2,137 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. We are definitely living in interesting times!

      The problem with Machine learning in my eyes seems to be the non-transparency in the field. After all what makes the data we are researching valuable. If he collect so much data why is only .5% being studied? There seems to be a lot missing and big opportunities here that aren't being used properly.

  2. Jan 2022
    1. The best way to improve your ability to think is to actually spend time thinking.

      You need to take your time

    2. Thinking means concentrating on one thing long enough to develop an idea about it.


    1. Gary Klein himself has made a name developing techniques for extracting pieces of tacit knowledge and making it explicit. (The technique is called ‘The Critical Decision Method’, but it is difficult to pull off because it demands expertise in CDM itself).

      AI can help with turning tacit knowledge into explicit

    2. If you are a knowledge worker, tacit knowledge is a lot more important to the development of your field of expertise than you might think.

      Tacti knowledge is especially important for knowledge workers

    3. Notice how little verbal instruction is involved. What is more important is emulation, and action — that is, a focus on the embodied feelings necessary to ride a bicycle successfully. And this exercise was quite magical for me, for within the span of an hour I could watch a kid go from conscious incompetence to conscious competence and finally to unconscious competence.In other words, tacit knowledge instruction happens through things like imitation, emulation, and apprenticeship. You learn by copying what the master does, blindly, until you internalise the principles behind the actions.

      In learning, imitation, emulation and action are very important.

    4. When I was a kid, I taught myself how to ride a bike … by accident. And then I taught my sisters and then my cousin and then another kid in the neighbourhood who was interested but a little scared. They were zooming around in about an hour each. The steps were as follows:

      Interesting example on how to teach oneself to ride a bike (see steps below)

    5. Tacit knowledge is knowledge that cannot be captured through words alone.

      Tacit knowledge

  3. Dec 2021
    1. Post-test histology demonstrated photoperiod-dependent reduction and induction of TH-IR neurons

      Histology staining of three dopamine-synthesizing sources in the hypothalamus support the findings in Figure 5E. The amount of TH cells (dopamine-synthesizing cells) in these regions decreases with 6-OHDA and can be partially rescued with short-day photoperiod exposure.

    2. The behavioral results of focal ablation of TH-IR neurons were partially reversed by exposure to the short-day photoperiod, demonstrating behavioral rescue

      Even with 6'OHDA treatment, exposing the animals to short-day photoperiod resulted in some behavioral rescue, reflected by the animals spending more time spent in the open arm in the EPM test and less time spent immobilized in the forced swim test. The difference in behavior is significant comparing results of the short- vs long-day photoperiod exposure. One additional comparison that could be insightful are the results of 6'OHDA on 12L:12D photoperiod exposure; these can be found in Figure 5 B, and do not appear to be significantly different from the long-photoperiod exposure results. Thus, a follow up idea for the researchers is to consider when the effect of increasing the duration of light-exposure in a day begins to saturate.

    3. then exposed animals to the long-day photoperiod, so as to further reduce their number

      Here, dopamine synthesis is being stopped by two things: the neurotoxic agent 6-OHDA and long-day light exposure, a stressor for nocturnal animals. Both treatments should reduce the presence of dopamine-making neurons.

    1. แนะนำเว็บสำหรับเรียนรู้การเขียนโค้ดภาษาต่างๆและการฝึกทำโจทย์เพิ่มเติมครับ https://www.w3schools.com/

    1. In fact, the methodical use of notebooks changed the relationship between natural memory and artificial memory, although contemporaries did not immediately realize it. Historical research supports the idea that what was once perceived as a memory aid was now used as secondary memory.18

      During the 16th century there was a transition in educational centers from using the natural and artificial memories to the methodical use of notebooks and commonplace books as a secondary memory saved by means of writing.

      This allows people in some sense to "forget" what they've read and learned and be surprised by it again later. They allow themselves to create liminal memories which may be refreshed and brought to the center later. Perhaps there is also some benefit in this liminal memory for allowing ideas to steep on the periphery before using them. Perhaps combinatorial creativity happens unconsciously?

      Cross reference: learning research by Barbara Oakley and Terry Sejnowski.

    1. 10 Cultivating Change for Inclusive Practice: Creating a Community of Learners By Lisa Mauro-Bracken, Head of Department Health and Well-being; School of Allied Health and Community This case study illustrates an innovative, department-wide approach to learning and professional development of staff. Higher Education encounters increasing numbers of students from diverse linguistic, cultural and ethnic backgrounds requiring personalised learning (V1; V2). To cultivate a ‘new’ inclusive culture within the Department of Health and Well-being, I organised a workshop introducing Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as part of a team away day (K5). UDL is a framework to improve and optimize teaching and learning for all people based on scientific insights into how humans learn (CAST, 2019). The UDL framework supports inclusive practice and relies on multiple means of: ‘engagement,’ ‘representation’ and ‘action and expression.’ In other words, a focus on personalised learning and meaningful choice to ensure all students can access the curriculum in a way that develops their strengths. To embed this approach within the department, I delivered workshops on implementing University of Worcester’s Inclusive Assessment Policy. This was implemented using Technology Enhanced Learning and Blackboard in an inclusive way and auditing module resources using de Montfort University’s UDL self-assessment checklist. This proved to be an effective reflective tool to further inform learning, teaching and assessment (Bracken, 2019; Moriarty and Scarffe, 2019). The values underpinning our department are student-focused and this was reflected in our approach of implementing new ideas, as it required staff and student involvement and regular consultation with students about inclusive design for learning. Staff enthusiasm for the innovative approach was balanced against accepting a response of hesitancy and fear of change (Dasborough, Lamb and Suseno, 2015). However, one colleague stated ‘UDL allows me... [to] reflect, listen, change my pedagogical approach...getting input from colleagues and feel safe[ty] in questioning

      Current practice in UK on UDL- updated references and useful publication linked to HEA accreditation

    1. In this study, we drew on sociocultural notions of agency – where individual actions are entwined with community goals. A community is comprised of people with shared and individual goals, in their environments, in the midst of a historical context (Wenger 1998Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). Due to this web of relationships with people, environment, and history, people do not act autonomously, but according to possibilities within the community. Such possibilities for agency are negotiated over time; actions that strengthen ties to the community constitute investments in the self that in turn, have outcomes for the community as well (Peirce 1995Peirce, B. N. 1995. “Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning.” TESOL Quarterly 29: 9–31. doi:10.2307/3587803. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]). The financial metaphor in using the word investment is critical – it connotes spent effort that yields dividends. These dividends emerge immediately and over time.

      This helps me consider communities of practice, and unpacking the relational aspects - agency within a context, not autonomous, informed by the context and others. Is there a tension with "groupthink", how to value the diversity in a group, and build stronger not weaker, not defaulting or regressing to a mean?. How do we build a group to be more than the sum of the parts. how does the community work to enhance practice.

    1. if it's important enough it will surface somewhere somehow.

      Way to apply FOMO

    2. The Feynman technique goes as follows: write down what you know about a subject. Explain it in words simple enough for a 6th grader to understand. Identify any gaps in your knowledge and read up on that again until all of the explanation is dead simple and short.

      The Feyman technique for learning

    3. Similar to frequency lists in a natural language there are concepts in any software product that the rest of the software builds upon. I'll call them core concepts. Let's use git as an example. Three core concepts are commits, branches and conflicts.If you know these three core concepts you can proceed with further learning.

      To speed up learning, start with the core concepts like frequency lists for learning languages

  4. Nov 2021
    1. collaboration within a community of people: diverse perspectives, active engagement

      Similar ideas here: Stephen Downes (2015). Design Elements in a Personal Learning Environment. Invited talk, Guadalajara, Mexico. https://www.slideshare.net/Downes/design-elements-in-a-personal-learning-environment-52303224

      What makes an 'online course' different to an 'online learning community'?

    2. a system that lets people compose structure

      We all think in different ways, so a good system for learning should enable every learner to structure their learning environment uniquely.

    3. people reading the same book at the same time, exploring the same ideas…Norms around signalling you're interested in something, and the extent of your interest, would go far

      How do we find the connections we don't know we're looking for?

    1. The recipe for starting a new media venture in 2021 seems to be straightforward: blog, newsletter, podcast. From there you scale up and start adding additional verticals, like events (both virtual and in-person as more people get vaccinated), discussion forums (like a Discord server for paying subscribers), a YouTube channel and so on.

      Not only new media; this would probably also work for schools, or any learning community.

    1. rofessional development was designed using the Adaptation of Blended Learning framework to meet the new requirements of online schooling. Twenty-six teachers participated in the intervention of professional development, spanning six months.

      rofessional development was designed using the Adaptation of Blended Learning framework to meet the new requirements of online schooling. Twenty-six teachers participated in the intervention of professional development, spanning six months.

    1. TALIS(Teaching and Learning International Survey)


      (Teaching and Learning International Survey)

    2. Virtual Learning Environments50 (VLE):

      Virtual Learning Environments50 (VLE):

    3. studentsreporting having a quiet place to study

      PISA 2018 students reporting having a quiet place to study at home

    4. Distance learning, learning analytics, COVID-19, technology-enhanced learning

      Distance learning, learning analytics, COVID-19, technology- enhanced learning

    5. nline education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

      online education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

    6. Humanistic Learning Theory

      Humanistic Learning Theory

    7. conclusion, which educational administration globally is shoveling under the rug. 20 years ago, it was calculated an hour of F2F teaching equals 1 1/2 hour of online teaching. currently, with the influx of technology, it must be calculated more generously. 

      the value of online learning versus F2F

    8. interaction is most valued by teachers, but hindered by some students not using camera
    1. I don’t see something else naturally taking its place either.

      I like the idea of Discord as a backchannel but it suffers from the problem that it's a relatively niche app, and no-one is going to install and learn how to use it just for a conference.

      I think that Discord would work well for a learning community though.

    1. 80% of developers are "dark", they dont write or speak or participate in public tech discourse.

      After working in tech, I would estimate the same

    2. They'll teach you for free. Most people don't see what's right in front of them. But not you. "With so many junior devs out there, why will they help me?", you ask. Because you learn in public. By teaching you, they teach many. You amplify them.

      Senior engineers can teach you for free if you just open up online

    3. Try your best to be right, but don't worry when you're wrong. Repeatedly. If you feel uncomfortable, or like an impostor, good. You're pushing yourself. Don't assume you know everything, but try your best anyway, and let the internet correct you when you are inevitably wrong. Wear your noobyness on your sleeve.

      Truly inspiring! I need to save this as one of my favorite quotes (and share on my blog, of course)!

    4. start building a persistent knowledge base that grows over time. Open Source your Knowledge! At every step of the way: Document what you did and the problems you solved.

      That is why I am trying to be present even more on my social media, or on the personal blog. Maybe one day I will try to open-source my OneNote notes as a Wiki-like page

    5. Whatever your thing is, make the thing you wish you had found when you were learning. Don't judge your results by "claps" or retweets or stars or upvotes - just talk to yourself from 3 months ago.

      This is the exact same mindset I am following since some time, and it is awesome!

    1. Coaching is external guidance and feedback on your performance.

      Coaching - external guidance and feedback on performance

      Mentoring - subset of coaching primarily focused on the creation of knowledge

  5. Oct 2021
    1. Reading books, being aware of the curiosity gap, and asking a lot of questions:

      Ways to boost creativity

    2. The difference between smart and curious people and only smart people is that curiosity helps you move forward in life. If you shut the door to curiosity. You shut the door to learning. And when you don’t learn. You don’t move forward. You must be curious to learn. Otherwise, you won’t even consider learning.

      Curiosity is the core drive of learning

    3. Smart people become even smarter because they are smart enough to understand that they don’t have all the answers.

      Smartness is driven by curiosity

  6. Sep 2021
    1. counts of TH-IR neurons in A13 after 6-OHDA treatment were not affected, demonstrating that dopaminergic nuclei located as close as 200 μm were spared by focal toxin delivery

      These findings validate the specificity of 6-OHDA's delivery. In the dopaminergic cell group A13 just 200 μm away from the treatment site, the effects of 6-OHDA are not observed.

    2. Are presynaptic changes in transmitter identity matched by changes in postsynaptic receptor populations

      Following action potential firing, transmitters will be sent from the presynaptic, or sending, neuron to the postsynaptic, or receiving, neuron; the received transmitter will thereby alter the likelihood of that postsynaptic neuron firing its own action potential. The experimenters had observed that at certain clusters of neurons in the CNS, short photoperiod exposure increased production of the transmitter dopamine, and long photoperiod exposure led to an increased production of somatostatin. Consequently, the experimenters are questioning whether expression of those cognate postsynaptic receptors, i.e., dopamine receptors or somatostatin receptors, follow suit.

    3. Long-day exposure produced the opposite effects

      For rats, nocturnal mammals, increased photoperiod exposure is a stressor. Consequently, in both the EPM and FST, rats exhibit more depressive/anxious behaviors following long photoperiod exposure. In the EPM test, these rats spend less time in the open arm, and in the FST, they give up swimming and become almost immobile much sooner than the control group. For the short-day exposure group, the rats have more open arm activity, and in the FST persevere for longer, indicating reduced anxiety relative to the control group.

    4. if receptor activation is more substantial than the level of presynaptic SST.

      When expression of a receptor is greater than that of its transmitter, the likelihood of those transmitters binding to the receptor will be high. Thus, if levels of SST2/4R are high compared to the presynaptic SST, then presynaptic SST will likely be able to bind to the cognate receptor, and induce its inhibitory effects.

    5. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons decreased with long-day exposure and increased with short-day exposure in relation to control

      A decreased amount of TH-IR neurons means that less dopamine is being produced; this was observed when the rats were given long-day exposure (19 hours of light, 5 hours of darkness). Short-day exposure (5 hours of light, 19 hours of darkness) resulted in the number of TH-IR neurons increasing, a sign of greater dopamine production. These results were all relative to the control group, rats that experienced a balanced-day with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

    6. Genetic programs establish initial expression patterns of neurotransmitters in different classes of neurons (1–3), and activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification modifies them during development, either adding or switching transmitters (4–9). It is unknown, however, whether sensory stimuli promote transmitter switching in addition to other neuroplastic changes (10) in the adult brain.

      It is known that the young developing brain is able to add or switch the transmitters that their neurons express. The question guiding this research is whether sensory stimuli can cause the already mature (adult) brain to experience changes in the types of transmitters that are produced by their neurons.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhgwIhB58PA

      Learning styles have been debunked.

      Learning styles: V.A.R.K. model originated by Neil Flemiing stands for:

      • visual
      • auditory
      • reading/writing
      • kinesthetic


      Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105-119. — https://ve42.co/Pashler2008

      Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G. (2015). The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266-271. — https://ve42.co/Willingham

      Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style?. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(4), 321-335. — https://ve42.co/Massa2006

      Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 42(5), 32-35.— https://ve42.co/Riener2010

      Husmann, P. R., & O'Loughlin, V. D. (2019). Another nail in the coffin for learning styles? Disparities among undergraduate anatomy students’ study strategies, class performance, and reported VARK learning styles. Anatomical sciences education, 12(1), 6-19. — https://ve42.co/Husmann2019

      Snider, V. E., & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 873–886. doi:10.1002/pits.20272 — https://ve42.co/Snider2007

      Fleming, N., & Baume, D. (2006). Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!. Educational developments, 7(4), 4. — https://ve42.co/Fleming2006

      Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P. (2015). Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of educational psychology, 107(1), 64. — https://ve42.co/Rogowskyetal

      Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall, Elaine; Ecclestone, Kathryn (2004). — https://ve42.co/Coffield2004

      Furey, W. (2020). THE STUBBORN MYTH OF LEARNING STYLES. Education Next, 20(3), 8-13. — https://ve42.co/Furey2020

      Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. S., & Klavas, A. (2002). Survey of research on learning styles. California Journal of Science Education II (2). — https://ve42.co/Dunn2002

    1. The minds of other people can also supplement our limited individual memory. Daniel Wegner, a psychologist at Harvard, named this collective remembering “transactive memory.” As he explained it, “Nobody remembers everything. Instead, each of us in a couple or group remembers some things personally — and then can remember much more by knowing who else might know what we don’t.” A transactive memory system can effectively multiply the amount of information to which an individual has access. Organizational research has found that groups that build a strong transactive memory structure — in which all members of the team have a clear and accurate sense of what their teammates know — perform better than groups for which that structure is less defined.

      Transactive memory is how a group encodes, stores, and shares knowledge. Members of a group may be aware of the portions of knowledge that others possess which can make them more efficient.

      How can we link this to Cesar Hidalgo's ideas about the personbyte, etc.?

      How would this idea have potentially helped oral cultures?

      She uses the example of a trauma resuscitation team helping to shorten hospital stays, but certainly there are many examples in the corporate world where corporate knowledge is helpful in decreasing time scales for particular outcomes.

    2. Some studies in the field of physics education found that students’ understanding of the subject is less accurate after an introductory college physics course.

      The idea of learning by doing may have even more profound effects based on the idea of grounding. Experience in the physical world may dramatically inform experiences with the theoretical world.

    1. Social learning does not mean learning without tension or argument. In “Thinking with Peers”, Paul shows that argument and conflict are useful ways to focus attention and strengthen ideas, so long as the arguing is done with a certain amount of openness to new ideas. She approvingly quotes Stanford Business School professor Robert Sutton’s formula for productive conflict: “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” The brain, it seems, likes conflict. Or, at least, conflict helps strengthen attention.

      I wonder how this may be leveraged with those who are using Hypothes.is for conversations in the margins in classrooms?

      cc: @remikalir, @jeremydean, @nateangell

      Could teachers specifically sow contention into their conversations? Cross reference the idea of a devil's advocate.

      I love the aphorism:

      “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” — Robert Sutton, Stanford Buisness School professor's formula for productive conflict

    2. Imitation, Paul says, allows us to think with other people’s brains. It is a key technique — globally and transhistorically — for learning, from babies imitating parents to apprentices imitating masters. And yet imitation is seen in contemporary US society, and schooling especially, as so debased that it is frequently punished. In fact, if Paul is correct (and I think she is, and have thought so for years when teaching writing), we should build imitation into many more of our lesson plans.

      On the importance of imitation...

      I'm reminded of Benjamin Franklin imitating what he thought were good writers to make his own writing more robust.

      See: https://via.hypothes.is/https://www.gutenberg.org/files/20203/20203-h/20203-h.htm

      Maybe the aphorism: "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery," should really be "Imitation is the sincerest form of learning."

    1. Researchers of online courses in community colleges found that the level of interpersonal interaction was the best predictor of how well an online course did.

      Research shows that the level of interpersonal interaction is the best predictor for how well an online course does.

      Reference for this??

    1. 27

      The dual coding theory, proposed in the 1970s by Allan Palvio, suggests that the brain processes information using two primary channels: verbal and visual.



    1. a class of attacks that were enabled by Privacy Badger’s learning. Essentially, since Privacy Badger adapts its behavior based on the way that sites you visit behave, a dedicated attacker could manipulate the way Privacy Badger acts: what it blocks and what it allows. In theory, this can be used to identify users (a form of fingerprinting) or to extract some kinds of information from the pages they visit
    1. https://fs.blog/2021/07/mathematicians-lament/

      What if we taught art and music the way we do mathematics? All theory and drudgery without any excitement or exploration?

      What textbooks out there take math from the perspective of exploration?

      • Inventional geometry does

      Certainly Gauss, Euler, and other "greats" explored mathematics this way? Why shouldn't we?

      This same problem of teaching math is also one we ignore when it comes to things like note taking, commonplacing, and even memory, but even there we don't even delve into the theory at all.

      How can we better reframe mathematics education?

      I can see creating an analogy that equates math with art and music. Perhaps something like Arthur Eddington's quote:

      Suppose that we were asked to arrange the following in two categories–

      distance, mass, electric force, entropy, beauty, melody.

      I think there are the strongest grounds for placing entropy alongside beauty and melody and not with the first three. —Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM, FRS (1882-1944), a British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician in The Nature of the Physical World, 1927

  7. Aug 2021
    1. These applications also rely on sending a large amount of information to the cloud, which causes a new set of problems. One regards the sensitivity of the information. Sending and storing so much information in the cloud will entail security and privacy challenges. Application developers will have to consider whether the deluge of information they’re sending to the cloud contains personally identifiable information (PII) and whether storing it is in breach of privacy laws. They’ll also have to take the necessary measures to secure the information they store and prevent it from being stolen, or accessed and shared illegally.

      See federated machine learning for a discussion on how we might avoid some of these challenges.

    1. Empower managers to facilitate effective learning transfer As Fergal explains, managers have a key role to play in facilitating effective learning transfer. “Research shows that managers play the most critical role in learning transfer - especially in the post-training environment. Every learner needs a manager who understands them, and how they want to learn and grow. They need to have the right coaching style, and they need the right resources.”In most organizations, instructional design focuses on the needs of the learner. But as Fergal explains, focusing on the needs of your managers can pay dividends. “Ideally, you’d have the manager attend the same training as the learner. The problem is, managers are always stretched. So, what you can do instead is develop specific guidance for your managers.” Provide a script for managers to support their team’s learning

      many managers are not used to the coaching-for development approach, or take a hands-off approach to supporting learning and development - managers need to be proactive, and can use support from the L&D team on how to facilitate effective learning transfer / discussions with their teams

    1. Effective self-directed learning requires a careful blend of employee autonomy and manager support. Employees want to learn to be better at their jobs, advance their skills, and further their careers, but they often don’t know where to start. More than half of employees report they would happily spend more time training if their managers offered specific guidance and recommendations. Encourage employees to set their own learning goals under the supervision of their managers.

      self-directed learning still needs support, and can be a common mistake for operational managers to think that providing a budget, and a course catalog is enough to get the most out of L&D programs - this is a mistake.

    2. Conversely, a proactive training environment is more democratic. Learning is typically bottom-up, with employees playing an active role in identifying potential learning needs, setting their own learning paths, and even contributing to course materials.
      • I like the phrasing of proactive training environment, might be a better term to use than 'permissive learning environment'
      • democratize learning at work
    3. Reactionary training is an expense

      need to move from reactionary training to proactive and anticipatory training

    1. The first step in translating experience, either of other men's writing, or of your own life, into the intellectual sphere, is to give it form. Merely to name an item of experience often invites you to explain it; the mere taking of a note from a book is often a prod to reflection. At the same time, of course, the taking of a note is a great aid in comprehending what you are reading.

      on the purpose of taking notes, annotating one's reading, or commonplacing

      highlight is a quote from

      C. Wright Mills' profound "Appendix: On Intellectual Craftsmanship," as found in his book on The Sociological Imagination.[16]

    1. When I follow a tutorial, I like to play with the code. Instead of copy/pasting the provided code verbatim, try experimenting with it: what happens if you omit one of the lines? Or if you change some of the values?
  8. Jul 2021
    1. There is no inactive learning, just as there is no inactive reading.

      This underlies the reason why the acceleration of the industrial revolution has applied to so many areas, but doesn't apply to the acceleration of learning.

      Learning is a linear process.

    2. Here by "learning" is meant understanding more, not remem­bering more information that has the same degree of intelli­gibility as other information you already possess.

      A definition of learning here. Is this the thing that's missing from my note above?

    1. When I'm at the very beginning of a learning journey, I tend to focus primarily on guided learning. It's difficult to build anything in an unguided way when I'm still grappling with the syntax and the fundamentals!As I become more comfortable, though, the balance shifts.

      Finding the right balance while learning. For example, start with guided and eventually move to unguided learning:

    2. I try and act like a scientist. If I have a hypothesis about how this code is supposed to work, I test that hypothesis by changing the code, and seeing if it breaks in the way I expect. When I discover that my hypothesis is flawed, I might detour from the tutorial and do some research on Google. Or I might add it to a list of "things to explore later", if the rabbit hole seems to go too deep.

      Soudns like shotgun debugging is not the worst method to learn programming

    3. Things never go smoothly when it comes to software development. Inevitably, we'll hit a rough patch where the code doesn't do what we expect.This can either lead to a downward spiral—one full of frustration and self-doubt and impostor syndrome—or it can be seen as a fantastic learning opportunity. Nothing helps you learn faster than an inscrutable error message, if you have the right mindset.Honestly, we learn so much more from struggling and failing than we do from effortless success. With a growth mindset, the struggle might not be fun exactly, but it feels productive, like a good workout.

      Cultivating a growth mindset while learning programming

    4. I had a concrete goal, something I really wanted, I was able to push through the frustration and continue making progress. If I had been learning this stuff just for fun, or because I thought it would look good on my résumé, I would have probably given up pretty quickly.

      To truly learn something, it is good to have the concrete GOAL, otherwise you might not push yourself as hard

    1. Following are strategies for facilitating SDL. The teacher can help the learner to Conduct a self-assessment of skill levels and needs to determine appropriate learning objectives. Identify the starting point for a learning project. Match appropriate resources (books, articles, content experts) and methods (Internet searches, lectures, electronic discussion groups) to the learning goal. Negotiate a learning contract that sets learning goals, strategies, and evaluation criteria. Acquire strategies for decision-making and self-evaluation of work. Develop positive attitudes and independence relative to self-directed learning. Reflect on what he/she is learning.
    2. SDL can be difficult for adults with low-level literacy skills who may lack independence, confidence, internal motivation, or resources.

      there can be reasons why some learners might not prefer the self-directed learning approach, or know how to make the most use of it - instead of dismissing them as 'non-learners', it'd be a good idea to figure out what their expieriences around learning are, what learning looks like to them - and how to support them.

    1. A top down view of some learning strategies to begin teasing out which may be better than others.

      Are they broadly applicable or domain specific?

      What learning methods and pedagogy piece are best and for which domains.

      How can we balance learning and doing an overview of theory versus practice?

      Which methods are better for beginners versus domain specific experts?

      Which are better for overview versus creating new knowledge?


    2. Pure discovery learning is the idea of not giving instructions at all. Simply present the pupil with the problem situation and let them figure it out for themselves. Unfortunately, the research seems to be against this.1 Discovery learning is a lot less efficient than telling people what they ought to do and then getting them to do it.

      Discovery learning is less efficient that telling people what to do and then getting them to do it.

      Reference: Kirschner, Paul, John Sweller, and Richard E. Clark. “Why unguided learning does not work: An analysis of the failure of discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning and inquiry-based learning.” Educational Psychologist 41, no. 2 (2006): 75-86.

    3. Play may trump problem solving. When working on a problem without a specific goal, the student can try lots of things to figure out what works. In contrast, only one answer is needed to solve a problem with a single goal. A playful, exploratory mindset may map out the patterns of interactions better than a narrowly, solution-oriented perspective. As an example of this, Sweller asked students to solve some math problems. One group was asked to solve the problems for a particular variable, and the other group was asked to solve for as many variables as they could. The latter group did better later, which Sweller explained in terms of cognitive load.4

      exploratory play >> problem solving

      How does this compare to the creativity experience of naming white things in general versus naming white things in a refrigerator? The first is often harder for people, while the second is usually much easier.

    4. John Sweller’s cognitive load theory argues that problem solving is often inefficient.2 His studies showed that students learned to solve algebra problems faster when they were shown lots of examples of solved problems, rather than trying to solve them on their own.3

      Problem solving is often inefficient, seeing lots of solved problems may be better than solving them on one's own.

      (This was the sort of model I used in learning most of my math over the years, though solving a few problems along the way also helped to reinforce things for me.)

      Sweller, John. “Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning.” Cognitive science 12, no. 2 (1988): 257-285. Sweller, John, and Graham A. Cooper. “The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra.” Cognition and instruction 2, no. 1 (1985): 59-89.

    1. "The main lesson is that even though they were all good at recognizing letters, the writing training was the best at every other measure. And they required less time to get there," lead author Professor Robert Wiley, from the University of North Carolina, Greensboro, said in a statement. "With writing, you're getting a stronger representation in your mind that lets you scaffold toward these other types of tasks that don't in any way involve handwriting." Every participant in the study was an adult but the scientists are confident that the same for children. The key, they argue, is that handwriting reinforces what is being learned about the letter, such as the sound, beyond their shape. "The question out there for parents and educators is why should our kids spend any time doing handwriting," explained senior author professor Brenda Rapp, from Johns Hopkins University. "Obviously, you're going to be a better hand-writer if you practice it. But since people are handwriting less then maybe who cares? The real question is: Are there other benefits to handwriting that have to do with reading and spelling and understanding? We find there most definitely are."

      Handwriting (as opposed to typing) has been shown to improve the speed at which one learns alphabets.


      Is the effect also seen in other types of learning? What about reading and taking notes by hand versus typing them out?

    1. Making online learning more engaging for students is becoming an increasingly high priority today. In this article, you will find 3 strategies (and tools) to make online learning more engaging for your students.

      To read the full article: https://www.learnable-europe.eu/3-strategies-and-tools-to-make-online-learning-more-engaging-for-students/

    1. 3. Keep it interactiveScience tells us that passive learning—dull lectures, pages of written text—don’t work nearly as well as when learners interact in one way or another with the learning material or instructor. You should use opportunities to build interaction into your in-person, online, synchronous, and asynchronous courses:

      Learning needs to move past the the one-way information model of learning.

      The upskilling Imperative talks about this a bit when talking about

      • instructivist model of learning vs constructionist model of learning

       instructivist model of learning vs constructionist model of learning

    2. 1. It’s not about physical vs. digital, but synchronous vs asynchronousIn L&D teams’ minds, the big split used to be between training that happened in-person and training that happened online. 

      In general, being able to adapt to asynchronous styles of working and learning will be important