169 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. To silence circular dependencies warnings for let's say moment library use: // rollup.config.js import path from 'path' const onwarn = warning => { // Silence circular dependency warning for moment package if ( warning.code === 'CIRCULAR_DEPENDENCY' && !warning.importer.indexOf(path.normalize('node_modules/moment/src/lib/')) ) { return } console.warn(`(!) ${warning.message}`) }
    1. Identify your user agents When deploying software that makes requests to other sites, you should set a custom User-Agent header to identify the software and provide a means to contact its maintainers. Many of the automated requests we receive have generic user-agent headers such as Java/1.6.0 or Python-urllib/2.1 which provide no information on the actual software responsible for making the requests.
  2. Oct 2020
  3. Sep 2020
    1. In '07, safety implied an unacceptable performance hit on slow single-core devices with 128MiB of RAM.

      In 2007, safety implied an unacceptable performance hit for hosting extensions, on devices with one core and 128MiB ram. In 2020, the lack of extensions is the ultimate app-ification of the web, the reduction of the web into a useless, powerless medium where users have no control.

    1. In my opinion, because Webpack was one of the first bundlers, is heavily packed with features, and has to support swathes of legacy code and legacy module systems, it can make configuring Webpack cumbersome and challenging to use. Over the years, I’ve written package managers, compilers, and bundlers, and I still find configuring Webpack to be messy and unintuitive.
    1. What I believe should happen is the Svelte compiler should, when a promise is passed to onMount, realise that a promise has been passed, and await the result of the function to be used as the onDestroy function. i.e, it should behave the exact same way for an async function as it does for a non-async function (if this is possible)
    1. Over the last year, we have gained a better understanding of the performance and correctness characteristics of the various rendering technologies available on the web, and have been experimenting with a second approach that uses CanvasKit. CanvasKit brings Skia to the web using WebAssembly and WebGL, enabling a hardware-accelerated drawing surface that improves our ability to render complex and intensive graphics efficiently.

      you are setting dynamite to hypertext & turning the web into a webassembly powered VNC viewer. this is an awful thing for users, for the web in general. please desist. please i beg you stop.

      the web is not for pushing pixels into people's faces. the web is a system of interlinking hypertext, a place where structured information can be viewed/enhanced by users, navigators, & extensions.

    1. WebAssembly is pretty great, but should web applications just be rendered to a canvas, and every application brings its own graphics toolkit? Do we really want anti-aliasing differences between web applications? Applications-in-containers is a thing - look at Qubes - but it’s not really something that users should want.

      Flutter seems intent on turning applications into mini-VNC sessions into webassembly, with CanvasKit work proceeding full steam ahead. can you please for the love of god NOT, Flutter? abomination.

      the web is more than a means to pump pixels at people's faces; it is a system of structured information, that users, their navigators, & extensions have rights & capabilities to traverse.

    2. The idea of a web browser being something we can comprehend, of a web page being something that more people can make, feels exciting to me.

      my personal hope is that we can build a more sensible coherent web, that exudes the machines inside of it, by better harkening towards custom elements ("webcomponents"). move the page from being a bunch of machines in javascript, to a bunch of machines in hypertext.

      and then build pages that start to expose & let the user play with the dom. start to build experiences that bridge the gap into the machine/page.

      and keep going. keep going. build wilder web experiences. build more machines. and keep building battlesuits for the user, out of more componenets, out of more web, to let them wrestle & tangle with & manipulate & experiment & hack on & see & observe & learn about the truthful, honest, direct hypertext that we all navigate.

    1. Mais il ne songe pas aux causes

      C’est ce que font les interfaces dites «user-friendly»: elles nous dispensent de penser, elles nous font oublier de penser.

      La transparence de la technologie, sa présence normalisée, voire imperceptible dans la vie quotidienne est aussi une bonne chose – c’est la tâche du design de faire bénéficier une technologie de pointe au plus grand nombre.

      Seulement, le numérique dissimule des enjeux de vie privée que nous ne pouvons percevoir directement par les sens: les enjeux sont invisibilisés, et les technologies «user-friendly» étendent leur pouvoir abusent du fait que les mécanismes échappent à notre perception, à notre entendement.

  4. Aug 2020
    1. So when we ask users to answer questions that deal with the future, we have to keep in mind the context in which they’re answering. They can tell us about a feature they think will make their lives better, but user val-idation will always be necessary to make sure that past user’s beliefs about future user are accurate.



  5. Jul 2020
    1. In fact, developers often tend to forget a simple, almost elementary fact: if users want to close the application or leave a site, they will — doesn’t matter which obstacles are placed on their path to the exit-button. The more obstacles there are the more negative the user experience will be.
    2. As designers, it is our decision to provide users with a clear, unambiguous choice, but we have no right to decide for users which choice they make.
    3. Any deviations from this convention result in a more design-oriented and less user-oriented design.
    4. Users also don’t like to deal with dozens of opened tabs and some visitors tend to become quickly angry with the disabled back button. Furthermore, some visitors may not even realize that a new window was opened and hit the back-button mercilessly — without any result. That’s not user-friendly, and that’s not a good user experience we, web designers, strive for.
    1. Matamala-Gomez. M., Brivio E., Chirico. A., Malighetti. C., Realdon. O., Serino. S., Dakanalis. A., Corno. G., Polli. N., Cacciatore. C., Riva. Giuseppe., Mantovani. F (2020) User Experience and usability of a new virtual reality set-up to treat eating disorders: a pilot study. PsyArXiv Preprints. Retrieved from: https://psyarxiv.com/b38ym/

  6. Jun 2020
    1. Zoom didn't do this to comply with local law.

      They did this because they don't want to lose customers in China.

      This is just capitalistic greed.

      Shutting down activists over a dictatorship is wrong, and it is actually as simple as that.

    1. The EARN IT act turns Section 230 protection into a hypocritical bargaining chip. At a high level, what the bill proposes is a system where companies have to earn Section 230 protection by following a set of designed-by-committee “best practices” that are extraordinarily unlikely to allow end-to-end encryption. Anyone who doesn’t comply with these recommendations will lose their Section 230 protection.
    2. Broadly speaking, Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act protects online platforms in the United States from legal liability for the behavior of their users. In the absence of this protection, many of the apps and services that are critical to the way the internet functions today may have never been created in the first place – or they couldn’t have been created in America.
    1. A year’s worth of cajoling back and forth has ultimately resulted in the EARN-IT bill wending its way through the U.S. system, a bill that, if passed, would see messaging services become legally responsible for the content on their platforms. While not mandating backdoors, per se, without some form of probes into message content, the argument runs that the punitive risks become unsurvivable.
    2. there’s a bill tiptoeing through the U.S. Congress that could inflict the backdoor virus that law enforcement agencies have been trying to inflict on encryption for years... The choice for tech companies comes down to weakening their own encryption and endangering the privacy and security of all their users, or foregoing protections and potentially facing liability in a wave of lawsuits.
    1. Once the platforms introduce backdoors, those arguing against such a move say, bad guys will inevitably steal the keys. Lawmakers have been clever. No mention of backdoors at all in the proposed legislation or the need to break encryption. If you transmit illegal or dangerous content, they argue, you will be held responsible. You decide how to do that. Clearly there are no options to some form of backdoor.
    1. Despite its opposition, EARN-IT is the clearest threat yet to end-to-end encryption, given this clever twist in pushing the onus onto the platforms to avoid transmitting illegal content, rather than mandating a lawful interception approach.
    2. Tiring of the privacy and safety debate, those behind EARN-IT have proposed making the platforms responsible for the content they transmit, encrypted or not. This would mean, as explained by Sophos, that tech companies “either weaken their own encryption and endanger the privacy and security of all their users, or forego protections and potentially face liability in a wave of lawsuits.”
    1. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) has notable safe-harbor provisions which protect Internet service providers from the consequences of their users' actions. (Similarly, the EU directive on electronic commerce provides a similar provision of "mere conduit" which, while not exactly the same, serves much the same function as the DMCA safe harbor in this instance.)
  7. May 2020
    1. Don’t go to code academy, go to design academy. Be advocates of the user & consumer. It’s not about learning how to code, it’s about translating real-world needs to technological specifications in just ways that give end users agency and equity in design, development and delivery. Be a champion of user-centric design. Learn how to steward data and offer your help.

      The importance of learning to design, and interpreting/translating real-world needs.

    1. allows you to deploy "'strict-dynamic' in a backwards compatible way, without requiring user-agent sniffing
    1. A "tag" is a snippet of code that allows digital marketing teams to collect data, set cookies or integrate third-party content like social media widgets into a site.

      This is a bad re-purposing of the word "tag", which already has specific meanings in computing.

      Why do we need a new word for this? Why not just call it a "script" or "code snippet"?

    1. It’s worth saying though that while the law may give you up to 30 days to honor these requests, most subscribers won’t. It is therefore prudent to honor opt-out requests promptly or risk being marked as spam and compromising the total legitimacy of your associated address.
    1. What I don't like is how they've killed so many useful extensions without any sane method of overriding their decisions.
    2. I know, you don't trust Mozilla but do you also not trust the developer? I absolutely do! That is the whole point of this discussion. Mozilla doesn't trust S3.Translator or jeremiahlee but I do. They blocked page-translator for pedantic reasons. Which is why I want the option to override their decision to specifically install few extensions that I'm okay with.
  8. Apr 2020
    1. There will be those within organisations that won't be too keen on the approaches above due to the friction it presents to some users.
    2. This is one possible path to take in that you simply reject the registration and ask the user to create another password. Per NIST's guidance though, do explain why the password has been rejected:
    3. I suggest being very clear that there has not been a security incident on the site they're logging into and that the password was exposed via a totally unrelated site

      (also the above image)

    1. By rendering important parts of the application with the real data on the server-side, an isomorphic application can show a meaningful initial page. On the other hand, client rendering application can’t show any meaningful information until it fetches all external data it needs. In the meantime, the only thing a user will see is a loading indicator.
    1. One of the drawbacks of waiting until someone signs in again to check their password is that a user may simply stay signed in for a long time without signing out. I suppose that could be an argument in favor of limiting the maximum duration of a session or remember-me token, but as far as user experience, I always find it annoying when I was signed in and a website arbitrarily signs me out without telling me why.
    1. There is a fundamental difference between these two kinds of content: the user comments are stored in our databases, which means their Markdown syntax can be normalized (e.g. by adding or removing whitespace, fixing the indentation, or inserting missing Markdown specifiers until they render properly). The Markdown documents stored in Git repositories, however, cannot be touched at all, as their contents are hashed as part of Git’s storage model.
    1. Each request to the API must be accompanied by a user agent request header. Typically this should be the name of the app consuming the service.
    1. Did you expect the temp directory to get printed? In the last example, we saw the directories ./temp and ./C/temp got printed, but not now. This is the effect of the -print option. By default, the find command prints all the files matching the criteria. However, once the -print option is specified, it will print files only on explicit print instructions. In this find command, -print is associated in the other side of the OR condition, and hence nothing will get printed from the 1st part of the condition.
    1. One mistake that we made when creating the import/export experience for Blogger was relying on one HTTP transaction for an import or an export. HTTP connections become fragile when the size of the data that you're transferring becomes large. Any interruption in that connection voids the action and can lead to incomplete exports or missing data upon import. These are extremely frustrating scenarios for users and, unfortunately, much more prevalent for power users with lots of blog data.
    2. The point is that users should be in control of their data, which means they need an easy way of accessing it. Providing an API or the ability to download 5,000 photos one at a time doesn't exactly make it easy for your average user to move data in or out of a product.
    1. Thousands of enterprises around the world have done exhaustive security reviews of our user, network, and data center layers and confidently selected Zoom for complete deployment. 

      This doesn't really account for the fact that Zoom have committed some atrociously heinous acts, such as (and not limited to):

  9. Mar 2020
    1. It won't let me go beyond this page. I'm sure I've answered the CAPTCHA correctly at least some of the 10+ times I've tried. What's going on?

      I can't even access their static website to find contact information for how to contact them about this problem!

    1. Robots are currently suffering extreme discrimination due to a few false assumptions, mainly that they’re distinctly separate actors from humans. My point of view is that robots and humans often need to behave in the same way, so it’s a fruitless and pointless endeavour to try distinguishing them.
    1. For years, the most used solution was to add an ugly captcha to the form, with some hard to read letters, numbers etc on an image. The user had to type these in an input field. The spambots have a hard time reading these images: problem solved!But this solution is not very user-friendly: it’s ugly, and annoys users so much you might lose conversions.
    1. Don’t go to code academy, go to design academy. Be advocates of the user & consumer. It’s not about learning how to code, it’s about translating real-world needs to technological specifications in just ways that give end users agency and equity in design, development and delivery. Be a champion of user-centric design. Learn how to steward data and offer your help.
  10. Feb 2020
    1. To add insult to injury I learn that when Cloudflare automatically detects an anomaly with your domain they permanently delete all DNS records. Mine won't be difficult to restore, but I'm not sure why this is necessary. Surely it would be possible for Cloudflare to mark a domain as disabled without irrevocably deleting it? Combined with the hacky audit log, I'm left with the opinion that for some reason Cloudflare decided to completely half-ass the part of their system that is responsible for deleting everything that matters to a user.

      ...and this is why some companies should not grow to become too big for the good of their customers.

    1. Do Browse like a user wouldTake natural pauses that users would take to consume page contentFocus on the most common use cases, rather than all the possible use casesTake note of pages where forms/logins occur, you will likely need to complete some scripting there
  11. Jan 2020
  12. Dec 2019
    1. TUI

      I assume this means text-based UI?? First time I've seen this term.

  13. plaintext-productivity.net plaintext-productivity.net
    1. Avoiding complicated outlining or mind-mapping software saves a bunch of mouse clicks or dreaming up complicated visualizations (it helps if you are a linear thinker).

      Hmm. I'm not sure I agree with this thought/sentiment (though it's hard to tell since it's an incomplete sentence). I think visualizations and mind-mapping software might be an even better way to go, in terms of efficiency of editing (since they are specialized for the task), enjoyment of use, etc.

      The main thing text files have going for them is flexibility, portability, client-neutrality, the ability to get started right now without researching and evaluating a zillion competing GUI app alternatives.

    1. An ssh public key in a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file can have a command="" option which forces a particular command to be executed when the key is used to authenticate an ssh connection. This is a security control that mitigates against private key compromise. This is great when you only need to execute a single command. But if you need to perform multiple tasks, you would normally need to create and install a separate key pair for each command, or just not bother making use of forced commands and allow the key to be used to execute any command.
    1. echo "from="${MYIP%% *}",no-port-forwarding,no-X11-forwarding,no-agent-forwarding,no-pty,command="rsync ${SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND#* }" $(ssh-keygen -yf ~/.ssh/rsync_rsa)" | ssh targetserver "cat - >>~/.ssh/authorized_keys" Note that the ‘command=’ restriction (http://larstobi.blogspot.ch/2011/01/restrict-ssh-access-to-one-command-but.html) will not apply if ‘/etc/sshd_config’ has already a ‘ForceCommand’ directive.
    1. Might be a little too low-level (even with GUIs) for some teams of users. GPG and Git both require some setup and experience in these tools, or the willingness to learn. Porting a GPG key from machine to machine is not trivial.
  14. Nov 2019
  15. Oct 2019
  16. Sep 2019
  17. Aug 2019
    1. "But in moving towards flat design we are losing much of the wisdom that was embedded in the old 3D style of UI, for example: a user must be able to glance at a screen and know what is an interactive element (e.g., a button or link) and what is not (e.g., a label or motto); a user must be able to tell at a glance what an interactive element does (does it initiate a process, link to another page, download a document, etc.?); the UI should be explorable, discoverable and self-explanatory. But many apps and websites, in the interest of a clean, spartan visual appearance, leave important UI controls hidden until the mouse hovers over just the right area or the app is in just the right state. This leaves the user in the dark, often frustrated and disempowered."
  18. Jul 2019
    1. Unfortunately, misguided views about usability still cause significant damage in today's world. In the 2000 U.S. elections, poor ballot design led thousands of voters in Palm Beach, Florida to vote for the wrong candidate, thus turning the tide of the entire presidential election. At the time, some observers made the ignorant claim that voters who could not understand the Palm Beach butterfly ballot were not bright enough to vote. I wonder if people who made such claims have never made the frustrating "mistake" of trying to pull open a door that requires pushing. Usability experts see this kind of problem as an error in the design of the door, rather than a problem with the person trying to leave the room.
    2. The web, in yet another example of its leveling effect, allows nearly everyone to see nearly every interface. Thus designers can learn rapidly from what others have done, and users can see if one web site's experience is substandard compared to others.
  19. Apr 2019
    1. The primary benefit of this would be to make the Hudson River and Public Square park areas more easily accessible to everyone who lives and works east of Hudson Yards. Opening 10th avenue to street facing retail, turning the six lane street two-way, and adding bike lanes would also make it more forgiving.

      Concluding appeal and explanation of the author's call to action. Considering the lack of walkability and limited potential use, they suggest a new design that will maximize access. This also has the benefit of altering the public's sense of that the space is exclusive.

    2. Urbanists like Jan Gehl, Janette Sadik-Kahn, Jeff Speck, and others have composed a comprehensive and well codified body of knowledge on humane urban design and walkability, which art critics should assimilate into their practice.

      Framework for criticism

    3. The Javits Center is often used by urbanists as an example of the perils of inhumane design. The unused and un-policed periphery attracts crime and vagrancy while its one entrance opens upon an eight lane street. This combination means that most conference attendees hire a taxi to ferry them to a more hospitable neighborhood.

      This is an excellent example of creation without context, particularly use by target populations. Walkability was so poor that it negatively affected the area.

    4. The only way to reach the Public Square promenade from the street is to climb three flights of stairs onto the High Line, then cross a fairly narrow bridge connection. The street level features a large cafeteria, but like the 10th avenue perimeter, the sidewalks are so narrow and the road so heavily trafficked with vehicles that it is unlikely the street can thrive as a public space.

      Examples of why this space is not user-friendly and basically unwalkable. Those designing the space did not consider practicalities like access.

    5. But over time, they become numb to the novelty of art, and other considerations exert a far greater influence on their experience of the building: things like who uses the space, when the space is used, how the space forms community and how it integrates the the community that surrounds it.

      His argument is user-orientated, criticizing experts in the field who work separately to build components of a shared urban ecosystem. Each architect was chosen for their fame, not their ability to work as part of a team, and spare little consideration about those who will live, work, and move through the space. Most importantly, the question of fostering community is addressed.

      Similar to scholars at the top of their field, these architects place little consideration towards the mass consumption of their work and its context.

    6. Street front retail creates foot traffic in places that might otherwise be desolate and inhospitable during different parts of the day. A diversity of land uses is key in cultivating walkability. For example, New York’s financial district is generally a ghost town after office hours because it lacks residential buildings. Adjacent Battery Park City has the opposite problem; it is so domestic that its streets are empty except during commuting hours.

      Cites two examples of spaces in the city that fail to maximize walkability and reduces user satisfaction/use. Users require mixed-use spaces that promote diverse populations, keeping them from becoming too exclusive and barren during the off hours.

  20. Feb 2019
    1. Having the expertise and context of the entire team in the room – the product designer, product manager and the engineers – means the plans are holistic and viable rather than limited to the lens of one of the roles
    2. This method allows us to learn before shipping and make sure that we can be more responsible with the design decisions we make

      Fail fast, fail often?

      This feels much more sustainable without becoming laborious.

    3. The matrix reduces the role of bias while giving space for other findings to emerge
    4. Focusses on what the user does, not what they say or think
    5. User research is about reducing uncertainty in the design process
    1. Another way of thinking about a good metric is to define a bad one. Bad metrics include those that are:

      A really nice list to check your metrics against

    1. INVEST

      According to this checklist, a User Story should be:

      Indepedent (of all others)

      Negociable (not a specific contract for features)

      Valuable (or vertical)

      Estimable (to a good approximation)

      Small (so as to fit within an iteration)

      Testable (in principle, even if there isn't a test for it yet)


      1. Glossary: INVEST - Agile Alliance
      2. INVEST at XP 1-2-3 by Bill Wake
  21. Jan 2019
    1. I'm trading these who has these like how to videos, video tutorials and they really go in to the nitty gritty. I think they also have like a Wiki fac or like a wiki tutorial that is just like a whole encyclopedia of trading view and have every indicator you want, you click it and it expands and you can read about everything
    2. on me. At first it seemed clunky and slow, but now I understand like it's just very like logical, uh, from like a Ux perspective.



  22. Dec 2018
  23. Nov 2018
    1. Mobile Based User-Centered Learning Environment for Adult Absolute Illiterates

      This study reviewed the education of absolute illiterates globally. It was based on the creation of game-based learning (GBL) which provides a user-friendly learning platform with little cost and little intimidation for the learner. The research also identified 60% of the world's illiterate population residing in rural areas with little access to computers and educational centers. The GBL environments created real world environments that allow learners to practice real-life scenarios in familiar surroundings using 3-D technology. The study also adapted a English language program to meet the needs of various languages. The context of the game is a farmer and a wife then acquire items and count them in their native language. The numbers used in counting are spoken and the game produces the correlating number so the learner becomes familiar with the written form of the letter. In conclusion, the participants identified that the mobile learning was more beneficial than PC applications due to unreliable electrical service at home. The mobile system was also available on demand.and applied to participants real-life usage.

      RATING: 10/10

  24. Oct 2018
  25. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. How is technology socially constructed, this is something I am interested about. What I would propose is that there are many experiences of people using things that aren~t meant to be used that way.

      And what about using things that are built to be used in a certain way? Can we also learn from that?

  26. Aug 2018
    1. Sen. Mark Warner of Virginia told the AP it is “frustratingly common” for technology companies “to have corporate practices that diverge wildly from the totally reasonable expectations of their users,” and urged policies that would give users more control of their data. Rep. Frank Pallone of New Jersey called for “comprehensive consumer privacy and data security legislation” in the wake of the AP report.
    1. Design is inherently political, but it is not inherently good. With few exceptions, the motivations of a design project are constrained by the encompassing platform or system first, and the experiences and values of its designers second. The result is designers working in a user hostile world, where even seemingly harmless platforms or features are exploited for state or interpersonal surveillance and violence.As people living in societies, we cannot be separated from our political contexts. However, design practitioners research and implement systems based on a process of abstracting their audience through user stories. A user story is “a very high-level definition of a requirement, containing just enough information so that the developers can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort to implement it23.” In most cases, user are grouped through shared financial or biographical data, by their chosen devices, or by their technical or cognitive abilities.When designing for the digital world, user stories ultimately determine what is or is not an acceptable area of human variation. The practice empowers designers and engineers to communicate via a common problem-focused language. But practicing design that views users through a politically-naive lens leaves practitioners blind to the potential weaponisation of their design. User-storied design abstracts an individual user from a person of lived experience to a collection of designer-defined generalisations. In this approach, their political and interpersonal experiences are also generalised or discarded, creating a shaky foundation that allows for assumptions to form from the biases of the design team. This is at odds with the personal lived experience of each user, and the complex interpersonal interactions that occur within a designed digital platform.When a design transitions from theoretical to tangible, individual user problems and motivations become part of a larger interpersonal and highly political human network, affecting communities in ways that we do not yet fully understand. In Infrastructural Games and Societal Play, Eleanor Saitta writes of the rolling anticipated and unanticipated consequences of systems design: “All intentionally-created systems have a set of things the designers consider part of the scope of what the system manages, but any nontrivial system has a broader set of impacts. Often, emergence takes the form of externalities — changes that impact people or domains beyond the designed scope of the system^24.” These are no doubt challenges in an empathetically designed system, but in the context of design homogeny, these problems cascade.In a talk entitled From User Focus to Participation Design, Andie Nordgren advocates for how participatory design is a step to developing empathy for users:“If we can’t get beyond ourselves and our [platforms] – even if we are thinking about the users – it’s hard to transfer our focus to where we actually need to be when designing for participation which is with the people in relation to each other25.”Through inclusion, participatory design extends a design team’s focus beyond the hypothetical or ideal user, considering the interactions between users and other stakeholders over user stories. When implemented with the aim of engaging a diverse range of users during a project, participatory design becomes more political by forcing teams to address weaponised design opportunities during all stages of the process.
  27. Jul 2018
    1. For now, the Solid technology is still new and not ready for the masses. But the vision, if it works, could radically change the existing power dynamics of the Web. The system aims to give users a platform by which they can control access to the data and content they generate on the Web. This way, users can choose how that data gets used rather than, say, Facebook and Google doing with it as they please. Solid’s code and technology is open to all—anyone with access to the Internet can come into its chat room and start coding.
  28. Dec 2017
    1. A mental map (or cognitive map) is our mental representation of a place. It includes features we consider important, and is likely to exclude features we consider unimportant.

      (Urban planner Kevin Lynch, early 1960s)<br> Elements of mental maps

      • paths
      • edges - boundaries and endings
      • nodes - focal points like squares and junctions
      • districts
      • landmarks

      Modern maps could use augmented and virtual reality to help clarify those elements, making a place easier to navigate and use. But they can also add useless noise that makes the place seem more confusing than it actually is.