155 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2022
    1. The lateral keyword allows us to access columns after the FROM statement, and reference these columns "earlier" in the query ("earlier" meaning "written higher in the query").
    1. This latter equivalence does not hold exactly when more than two tables appear, because JOIN binds more tightly than comma. For example FROM T1 CROSS JOIN T2 INNER JOIN T3 ON condition is not the same as FROM T1, T2 INNER JOIN T3 ON condition because the condition can reference T1 in the first case but not the second.
    2. A LATERAL item can appear at top level in the FROM list, or within a JOIN tree. In the latter case it can also refer to any items that are on the left-hand side of a JOIN that it is on the right-hand side of.

      Unlike with most joins (IIUC), order is important with lateral joins. Weird. Why?

      Maybe because it is equivalent to a cross join lateral (see example), and in an explicit cross join, you have a LHS and RHS?

    3. This allows them to reference columns provided by preceding FROM items.
    1. Caution: + continues the statement but not the string. puts "foo"+"bar".upcase gives you fooBAR, whereas puts ("foo"+"bar").upcase gives you FOOBAR. (Whether or not there's a newline after the +.) But: if you use a backslash instead of the plus sign, it will always give you FOOBAR, because combining lines into one statement, and then combining successive strings into one string, happen before the string method gets called.
    1. …and they are typically sorted: chronologically: newest items are displayed firstthrough data: most popular, trending, votesalgorithmically: the system determines what you see through your consumption patterns and what it wants you to seeby curation: humans determine what you seeby taxonomy: content is displayed within buckets of categories, like Wikipedia Most media entities employ a combination of the above.

      For reading richer, denser texts what is the best way of ordering and sorting it?

      Algorithmically sorting with a pseudo-chronological sort is the best method for social media content, but what is the most efficient method for journal articles? for books?

    1. Around 1230 the Dominicans of the house of St. Jacques in Paris started a project that was completed by 1247: each member of the team recorded the words he encountered in reading the Bible beginning with the letter (or first two letters) he had been assigned, along with a brief indi-cation of the context and a precise location. This version survives in twenty- two manuscripts, most from the thirteenth century, all of them plain and of small size for portability.

      Started around 1230 and completed in 1247, a full concordance of the Bible was created by the Dominican house of St. Jacques in Paris. The group was broken up into word groups of one or two beginning letters and each member would then create an indication of the context and exact location of their assigned words as they encountered them. Twenty two small portable copies of the concordance exist from the thirteenth century. Eighty larger manuscript copies of a later version are extant from from roughly 1280 and 1330.

  3. Feb 2022
    1. Learnings: - It's easy to assume people in the past didn't care or were stupid. But people do things for a reason. Not understanding the reason for how things are is a missed learning opportunity, and very likely leads to unintended consequences. - Similar to having a valid strong opinion, one must understand why things are as they are before changing them (except if the goal is only signaling).

    1. “Manipulations such as variation, spacing, introducing contextualinterference, and using tests, rather than presentations, as learningevents, all share the property that they appear during the learningprocess to impede learning, but they then often enhance learning asmeasured by post-training tests of retention and transfer. Conversely,manipulations such as keeping conditions constant and predictable andmassing trials on a given task often appear to enhance the rate oflearning during instruction or training, but then typically fail to supportlong-term retention and transfer” (Bjork, 2011, 8).

      This is a surprising effect for teaching and learning, and if true, how can it be best leveraged. Worth reading up on and testing this effect.

      Indeed humans do seem built for categorizing and creating taxonomies and hierarchies, and perhaps allowing this talent to do some of the work may be the best way to learn not only in the short term, but over longer term evolutionary periods?

  4. Jan 2022
    1. Checks are usually done in this order: 404 if resource is public and does not exist or 3xx redirection OTHERWISE: 401 if not logged-in or session expired 403 if user does not have permission to access resource (file, json, ...) 404 if resource does not exist or not willing to reveal anything, or 3xx redirection
    1. The Renaissance ob-session for order

      The Renaissance was obsessed with creating hierarchies and imposing order. The Enlightenment was focused on examining and questioning these hierarchies and breaking many of them down.

    2. With regret and second thoughts, they were finally compelled to admit that the order of knowledge does not necessarily mirror the order of nature.

      I'll need some more research into this idea.

      Early modern scholars were forced to admit that the order of knowledge doesn't mirror the order of nature.

  5. Dec 2021
    1. For Europeanaudiences, the indigenous critique would come as a shock to thesystem, revealing possibilities for human emancipation that, oncedisclosed, could hardly be ignored.

      Indigenous peoples of the Americas critiqued European institutions for their structures and lack of freedom. In turn, while some Europeans listened, they created an evolutionary political spectrum of increasing human complexity to combat this indigenous critique.

    2. ‘Noble’ savages are, ultimately, just as boring as savageones; more to the point, neither actually exist. Helena Valero washerself adamant on this point. The Yanomami were not devils, sheinsisted, neither were they angels. They were human, like the rest ofus.

      This is an interesting starting point for discussing the ills of comparative anthropology which will tend to put one culture or society over another in some sort of linear way and an expectation of equivalence relations (in a mathematical sense).

      Humans and their societies and cultures aren't always reflexive, symmetric, or transitive. There may not be an order relation (aka simple order or linear order) on humanity. We may not have comparability, nonreflexivity, or transitivity.

      (See page 24 on Set Theory and Logic in Topology by James R. Munkres for definition of "order relation")

    3. That, Pinker tells us, is the kind of dismal fate ordained for usby evolution. We have only escaped it by virtue of our willingness toplace ourselves under the common protection of nation states,courts of law and police forces; and also by embracing virtues ofreasoned debate and self-contro

      It's interesting to note that the founders of the United States famously including Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr regularly participated in duel culture which often ended in death despite its use as a means of defending one's honor and relieving tensions between people.

    1. Order RelationsA relation C on a set A is called an order relation (or a simple order, or a linear order)if it has the following properties:(1) (Comparability) For every x and y in A for which x = y, either xCy or yCx.(2) (Nonreflexivity) For no x in A does the relation xCx hold.(3) (Transitivity) If xCy and yCz, then xCz.Note that property (1) does not by itself exclude the possibility that for some pair ofelements x and y of A, both the relations xCy and yCx hold (since “or” means “oneor the other, or both”). But properties (2) and (3) combined do exclude this possibil-ity; for if both xCy and yCx held, transitivity would imply that xCx, contradictingnonreflexivity.EXAMPLE 7. Consider the relation on the real line consisting of all pairs (x, y) of real

      Link to idea from The Dawn of Everything about comparative anthropology.

    1. Through an inner structure of recursive links and semantic pointers, a card index achieves a proper autonomy; it behaves as a ‘communication partner’ who can recommend unexpected associations among different ideas. I suggest that in this respect pre-adaptive advances took root in early modern Europe, and that this basic requisite for information pro-cessing machines was formulated largely by the keyword ‘order’.

      aliases for "topical headings": headwords keywords tags categories

    1. The props used for each slot inside the Tooltip. Note that componentsProps.popper prop values win over PopperProps and componentsProps.transition prop values win over TransitionProps if both are applied.
  6. Nov 2021
  7. Oct 2021
  8. Sep 2021
  9. Aug 2021
    1. Since he was writing in Latin, he could arrange the narra-tive of each aphorism so that it began with a head that cued the reader to the content of the subse-quent narrative.

      Oh the times I wish this were easier to do in English without the gymnastics.



  10. Jul 2021
    1. “Although a seemingly mundane and simple innovation, Linnaeus' use of index cards marks a major shift in how eighteenth-century naturalists thought about the order of nature,” says Mueller-Wille. The natural world was no longer ordered on a fixed, linear scale, but came to be seen as a map-like natural system of multiple affinities.


      Roughly the idea I'd just written!

      The idea of reordering nature this way would have been fantastic, particularly in light of the general prior order of the cosmos based on the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.

      Compare this with Ernst Haeckel's Tree of Man. What year was this in relation? Was the idea of broader biological networks and network-like structure thought of prior to this?

  11. May 2021
    1. As the token is unique and unpredictable, it also enforces proper sequence of events (e.g. screen 1, then 2, then 3) which raises usability problem (e.g. user opens multiple tabs). It can be relaxed by using per session CSRF token instead of per request CSRF token.
  12. Apr 2021
    1. Academy Games has always prided itself in the quality of its rules. Most of our rules are taught in stages, allowing you to start playing as soon as possible without needing to read everything. We are very careful about the order we teach rules and rely heavily on graphics and pictures to facilitate understanding. We also include a large number of detailed picture examples, often with 3D renders, that help you understand the context of the rules.
  13. Mar 2021
    1. Third configurable block to run.

      I like how they identify in the description which order things run in: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and last.

      Though, it would be more readable to have a list of them, in chronological order, rather than having them listed in alphabetical order.

    2. Last configurable block to run. Called after frameworks initialize.
  14. Feb 2021
    1. step :direct_debit

      I don't think we would/should really want to make this the "success" (Right) path and :credit_card be the "failure" (Left) track.

      Maybe it's okay to repurpose Left and Right for something other than failure/success ... but only if we can actually change the default semantic of those signals/outputs. Is that possible? Maybe there's a way to override or delete the default outputs?

    2. This connects the failure output to the previous task, which might create an infinity loop and waste your computing time - it is solely here for demonstrational purposes.
    1. Though rarer in computer science, one can use category theory directly, which defines a monad as a functor with two additional natural transformations. So to begin, a structure requires a higher-order function (or "functional") named map to qualify as a functor:

      rare in computer science using category theory directly in computer science What other areas of math can be used / are rare to use directly in computer science?

    1. It's hard to say why people think so because you certainly don't need to know category theory for using them, just like you don't need it for, say, using functions.
    1. The central ideas of this design pattern closely mirror the semantics of first-class functions and higher-order functions in functional programming languages. Specifically, the invoker object is a higher-order function of which the command object is a first-class argument.
    1. DSLs can be problematic for the user since the user has to manage state (e.g. am I supposed to call valid? first or update_attributes?). This is exactly why the #validate is the only method to change state in Reform.
    2. The reason Reform does updating attributes and validation in the same step is because I wanna reduce public methods. This is to save users from having to remember state.

      I see what he means, but what would you call this (tag)? "have to remember state"? maybe "have to remember" is close enough

      Or maybe order is important / do things in the right order is all we need to describe the problem/need.

    1. Because of the way the CSS “or” operator works, I wouldn’t be able to mix the retina conditions with other expressions since a (b or c) would be compiled into (a or b) c and not a b or a c.
  15. Jan 2021
    1. We have a means of identifying what an invisible hand is all about without necessarily using the terms invisible or visible. And should we find it more convenient to do so, we can associate an invisible hand argument with either a spontaneous (Hayek) or an unintended (Otteson) order.
    2. more positive-sounding term spontaneous order than the more mystical-sounding invisible hand. Others, however, prefer to use another term. ‘I prefer the term “unintended order” to the more familiar “spontaneous order” because the former conveys that the system of order was not anyone’s intentional design without suggesting, as “spontaneous” might, that there is no way to account for the creation of the system’ (Otteson 2002, 6; see also Otteson 2007, 21).

      The importance of accountability is implied by introducing the term - "unintended order".

    3. Hayek is thus informing us that the framework of our analysis should include institutions that are ‘The results of Human Action but not of Human Design’.
    4. Hayek notes that if we confine our arguments to the natural and artificial realms confusion is bound to ensure: ‘... one would describe a social institution as “natural” because it had never been deliberately designed, while another would describe the same institution as “artificial” because it resulted from human action’ (Hayek 1967, 130)
  16. Dec 2020
  17. Nov 2020
    1. Important caveat: in the combined expression, if the middle command has a non-zero exit status, then both the middle and the rightmost command end up getting executed.

      I don't think that is surprising, is it? Since && and || have the same order of precedence. So I think this is more of a clarification than a caveat.

      I think this is just because:

      a && b || c is equivalent to: (a && b) || c (so of course c gets evaluated if (a && b) is false (that if either a or b is false).

      I think they just mean, in this case:

      bedmap && mv || fail

      if mv fails, then fail still gets executed.

      Easier to see with a simpler example:

      ⟫ true && false || echo 'fail'
      ⟫ false && true || echo 'fail'

      Better example/explanation here: https://hyp.is/-foxmCVXEeuhnLM-le_R4w/mywiki.wooledge.org/BashPitfalls

      The caveat/mistake here is if you treat it / think that it is equivalent to if a then b else c. That is not the case if b has any chance of failing.

    1. What's not obvious here is how the quotes nest. A C programmer reading this would expect the first and second double-quotes to be grouped together; and then the third and fourth. But that's not the case in Bash. Bash treats the double-quotes inside the command substitution as one pair, and the double-quotes outside the substitution as another pair.

      subshell > quotes

    1. I think it’ll probably be a few years before we know the full extent to which people were harmed by this. As an example, the hospital in Uppsala experienced 50% fewer admissions due to cardiac infarctions (“heart attacks”) during the peak period, while the hospitals in Stockholm experienced 40% fewer admissions. We know that people who have a cardiac infarction and don’t get emergency treatment have a significantly increased risk of dying in the immediate future, and also have a greater risk of developing long term complications such as heart failure.

      A hospital in Uppsala saw 50% fewer cases of heart attacks during the peak COVID-19 period. The author posits that people might have been avoiding the emergency room out of fear or out of consideration. This might lead to more deaths later, however, as not getting treatment after a heart attack leads to higher chances of developing long-term complications.

    1. We expect a certain pattern when validate devtool name, pay attention and dont mix up the sequence of devtool string. The pattern is: [inline-|hidden-|eval-][nosources-][cheap-[module-]]source-map.
  18. Oct 2020
    1. a green satin dress, a black velvet cloak and a white hat with purple feathers,

      This description really helped envision the woman because of the order of clothing in closest to the body to the most external. I think it'd be really interesting to see how orders of things affect our understanding/ability to imagine.

    1. Yeah I see what you're saying. In my case, I had a group of classes that relied on each other but they were all part of one conceptual "module" so I made a new file that imports and exposes all of them. In that new file I put the imports in the right order and made sure no code accesses the classes except through the new interface.
    1. Doing so also means adding empty import statements to guarantee correct order of evaluation of modules (in ES modules, evaluation order is determined statically by the order of import declarations, whereas in CommonJS – and environments that simulate CommonJS by shipping a module loader, i.e. Browserify and Webpack – evaluation order is determined at runtime by the order in which require statements are encountered).

      Here: dynamic loading (libraries/functions) meaning: at run time

    2. Specifically, since Root, Rule and AtRule all extend Container, it's essential that Container is evaluated (and therefore, in the context of a Rollup bundle, included) first. In order to do this, input.js (which is the 'gateway' to all the PostCSS stuff) must import root.js, root.js must import rule.js before it imports container.js, and rule.js must import at-rule.js before it imports container.js. Having those imports ensures that container.js doesn't then try to place Root, Rule or AtRule ahead of itself in the bundle.
    3. Replaced nested `require` statements with `import` declarations for the sake of a leaner bundle. This entails adding empty imports to three files to guarantee correct ordering – see https://github.com/styled-components/styled-components/pull/100
    1. Note that the <WarningEngine/> component must be at the bottom of the form to guarantee that all the fields have registered.
    1. // Make a HOC
      // This is not the only way to accomplish auto-save, but it does let us:
      // - Use built-in React lifecycle methods to listen for changes
      // - Maintain state of when we are submitting
      // - Render a message when submitting
      // - Pass in debounce and save props nicely
      export default props => (
        <FormSpy {...props} subscription={{ values: true }} component={AutoSave} />
  19. Sep 2020
    1. By default, npx will check whether <command> exists in $PATH, or in the local project binaries, and execute that. Calling npx <command> when <command> isn't already in your $PATH will automatically install a package with that name from the NPM registry for you, and invoke it. When it's done, the installed package won’t be anywhere in your globals, so you won’t have to worry about pollution in the long-term. You can prevent this behaviour by providing --no-install option.
    1. let:hovering={active}

      It seems like it should be the other way around:


      to make it look like a regular let assignment.

      It's only when you consider what/how let:hovering on its own means/works that it makes a bit more sense that it is the way it is. When it's on its own, it's a little clearer that it's saying to "make use of" an available slot prop having the given name. (Very much like bind, where the LHS is also the name of the prop we're getting the data from.) Obviously we have to identify which prop we're wanting to use/pull data from, so that seems like the most essential/main/only thing the name could be referring to. (Of course, as a shortcut (in this shorthand version), and for consistency, it also names the local variable with the same name, but it wouldn't have to.)

      Another even simpler way to remember / look at it:

      1. Everything on the left hand of an prop/attribute [arg] corresponds to something in the component/element that you're passing the [arg] to. Usually it's a prop that you're passing in, but in this case (and in the case of bind:) it's more like a prop that you're pulling out of that component, and attaching to. Either way, the name on the LHS always corresponds to an export let inside that named component.
      2. Everything on the right side corresponds to a name/variable in the local scope. Usually it passes the value of that variable, but in the case of a let: or bind: it actually "passes the variable by reference" (not the value) and associates that local variable with the LHS (the "remote" side).

      Another example is bind: You're actually binding the RHS to the value of the exported prop named on the LHS, but when you read it (until you get used to it?) it can look like it's saying bind a variable named LHS to the prop on the RHS.

  20. Aug 2020
  21. Jul 2020
    1. The meta charset information must also be the first child of the <head> tag. The reason this tag must be first is to avoid re-interpreting content that was added before the meta charset tag.

      But what if another tag also specified that it had to be the first child "because ..."? Maybe that hasn't happened yet, but it could and then you'd have to decide which one truly was more important to put first? (Hopefully/probably it wouldn't even matter that much.)

    1. In logic, functions or relations A and B are considered dual if A(¬x) = ¬B(x), where ¬ is logical negation. The basic duality of this type is the duality of the ∃ and ∀ quantifiers in classical logic. These are dual because ∃x.¬P(x) and ¬∀x.P(x) are equivalent for all predicates P in classical logic
  22. Jun 2020
  23. May 2020
    1. Google encouraging site admins to put reCaptcha all over their sites, and then sharing the resulting risk scores with those admins is great for security, Perona thinks, because he says it “gives site owners more control and visibility over what’s going on” with potential scammer and bot attacks, and the system will give admins more accurate scores than if reCaptcha is only using data from a single webpage to analyze user behavior. But there’s the trade-off. “It makes sense and makes it more user-friendly, but it also gives Google more data,”
    2. For instance, Google’s reCaptcha cookie follows the same logic of the Facebook “like” button when it’s embedded in other websites—it gives that site some social media functionality, but it also lets Facebook know that you’re there.
    1. For convenience, conventions have been developed about the precedence of the logical operators, to avoid the need to write parentheses in some cases. These rules are similar to the order of operations in arithmetic. A common convention is:
  24. Mar 2020
    1. Earlier this year it began asking Europeans for consent to processing their selfies for facial recognition purposes — a highly controversial technology that regulatory intervention in the region had previously blocked. Yet now, as a consequence of Facebook’s confidence in crafting manipulative consent flows, it’s essentially figured out a way to circumvent EU citizens’ fundamental rights — by socially engineering Europeans to override their own best interests.
    2. The deceitful obfuscation of commercial intention certainly runs all the way through the data brokering and ad tech industries that sit behind much of the ‘free’ consumer Internet. Here consumers have plainly been kept in the dark so they cannot see and object to how their personal information is being handed around, sliced and diced, and used to try to manipulate them.
    3. design choices are being selected to be intentionally deceptive. To nudge the user to give up more than they realize. Or to agree to things they probably wouldn’t if they genuinely understood the decisions they were being pushed to make.
  25. Jan 2020
  26. Dec 2019
    1. "The replication crisis, if nothing else, has shown that productivity is not intrinsically valuable. Much of what psychology has produced has been shown, empirically, to be a waste of time, effort, and money. As Gibson put it: our gains are puny, our science ill-founded. As a subject, it is hard to see what it has to lose from a period of theoretical confrontation. The ultimate response to the replication crisis will determine whether this bout is postponed or not."

  27. Nov 2019
    1. If you really want to be sure your customisation gets loaded first or last, you can use * as your before or after reference.

      controlling order

    2. before and after also accept arrays of constraints.

      controlling order

    3. Much like the configuration layer, we need to specify a name for this transformation. This will help other modules negotiate their priority over the injector in relation to yours.
    1. However, in this case you would lose the possibility to render something in between. You are strictly coupled to the higher-order component's render method. If you need to add something in between of the currency components, you would have to do it in the higher-order component. It would be quite similar as you have done it previously by rendering the currency components straight away in the Amount component. If using a render prop component instead, you would be flexible in your composition.
    2. For the sake of completeness, the following code demonstrates that the problem could be solved with a higher-order component (HOC) as well:
  28. Oct 2019
    1. We've extracted some key features into separate HOCs to keep the main library as small as possible
  29. Sep 2019
  30. Aug 2019