53 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
    1. Munro, A. P. S., Janani, L., Cornelius, V., Aley, P. K., Babbage, G., Baxter, D., Bula, M., Cathie, K., Chatterjee, K., Dodd, K., Enever, Y., Gokani, K., Goodman, A. L., Green, C. A., Harndahl, L., Haughney, J., Hicks, A., van der Klaauw, A. A., Kwok, J., … Appleby, K. (2021). Safety and immunogenicity of seven COVID-19 vaccines as a third dose (booster) following two doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or BNT162b2 in the UK (COV-BOOST): A blinded, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet, S0140673621027173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02717-3 s

  2. Jul 2022
    1. A decision takes place when the encoding of a cognitive selection triggers, upondecoding, an occurrence of a difference that is, a state change within the system [11 ].

      !- explanation : symbol-anchored encoding and decoding of cognitive selections

      • In other words, people think, imagine, conceptualize
      • and then encode that into live or recorded words
      • that are then heard or read by others (decoded)
      • and then a governance decisions subsequently results.
      • !- gloss : cognitive selection trigger
      • !- gloss : symbol-anchored encoding
      • !- gloss : decoding cognitive selection
  3. May 2022
    1. The new lines you mention really are present in the text content of the element. HTML tags are not being replaced by new lines, they just get omitted entirely. If you look at the textContent property of the <p> element you selected in the browser console, and you'll see the same new lines. Also if you select the text and run window.getSelection().getRangeAt(0).toString() in the browser console you'll see the same new lines. In summary, this is working as it is currently expected to. What I think may have been surprising here is that the captured text is not the same as what would be copied to the clipboard. When copying to the clipboard, new lines in the source get replaced with spaces, and <br> tags get converted to new lines. Browser specifications distinguish the original text content of HTML "in the source" as returned by element.textContent from the text content "as rendered" returned by element.innerText. Hypothesis has always captured quotes from and searched for quotes in the "source" text content rather than the "rendered" text. This behavior causes issues with line breaks as well. It might make sense for us to look at capturing the rendered text (as copied to the clipboard) rather than the source text in future. We'd need to be careful to handle all the places where this distinction comes up, and also make sure that all existing annotations anchor properly. Also we should talk to other parties interested in the Web Annotations specifications to discuss how this impacts interoperability.
      What I think may have been surprising here is that the captured text is not the same as what would be copied to the clipboard. When <mark>copying to the clipboard, <mark style="background-color: #8000314f">new lines in the source</mark> get <mark style="background-color:#00800030">replaced with spaces</mark>, and <br> tags get converted to new lines</mark>. </br> <mark>Browser specifications distinguish <mark style="background-color: #00800036">the original text content of HTML "in the source"</mark> as returned by <mark style="background-color: #00800036"/>element.textContent</mark> from <mark style="background-color: #ffa500a1">the text content "as rendered" returned by element.innerText.</mark></mark> Hypothesis has always captured quotes from and searched for quotes in the "source" text content rather than the "rendered" text.
  4. Feb 2022
  5. Jan 2022
    1. are thus differentially perpetuated through the success of a human-microbial holobiont, interacting with its environme

      Der interactor, der im Vergleich zu anderen also beständiger ist, vergrößert die Chancen der reproducer, die ihm angehören, sich fortzupflanzen. Er selbst kann sich nicht fortpflanzen, aber er erhält auf diese Weise größere Beständigkeit.

    2. Multilevel selection theory applies to these reproducers,

      Der Ansatz ist hier, dass sich die Selektion auf verschiedenen Ebenen bezieht. Dabei ist für diese Ebenen nicht nur charakteristisch, dass sich die Entitäten reproduzieren, sondern auch, dass sie in bestimmt der Weise mit anderen interagieren.

  6. Dec 2021
  7. Jun 2021
  8. Apr 2021
    1. Self-Managing over Self-Organizing


      Consider reading this article from Steven Denning and see how different states of a team contribute to performance. Self-managing is topped by Self-Organising, where teams organise their own context, including team members (self-selection).


      Scrum is built upon by the collective intelligence of the people using it. Rather than provide people with detailed instructions, the rules of Scrum guide their relationships and interactions.


    1. This idea that plants become desirable or aversive depending on their digestive consequences is simple. But, how do grazing animals figure out exactly which plants made them fee l good or ill? One way herbivores apparently accomplish this task is by regarding unfamiliar plants with caution. Animals associate positive or negative effects of nutrients or toxins with novel foods when offered meals that contain novel and familiar foods. When foraging bouts include several novel plants, plants that dominate the diet are probably 'weighted' more than less-consumed plants, even if the minor foods were primarily responsible for the positive or negative feedback. Furthermore, digestive feedback begins within 10 to 15 minutes of consumption which could help animals attribute digestive benefits or liabilities to specific plants. Finally, livestock grazing on rangelands usually become familiar with the forage resource and may seldom encounter truly novel plants. This allows greater opportunity to 'sort out' feedback from individual or similar groups of plants
    2. When a grazing animal smells and tastes a plant, the flavor is either pleasing or distasteful depending on the animal's previous grazing experiences. When a plant is eaten, it provides feedback during digestion. If consumption of a plant improves the nutrient or energy status of the animal, the plant flavor becomes more desirable or pleasing. If eating of the plant yields illness, the flavor becomes aversive and distasteful (Fig. 2). These flavor-consequence relationships form the basis for dietary likes and dislikes, and the animal then seeks highly palatable foods and avoids aversive foods. The resulting behavior patterns generally lead to increased consump- tion of nutritious foods and limited consumption of toxic or low quality plants.
    1. .mainContent {  -webkit-user-select: none; -moz-user-select: none; -ms-user-select: none;  user-select: none; }

    1. Limitations: When there are multiple distinct ranges of cells selected, most commands will only be executed against the first range or the focused range. We will continue improving this experience in upcoming releases.
  9. Feb 2021
  10. Oct 2020
  11. Aug 2020
  12. Jul 2020
  13. Jun 2020
  14. May 2020
  15. Mar 2020
    1. looking up topics that we were interested in.

      topic selection This is similar strategy to what I saw in IF interview. "Looking up" topics - in this case unrelated to each other - to see what kind of information is out there. This student was definitely looking at topics that were of personal interest to him.

    1. And – And I seen how – I saw how many, um, scholarly journals or how many sources came up for it, right? Um, number of sources. Right. And then, if I – if I felt like it wasn’t enough for me to thoroughly talk about the topic, I would move on. Right? So, when I did segregation, there – like, I guess, like, my specific topic was modern-day, so there wasn’t really much about it. Right? So, not much info. Right? And then, when I did gentrification, there were a lot, right?

      This part of the process is interesting to me. Links topic selection to search (seemingly a single search).

      It also seems a little misguided. What can we do in our lessons that could make tiny changes to this attitude?

    2. she wanted us to create a research paper about – well, about anything basically. Um, she gave us a bunch of ideas. She ac – like, she gave us, like, um, ideas like – hmm, like organic foods, GMOs, and just, like, you know, just problems in our society. But then, I chose, um, gentrification, so that’s what that’s about.

      "she" is the instructor, so this interview starts with "helper" idea right away

  16. Nov 2019
    1. Which makes them exactly the kind of programmers companies should want to hire. Hence what, for lack of a better name, I'll call the Python paradox: if a company chooses to write its software in a comparatively esoteric language, they'll be able to hire better programmers, because they'll attract only those who cared enough to learn it. And for programmers the paradox is even more pronounced: the language to learn, if you want to get a good job, is a language that people don't learn merely to get a job.
  17. May 2019
    1. this means that you are more likely to be struck by lightning in your lifetime than a Muslim is likely to commit a terrorist attack during that same timespan

      selection of detail and manipulation of data

    2. American Muslims have killed less than 0.0002 percent of those murdered in the USA during this period

      selection of detail

    3. In fact in 2013, it was actually more likely Americans would be killed by a toddler than a terrorist

      selection of detail

    4. How many people did toddlers kill in 2013? Five, all by accidentally shooting a gun

      selection of detail of outlandish statistic to emphasise main point

    5. you actually have a better chance of being killed by a refrigerator falling on you

      selection of detail of outlandish statistic to emphasise main point

  18. Nov 2018
  19. Jul 2018
    1. I think this paper and these data could be extremely useful for psychologists, but I also think this paper needs at least one more analysis: estimating effect sizes by research area, controlling for publication bias.

      It's very hard to interpret these estimates given good evidence and arguments that researchers and journals select for p < .05. I think it's safe to assume that all these estimates reported in this preprint are bigger than the true averages (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014).

      One approach to estimating "selection bias adjusted" effects would be to estimate the effect size for each research area using the code provided in the p-curve effect size paper supplements (http://www.p-curve.com/Supplement/). You could estimate confidence intervals or percentiles using bootstrapping procedures or write code to estimate the lower and upper bounds using the same methods to estimate the average effect.

      This approach assumes the p-values all test the hypothesis of interest and don't suffer from unique selection biases (see Selecting p Values in Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014, p. 540).

      Hope this helps make the paper better!

  20. Jun 2016
  21. Feb 2014
    1. Man cannot hope fully to duplicate this mental process artificially, but he certainly ought to be able to learn from it. In minor ways he may even improve, for his records have relative permanency. The first idea, however, to be drawn from the analogy concerns selection. Selection by association, rather than indexing, may yet be mechanized. One cannot hope thus to equal the speed and flexibility with which the mind follows an associative trail, but it should be possible to beat the mind decisively in regard to the permanence and clarity of the items resurrected from storage.

      Selection by association, rather than indexing.

  22. Nov 2013
    1. What one-sided preferences, first for this, then for that property of a thing!

      selection and choices

    2. It is only by means of forgetfulness that man can ever reach the point of fancying himself to possess a "truth" of the grade just indicated.

      Memory, selection, and choices.

    3. What men avoid by excluding the liar is not so much being defrauded as it is being harmed by means of fraud. Thus, even at this stage, what they hate is basically not deception itself, but rather the unpleasant, hated consequences of certain sorts of deception.

      Critical distinction regarding the process of "selection"; from his central thesis.

  23. Oct 2013
    1. In consequence, many students, when they have selected certain words or acquired a certain rhythm of composition from any orator's speeches, think that what they have read is admirably represented in their own sentences. Words come into use or fall into disuse according to the fashion of the day, as the most certain rule for their use is found in custom. They are not in their own nature either good or bad (for in themselves they are only sounds), but just as they are suitably and properly applied or otherwise. When our composition is best adapted to our subject, it becomes most pleasing from its variety.
    1. For nature has not condemned us to stupidity, but we ourselves have changed our mode of speaking and have indulged our fancies more than we ought; and thus the ancients did not excel us so much in genius as in severity of manner. It will be possible, therefore, to select from the moderns many qualities for imitation, but care must be taken that they be not contaminated with other qualities with which they are mixed. Yet that there have been recently, and are now, many writers whom we may imitate entirely, I would not only allow (for why should I not?) but even affirm. 26. But who they are it is not for everybody to decide. We may even err with greater safety in regard to the ancients, and I would therefore defer the reading of the moderns, that imitation may not go before judgment.

      What to select.

    1. This instruction he will give with the best effect, if he select particular passages from plays, such as are most adapted for this object, that is, such as most resemble pleadings. 13. The repetition of these passages will not only be most beneficial to pronunciation, but also highly efficient in fostering eloquence.

      What to select.