48 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
  2. Jul 2022
    1. New DNA technology is shaking up the family trees of many plants and animals.

      One of Darwin's most compelling arguments in favour of evolution by means of natural selection was just how many different, apparently unrelated phenomena it explained. One of these was 'Classification' (what we now call taxonomy).

      Darwin argued that, when the taxonomists of his day arranged species into hierarchical groups, those tree-like groupings were best explained by genealogical descent.

      Now that biological evolution is accepted as a fact, genealogical descent has become the criterion taxonomists use to place species into hierarchical groups. Ironically, Darwin's explanation of taxonomy means it can no longer be used to justify his theory because modern taxonomy is, in effect, defined by his theory.

      The strongest tool we have for identifying genealogical descent in species is modern DNA analysis. This has helped identify many mistakes in former, non-DNA-based taxonomic classifications. But DNA analysis can't be used in all cases… For example, we do not have access to DNA samples of the vast majority of extinct species.

  3. May 2022
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  17. Nov 2019
    1. all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      Evidence is what makes information reliable, not a source. Even the top experts are human and can make mistakes or present information from a particular perspective, without being neutral or impartial; but evidence presents undeniable facts.

  18. Jul 2019
    1. This is the "first" of a series of articles where David Sackett defined Evidence Based Medicine. If you are from Public Health, how does what he says apply to you?

    1. In this paper, Trisha Greenhalgh has argued that patient care is multidimensional. As a result, if someone tries to measure the extent to which practice is evidence-based, he/she cannot arrive at a true estimate unless all dimensions are captured. Merely focusing on whether one used the results of a randomised controlled trial or meta analysis to prescribe medicine/therapy is not sufficient by itself to justify that evidence based practice was achieved and evidence based practice is not binary.

  19. May 2019
  20. Apr 2019
  21. Mar 2019
    1. This is a research based report (of which I have found few) that connects professional development and personalized learning. I had hoped to find links that applied to health care and have not found a great many so far, but this article, which is more oriented toward professional development for teachers, still has applications since public health education professionals participate in many of the same practices. rating; 5/5

    1. This link is for the Association of Information Science and Technology. While many of the resources are available only to those who are association members, there are a great many resources to be found via this site. Among the items available are their newsletter and their journal articles. As the title suggests, there is a technology focus, and also a focus on scientific findings that can guide instructional designers in the presentation and display of visual and textual information, often but not exclusively online. Instructional designers are specifically addressed via the content of this site. A student membership is available. Rating 5/5

  22. webstandards.hhs.gov webstandards.hhs.gov
    1. Usability guidelines This site seems a bit dated in its appearance but still provides the user the opportunity to review usability standards in general, together with a rating of the weight of evidence that supports each assertion. It would take some time to go through all the information available on this site. It is also usable enough that a designer can check up on guidelines while in the middle of designing a specific project. Rating 3/5

  23. Feb 2019
    1. Good website explaining PICO including af videotutorial . provided by the University Library of Illinois, Chicago

  24. Nov 2018
    1. It’s estimated that unneeded or unproven medical procedures cost us billions each year.
    2. Significant procedures are sometimes not nearly as effective as you might think. “In 2002, the New England Journal of Medicine published a landmark study where they found that this very common knee operation worked no better than a sham procedure in which a surgeon merely pretended to operate,” Patashnik says.
    1. So many medical publications appear worldwide every day that it is no longer possible for an individual medical professional to keep up with the latest state of knowledge. In order to offer support and to encourage new medical research, EBM provides a toolbox of different methods. These tools can be divided into three categories:The first category includes methods that serve to create reliable new knowledge: Someone who would like to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different drugs, for example, will find suitable types of studies here.The second category involves methods that help to summarize the existing knowledge on a subject: They serve to find and select the previously published studies that are best able to answer a particular question. There are now networks of researchers that specialize in looking for the latest research findings and summarizing them to provide easily accessible information.The third category covers methods for presenting information to medical professionals and laypeople in a way that helps them to find, understand and make use of it.The main aim is always to find out what kind of care is most suitable for a particular patient – and how to incorporate their individual preferences and circumstances into the treatment decision.
    2. An evidence-based approach also includes informing patients about the pros and cons of medical options so that they can actively be part of the decision.So making a treatment decision in accordance with EBM means basing it on the best available knowledge from clinical research and medical practice. A number of factors play an important role in the decision. As well as the type and severity of the health problem, these include the person's general life situation, personal values and opinions.
    3. This is the purpose of evidence-based medicine (EBM): to provide healthcare professionals, patients and those close to them with up-to-date and scientifically proven information on the various medical options that are available to them. It can help to find out what sorts of advantages or disadvantages a treatment or test has, when people might benefit from it and whether it might also be harmful.EBM uses special methods that it has developed to find the highest quality evidence for the benefits of a specific medical intervention. This evidence can be found in conclusive scientific studies. EBM also plays a part in making sure that the research that is done can help patients to answer the most important questions. This means that studies look into both the benefits of a treatment as well as how it affects quality of life, for example.
    1. “It’s about embracing the inscrutable nature of human interactions,” says Chang. Evidence-based medicine was a massive improvement over intuition-based medicine, he says, but it only covers traditionally quantifiable data, or those things that are easy to measure. But we’re now quantifying information that was considered qualitative a generation ago.

      Biggest challenges to redesigning the health care system in a way that would work better for patients and improve health