-offs

      And the problem is that, even human beings are not very sensitive to how this can be done well. Because there is such diversity in human cultures, preferences, and norms, deciding whose values to prioritise is problematic.

    1. re-reading is useless for understanding

      this could use a link for underlying support/evidence, particularly for the newcomer.

    1. Tweet Post Share Save Get PDF Buy Copies Print Idea in Brief The Situation The fast-changing nature of business today means that employees’ continual learning is vital for organizational success. The Response Chief learning officers are assuming a more expansive role, aiming not only to train employees but also to transform their organizations’ capabilities and make learning an integral part of the company’s strategic agenda. The Specifics Extensive interviews at 19 large companies revealed that “transformer CLOs”—those who are embracing this expanded role—are driving changes in their enterprises’ learning goals, learning methods, and learning departments. In today’s dynamic business environment, workplace learning has become a key lever for success. And with that shift, the traditional role of the chief learning officer is changing. No longer are CLOs responsible just for training—making skills-based and compliance-oriented courses available to employees and perhaps running leadership-development programs. Instead, they’re embracing a more powerful role in which they reshape capabilities and organizational culture. We call this new type of leader the transformer CLO. Transformer CLOs are strong senior managers whose mission is to help their companies and their employees thrive, even as technologies, business practices, and whole industries undergo rapid change. The transformer CLO role is not reserved for the lucky few whose CEOs see learning and development as essential; any CLO can take steps to fundamentally change the nature of learning in an organization. We recently conducted extensive interviews with 21 senior learning officers at 19 large companies to find out how they conceive of their roles and organizations. This research, which builds on our prior work on digital leadership and culture, revealed that transformer CLOs are driving three principal types of change in their enterprises. They’re transforming their organizations’ learning goals, shifting the focus from the development of skills to the development of mindsets and capabilities that will help workers perform well now and adapt smoothly in the future. They’re transforming their organizations’ learning methods, making them more experiential and immediate, and atomizing content for delivery when and where it’s needed. And they’re transforming their organizations’ learning departments, making them leaner, more agile, and more strategic. Transforming Learning Goals The need for organizations to become more adaptable means changing the goals of corporate learning. Instead of narrowly focusing on job- or compliance-related training for all but their high-potential leaders, organizations should cultivate every employee’s ability to explore, learn, and grow. The objective is not only to train people but also to position the company for success. To achieve this, CLOs should strive to do the following: Reshape leadership development. Creating a true learning organization starts at the top, with preparing executives to lead in new ways. One company that has done this well recently is Standard Chartered, a multinational financial-services company. Three years ago, under a new CEO, Standard Chartered launched a strategy that fundamentally changed the way it does business—and required its leaders to build new strengths. “We’d been doing executive development for years,” said Ewan Clark, the company’s global head of leadership effectiveness and organizational development. “But a lot of it had been about either pure self-actualization or aspects of coaching. This time we’ve put the organizational agenda right in the center of executive development, and we’ve said that leadership is about developing the skills, capabilities, and value behaviors to lead this agenda.” As part of that effort, the company began teaching leaders to augment their experience and intuition with investigation, experimentation, and data-driven analysis when making decisions about their parts of the organization. Their instructions, according to Clark, were straightforward: “Articulate a hypothesis. Go out and experiment. And if it doesn’t work, then why not? What did you learn? Add to it. Capture your learning. Share it with other people.” This new approach required changes in the leaders’ mindsets, not just their skills and procedures. Organizations should cultivate every employee’s ability to learn and grow. It’s not enough, though, to improve leadership capabilities at the very top of the organization. To effect widespread change, organizations need strong leadership to cascade down. Cargill, a privately held food and agriculture business, achieved this by democratizing learning. As Julie Dervin, the company’s global head of corporate learning and development, told us, “We really only had the capacity to reach about 10% to 15% of the total relevant population in a given year when delivering a particular learning program. Unintentionally, we were creating a learning culture where only a select few got access to high-quality training.” Dervin and her team resolved to fix that problem. “We’ve been fundamentally changing how we design, deliver, and shape those learning experiences to be able to reach exponentially more learners with high-impact learning,” she said. Concentrate on capabilities, not competence. In their change programs, transformer CLOs focus less on teaching currently needed skills and more on developing mindsets and behaviors that can enable employees to perform well in tasks that may not yet be defined. This shift may also mean moving away from comprehensive skills inventories and competency maps, which can lead people to check boxes rather than build capabilities. “We don’t really know enough about what the world will look like in the next couple of years to be able to predict exactly what skills we will need,” said Amelie Villeneuve, the head of the corporate university at UBS, the multinational financial-services firm. “If you focus on building individual microskills, you may be missing the bigger picture.” Emphasize digital thinking. The transformer CLOs we interviewed have sought to develop digital awareness and aptitude in their employees. Singapore-based DBS Bank, for example, created a learning curriculum that aims to build seven priority skills for digital-business success. “While not everyone needs to be an expert at each of these,” said David Gledhill, who served as the company’s chief information officer until August 2019, “we want them to know enough so that they understand the transformation we’re driving and contribute great ideas.” Vital Skills for a Digital World To equip its employees for success in today’s digital business environment, DBS Bank focuses on imparting skills ... One priority, for instance, is to get people more comfortable using data in decision-making. Data-driven thinking is key for almost everyone in an organization, but in different ways. Frontline sales and service reps need to be aware of information about customer preferences and behaviors. Executives must learn to trust and value data even when it contradicts their past experiences and gut feelings. Leaders often don’t know what to do with all the data that digital innovations are making available to them, said Nancy Robert, who, as the executive vice president of the American Nurses Association, led the design and delivery of training for millions of the organization’s members. As Robert put it, nurses don’t necessarily have the “digital-data competency” to answer the questions that confront them. “How am I going to interpret that data and integrate it into the rest of the care?” she said. “That takes a very different cognitive skill.” Cultivate curiosity and a growth mindset. CLOs can amplify their teams’ energies and capabilities by fostering a “pull” model of learning, in which employees set their own agendas for gaining knowledge and skills. Doing that, however, requires an environment that sparks employees’ curiosity and ignites in them the desire to learn and grow. Villeneuve has worked on this at UBS and previously at Google, where, she said, she learned how it is possible to “accelerate wisdom more effectively by providing a series of contexts where people can play and learn at the same time.” Leaders at DBS Bank launched a number of programs to find out what would inspire curiosity among their employees. One notable success is GANDALF Scholars, in which employees can apply to receive grants of $1,000 toward training on any work-related topic, as long as they agree to teach what they learn to at least 10 other people. When you engage employees in teaching, as DBS is doing, you expand and deepen learning. Rahul Varma, the senior managing director for talent at Accenture, calls this a “leaders teaching leaders” philosophy. “You learn the most,” he said, “when you actually have to teach somebody what you learn.” This approach turns the natural curiosity and energy of any single employee into learning opportunities for many others. It certainly seems to be working at DBS: As of early 2019, 120 grant recipients had gone on to train more than 13,500 people—4,000 in person and the rest through digital channels. According to Gledhill, many GANDALF Scholars report that the teaching component of the program is their favorite part. “What they enjoyed most,” he said, “was the empowerment.” Transformer CLOs are personalizing, digitizing, and atomizing learning. UBS, DBS, Accenture, and other companies that have embraced a growth mindset subscribe to two beliefs: that everyone’s abilities can and must be developed if the organization is to thrive in a fast-moving environment, and that innate talent is just the starting point. But for a growth mindset to become part of the company’s culture, all employees must internalize those beliefs. That won’t happen unless learning is pervasive, available to everybody who might benefit from it. And that requires rethinking the way learning is delivered. Transforming Learning Methods Until recently, providing learning to all employees was too expensive, and there weren’t enough trainers. Employees almost always had to be physically present at training sessions, which often meant traveling and missing time at work. That naturally limited the number of participants, making learning an exclusive rather than a democratic opportunity. Now things have changed. Peer teaching greatly expands the number of trainers and expert content developers. And digital instruction expands the reach of learning opportunities to more employees without the company’s having to worry about enrollment numbers, scheduling conflicts, or travel costs. Employees can access learning when and where they need it, often from colleagues who live the topic every day. Transformer CLOs are taking advantage of all these developments. Perhaps most visibly, they are moving away from traditional classroom training in which people are exposed to the same content for the same amount of time regardless of their particular needs and levels of understanding. Instead, these CLOs are personalizing, digitizing, and atomizing learning. They are shifting their attention from specific courses to the whole learning experience. To accommodate the different preferences employees have for how they consume and absorb information, a growing number of companies now make training available through a variety of media—text, audio, video, and more. Transformer CLOs go even further. They’re introducing innovations such as programs that set aside learning time on people’s calendars, and mobile apps that pose leadership questions to managers during their day. They’re offering games and simulations and encouraging the company’s own subject-matter experts to produce YouTube-type instructional videos. They’re even exploring the use of artificial intelligence to develop recommendation engines that, guided by individual and peer behavior, will suggest tailored learning activities to employees. In short, transformer CLOs do everything possible to create engaging and effective experiences that meet employees wherever they happen to be, geographically, temporally, or intellectually. Optimize the inventory of learning resources. CLOs need to be selective about what learning materials to stock and how to supply them. At GE Digital, Heather Whiteman, the company’s former head of learning, used analytics with her team to study hundreds of courses taken by thousands of employees—and then systematically rooted out those found lacking, not just in terms of usage and ratings but in their effects on employee growth. “If a course didn’t move the dial for capabilities that lead to performance,” she told us, “we would drop it in favor of one that did.” Similarly, Villeneuve and her team at UBS used analytics to optimize the learning inventory. The bank had a wealth of training materials online, but analysis showed that many employees who searched for those materials gave up before finding what they needed. Armed with that knowledge, Villeneuve and her team focused on developing a core of fewer but better resources. Then, applying principles of behavioral science, they designed a user interface that put no more than six items on a page, with no more than three clicks needed to get to any item. The results have been remarkable: Ten times more employees now engage with the materials on the company’s core learning shelf. Balance face-to-face and digital learning. CLOs should experiment to get the right mix of face-to-face and digital learning. Cargill, which until recently allocated 80% of its budget to in-person training and only 20% to digital training, is in the process of flipping that ratio around. Dervin and her team have redesigned the company’s leadership-development programs to put some of the coursework online. Senior leaders initially had reservations about the effectiveness of digital instruction and worried about losing opportunities to network and build relationships. But those misgivings were short-lived. The first three cohorts who tried the online learning ended up enjoying the experience so much that they engaged in more training than was required. “What we’re seeing,” Dervin said, “is that this goes hand in glove with the pace and the rhythms of their day-to-day, and they’re loving the flexibility it provides.” Deutsche Telekom, for its part, has developed a matrix to help determine whether a given offering might be better handled with face-to-face instruction, a purely digital approach, or a blend of the two. The matrix helps leaders weigh multiple factors: the type of content, the target audience, and development and delivery considerations. Digital or Face-to-Face Training? Deutsche Telekom considers a number of factors when deciding how best to present specific learning programs. FORMAT CONTENT TARGET AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY CONSIDERATIONS Purely digital formats Best suited for: Hard skills Mandatory training Simple topics Durable, reusable material Larger groups Geographically dispersed or mobile employees, such as those in sales and field service More time required to produce nonstandard material Higher up-front cost to produce nonstandard material Lower cost to deliver per user No need for trainers or videoconferencing facilities at the location Face-to-face or blended formats Best suited for: Soft skills Ad hoc training Complex topics Material that changes frequently Smaller groups Geographically concentrated employees Employees being onboarded Less time required to produce nonstandard material Lower up-front cost for course preparation Potential higher cost to deliver, but possibility of using existing staff as trainers Need for training rooms or videoconferencing at the location   Source: Adapted from company documents © HBR.org Rethink face-to-face learning. As engaging and effective as digital learning experiences can be, face-to-face learning is still important—although it may take new forms. Accenture employs some very sophisticated digital learning platforms and tools and has a vast library of online content, but Varma’s experience is that digital learning goes only so far. “What we’ve found,” he said, “is that there is no substitute for getting people together in cohorts that are cross-cultural and cross-functional.” To achieve that without requiring employees to be in the same physical space, Accenture has created more than 90 “connected classrooms” around the world. These enable the company to offer all employees some types of training—classes in design thinking, for example—that are taught by in-house experts in several different locations. “One facilitator could be in Bangalore, another could be in Manila, and another in Dalian, China,” Varma told us. People are still learning from people, but thanks to videoconferencing and other interactive technologies, along with more-collaborative approaches to learning, traditional geographic constraints no longer apply. Teams all over the world now coach one another and solve problems together. “That is how we do learning, every single day,” Varma said. Some companies have pursued another approach for their face-to-face learning: They’ve created hands-on simulations in which participants must solve real-life problems. At UBS, employees take part in “three-dimensional case studies” in order to develop key capabilities, such as the ability to influence stakeholders or rethink a company product. The interactive case studies test not only their knowledge and intellectual skills but also how they engage with others and react as the situation unfolds. As Villeneuve told us, “They have to do it all together, and they get feedback on everything at the same time.” Face-to-face learning is still important—although it may take new forms. Similarly, operational professionals at DBS spend three days in a simulation exercise that involves transforming a hypothetical old-school bank into a full-fledged digital bank. They work with trainers and colleagues from other parts of the business to tackle staffing and resourcing issues and handle crisis situations unique to the digital world. An element of competition heightens the intensity and engagement. Go beyond instruction. Transformer CLOs believe that instruction alone is not sufficient for meaningful learning. Accenture’s Varma anchors his approach in what he calls the three I’s: instruction, introspection, and immersion. Instruction comes first, of course. But then trainees need to engage in reflection—the introspection part of Varma’s three I’s. This might involve giving employees time to privately mull over what they’ve learned, having them talk it over with a fellow trainee on a walk, or providing a formal opportunity during class to discuss it with a whole cohort.

      This is something I've thought about before - is that often people are continually learning on the job, but there is not enough slack-time in the day to allow for people to engage with reflection

    1. I think in fourth grade was the first largest book that I read. It was the Bram Stoker's Dracula, the big one. That was the first biggest book that I read, and then I had an obsession with Roald Dahl. Roald Dahl was my thing. I loved Roald Dahl. The BFG, the Twitches, the Witches, all of it, I loved it. I loved it. I loved it. Matilda, Matilda. Oh, my God. I loved Matilda. Roald Dahl was a huge thing -- as well childrens’ books -- but I was also reading adult books at the same time. Around this time is when I started getting my obsession with the Holocaust, with all this tragedy.

      Time in US - passing the time - reading books - learning - education

    1. he actual ratio of face-to-face to online instruction can differ greatly and still be considered hybrid instruction

      Really important for two reason - (1) we may not mean the same thing so we should clarify what we're talking about when in conversation on this important issue; and (2) What works in one course/setting may not work in another - great reminder to honor the unique nature of courses/settings.

  5. May 2021
    1. The expansion increased the capacity of the center to offer individualized consultations with faculty who were new to online teaching.

      What options do we have as we won't be adding additional staff?

    1. he is focusing on the tensions that what he read causes with other things he knows and has read. He’s not just lifting things out that chime with him, but the things that cause friction. Because in that friction lies the potential of learning.

      Dissonance of juxtaposed ideas, and particularly those just at the edge of chaos, can be some of the most fruitful places for learning.

      Attempting to resolve these frictions can generate new knowledge.

      This is what commonplace books are meant to do. Record this knowledge, allow one to juxtapose, and to think and write into new spaces.

      It's also important to look more closely at things that don't cause dissonance. Is it general wisdom that makes them true or seem true? Question the assumptions underneath them. Where do they come from? Why do they seem comfortable? How could one make them uncomfortable. Questioning assumptions can lead to new pathways.

      An example of this is the questioning the final assumption of Euclid (the "ugly" one) which led mathematicians into different geometry systems.

    1. The crux being -

      1. Exercise, that's the best drug to get your brain running, and it is true.
      2. I have experienced the best ideas hit me when I am exercising or about to sleep, which brings me to the second point
      3. Get ample amount of sleep, it helps to build synapses, and literally updates your brain as per research.
      4. Form habits, 3 elements - cue > routine > reward
      5. There are lot many memorization techniques, like - Memory palace, graphic representation and spaced repetitions, try and see which fits best.
      6. Make chunks, or divide in modules whatever you learn, making it easier to access and use.
      7. And finally, if the task seems tough, it is because it is new. Just start, as and when the synapses are formed it becomes easier to do it again and again, and even more rewarding in the future. Kinda like building a habit.
    1. The use of physical location, even in an imagined environment, as a memory aid likely arose as a result of the fact that so much of the essential information stored in memory can be linked to foraging-type behaviours.

      I've thought this before, and sees like I've possibly read, though not captured it. Is there any solid proof of this fact?

      Rat studies of mazes show this sort of spacial memory, but are there similar learned studies in lower animals? C. elegans, drosophila, slime molds, etc.?

    2. structural imaging studies of a group of highly trained spatial learners (London taxi drivers) has demonstrated enlargement of specific hippocampal regions corresponding to spatial memory [30],

      Nice to see the taxi driver study pop up here.

      Maguire EA, Valentine ER, Wilding JM, Kapur N. Routes to remembering: The brains behind superior memory. Nature Neuroscience. 2003;6(1):90–5. pmid:12483214 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn988

    1. Our institutions are colonial systems, the ivory towers render the people leading and running them to become disconnected from the very public they are supposed to be representing, ending up only serving themselves. “Do we have to burn it down and start again? Do we have to completely recalibrate it from the inside?

    1. An important point to note is that there's a difference between coaching and mentoring. A coach's job is to improve a particular skill, but a mentor plays a more holistic role in helping a mentee improve

      Mentoring and Coaching are different, and being able to identify the differences between the two is important.

      For managers, sometimes they need to wear a coaches hat, or a mentors hat - but these are roles that a manager can have but not their only job.

      Considerations for L&D programs

      • how can mentoring fit in with L&D?
      • how can coaching fit in with L&D?
    1. Once two consecutive sections have been mastered, work on joining them together as a new section.

      As with any sort of learning. It's important to be able to connect the concepts - that's what leads to an actual understanding.

    2. Choose one section of the piece to practice, which is short enough that you can memorize it in a few tries.

      I think this is applicable to any sort of learning. By breaking it down into something that we can easily condense you

      1. Maintain the motivation to keep working through it and it's short enough that you're able to quickly get the rush of having completed something.
      2. By condensing some concepts into an overarching concept (or maybe still concepts) you don't have to hold so many things in your head when using the concept elsewhere.
    1. This research suggests why teaching by the case method is favored at many institutions, including Harvard Business School.  A well-run case-based discussion constantly challenges students. As they are asked to diagnose and debate solutions to a given situation, there is rarely an easy or obvious answer. They must derive their own, which enhances their learning. Teaching also becomes harder, of course. These methods demand creativity and continuous updating to ensure they’re grounded in real, current organizational issues, and they take more time. But the experience becomes more fun and fruitful for everyone
    2. Fortunately, there are a number of proven ways to strengthen mental storage. The best learning and teaching strategies incorporate various forms of what Bjork terms “desirable difficulty.” Some examples: interleaving different tasks and materials instead of focusing on just one for a big block of time; allowing students to make mistakes and learn from them; requiring students to interpret new material in light of what they already know; and using testing as a mode of instruction rather than evaluation.

      When you interleave your time with different learning, you are intentionally making the process of forgetting,or fail to memorising, and take effort to recalling the instruction by which to develop and stamping the mental representation of your learning onto your long term memory structure, which is the real learning.

    3. Unfortunately, real learning — that is, the kind which embeds knowledge and skills in long-term memory — is never simple.  In fact, easy in (little effort to temporarily retain the lesson) typically results in hard out (difficulty in retrieving it when you need it.) Decades of research, most notably by UCLA’s Robert Bjork and his colleagues, have shown several reasons for this apparent paradox.
    4. Both learners and teachers confuse performance during training (termed “retrieval strength”) with long-term retention and the ability to apply the lessons (“storage strength”).  Researchers have shown that, in laboratory tests, people quite consistently have “illusions of competence.” That is, they over-estimate their ability to solve future problems when they’ve been given a lot of help during lessons. When shown answers to questions, experiment subjects are likely to think they could have produced them (“Oh, sure, I knew that!”) And the more familiar the material seems to them, the worse the students do in actually using it. Familiarity breeds complacency.
    1. flexible grading policies

      I'm especially attracted to the #ungrading work I've been watching from folks like Mary Klann and David Buck...and I know there are so many more people working with authentic and alternative assessment practices...

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 5). @ToddHorowitz3 2/2 so I would prefer to treat this as an opportunity for empirical observation and learning. Evaluation should focus on trying to assess actual contribution, not a priori judgments. [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1324367278352355330

    1. Collaborative exams allow students the opportunities to learn from and teach each other. Open-book and self-graded exams are not as good at sorting or ranking students, but they are often just as good (if not better) tools for learning.

      I like the use of [[collaborative exams to enable peer-to-peer learning]].

      One of the challenges with L&D at work is the knowledge / skills transfer if someone does a course on their own, or if people are taking the same course at their own times.

      wondering how this idea could translate to professional learning & development

    2. I know quite a few STEM folks who ungrade in various ways. Some specific stuff I’ve seen work in STEM classes: project-based learning with self-assessment, process notebooks (like a lab notebook but with an emphasis on metacognition), and collaborative exams.

      to help grow a learning culture / learning environment / peer-to-peer-learning - things like process-note-books could be used as a light-weight way to capture information as people are working.

      same with better tracking of work that people do for projects, etc.

      • [[collaborative exams]]
      • [[metacognition]]
  6. Apr 2021
    1. Machine learning app development has been gaining traction among companies from all over the world. When dealing with this part of machine learning application development, you need to remember that machine learning can recognize only the patterns it has seen before. Therefore, the data is crucial for your objectives. If you’ve ever wondered how to build a machine learning app, this article will answer your question.

    1. This looks fascinating. I'm not so much interested in the coding/programming part as I am the actual "working in public" portions as they relate to writing, thinking, blogging in the open and sharing that as part of my own learning and growth as well as for sharing that with a broader personal learning network. I'm curious what lessons might be learned within this frame or how educators and journalists might benefit from it.

    1. But decentralized learning goes farther than that: in a decentralized, Collaborative Learning environment, each team member participates in the learning process. They can identify their learning needs, request courses, give feedback on existing courses, and create courses themselves. We call this a bottom-up approach
      • push vs pull for learning - create an environment that enables learning to happen, and let the people doing the work surface what they need to learn, and then help facilitate and amplify that process
    2. 1. Embrace decentralized learningCentralized learning flows out from a single point: instructors teach and employees learn. But many businesses are shifting towards a more decentralized approach, making this system obsolete. More employees are working remotely and asynchronously, and they need to break learning into small chunks that fit into their daily work schedule. The first step in decentralizing learning is to shift to online classes that can be completed in micro-sessions throughout the week.
      • with remote work, more and more learning is being done async - having the instructor lead / cohort based learning, while still an option - we need to expand beyond that, and find ways to create async learning opportunities, and create the ability to learn in the flow of work
    1. Here are the economics: The cost of recruiting a midcareer software engineer (who earns $150,000- 200,000 per year) can be $30,000 or more including recruitment fees, advertising, and recruiting technology. This new hire also requires onboarding and has a potential turnover of two to three times higher than an internal recruit. By contrast, the cost to train and reskill an internal employee may be $20,000 or less, saving as much as $116,000 per person over three years.  The net savings: it can cost as much as 6-times more to hire from the outside than to build from within.
      • the cost of hiring talent vs upskilling talent