1,161 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. is a waterborne bacterial disease, caused by the leptospiro bacteria. It rarely spreads from person to person and can be treated with common antib

      The bacteria is found in the urine of rodents.

  2. Feb 2019
    1. So much of our government’s service and program delivery happens online nowadays that sites such as Canada.ca could almost be considered public spaces online.

      absolutely, a very good analogy!

    1. separate public domain illustrations

      The main source images for this collage:

      Borrow, George Henry, and E. J. Sullivan. "I did not like reviewing at all--it was not to my taste." Lavengro, Macmillan and Co., London, 1896, p. 296. British Library Flickr, HMNTS 012621.h.20. Accessed 1 February 2018.

      Dodge, Mary Elizabeth. "A Terrible Tiger." When Life is Young: a Collection of Verse for Boys and Girls, Century Co., 1894, New York, p. 201. British Library Flickr. Accessed 1 February 2018.

    1. As with neoliberalism more generally, New Public Management is invisible, part of a new “common sense” that has somehow become hegemonic, whereby the “entrepreneurial spirit” has infused the public sector, leading to “businesslike government”. As with the claims of neoliberalism more generally as to its positive outputs in terms of prosperity, NPM has never been shown to have been successful even in its own terms. NPM “introduced punishments and rewards to produce better services with lesser staff. Instead of having freed energies and creativity of employees formerly shackled by their bureaucratic turfs, NPM reforms have bound energies into theatrical audit performances at the cost of work and killed creativity in centralizing resources and hollowing out professional autonomy... Fundamental deprivation of the legitimacy of public employees . . .has traumatized many most-committed employees and driven others toward a Soviet-type double standard.” (Juha Siltala, New Public Management : The evidence-based worst practice?, Administration; Vol. 45, No. 4.; 2013 pp. 468-493) Sekera quotes Christopher Pollitt et al., who “after compiling a database of 518 studies of NPM in Europe, determined that “more than 90% of what are seen by experts as the most significant and relevant studies contain no data at all on outcomes” and that of the 10% that had outcomes information, only 44% of those, or 4% of the total, found any improvements in terms of outcomes.” But in the end, the point of NPM is less that of measureable outcomes, and more that of the ideological victory of turning the public and its good into customers exercising their “choices” (see tax revolt example in Duggan), along of course with the radical disempowering of public administration workers and their unions, instituting “cost savings” by cutting their real income and putting more and more of the public sector’s production directly into the profit-making market.
    1. Abandoning the ‘command-and-control’ model of organisation has been part of the modernising paradigm shift experienced by companies in recent decades; little beyond the introduction of computers has taken place in governments in this respect. Instead, following a neoliberal recipe, the primary ‘new’ practice has been to outsource public services or to establish so-called ‘public–private partnerships’. This has been done in the name of efficiency, and under the assumption that the private sector knows best and will save the state money. In most cases, as Colin Crouch shows in his chapter in this volume, such expectations have not been fulfilled.42

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    1. Obscurity, verbosity, and pretentiousness are to be avoided; unusual words are to be used only when they aid clarity and prevent the aforementioned faults. For Aslell, women's rheloric should focus on the art of conversation, us both Sutherland and Renaissance scholar Jane Donawerth have argued. This is women's proper rhetori­cal sphere, different from but in no way inferior to the public sphere in which men use oratory.

      My mind immediately went to gossip and how the exchange/passing along of information/knowledge between women has been through this "proper rhetorical sphere" -- (private) conversations.

      The way obscurity is used here versus how it's used by Locke is also very interesting and very, very gendered.

    2. I have made no distinction in what has been said between Speaking and Writing, because tho they are talenL'i which do not always meet, yet >"'1•""�� there is no material difference between 'cm.

      I think Ong would take issue with the notion that there is no "material difference" between speaking and writing. Writing is a "technology" so to speak, and thus presents itself differently than mere thought through speaking. One can go back and edit writing, whereas orality is not so easily done.

    3. accommodate her audi­ence.

      This idea of audience centeredness is still taught today in the majority of public speaking classes.

    4. rhetorical ability is mainly a natural endowment and that one should strive for clarity lo accommodate one's audience

      When preparing to speak publicly, the speaker's first consideration should always be the audience -- all other factors, including topic, should be a product influenced by the unanticipated audience.

    1. guides to him

      Interesting that he uses "guides" here instead of "rules."

    2. Gestures

      The nonverbal aspects of public speaking are just as important as the verbal arguments.

    3. ing as a form of conversation

      Also with viewing public speaking as a conversation, there is little room to outline arguments. Your main points will come out differently each time. it is not as mechanical.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. why so many commentators have thought Cicero's De oratore, which does con-front the issue from time to time, so much more one-sided an argument than it is.

      Aristotle's definition of rhetoric likens the notion of public speaking to persuasion. When addressing an issue of concern, using all available means of persuasion at one's disposal aids in constructing a sound argument.

  4. www.poetryfoundation.org www.poetryfoundation.org
    1. In her poetry, though, veneration for the erotic is freed from agricultural associations and traditional formulas and seems rather the natural expression of an individual whose observations are true to the complexity of her experience and include conflicted and aggressive emotion.

      Some scholars suggest that Sappho's poetry does not necessarily reflect her personal emotions and experiences, since they were probably written for public performance and may have been recited by a choral group. Such groups had 15 members, but typically sang in the first-person singular "I". What do you think?

    1. “那些所谓的‘白皮书’描述的目标非常宏大,原本只是想做行业某一方面的应用,却拔高到想要做一条全新的底层公链。事实上,若想开发一条完整的区块链底层公链,必须具有在行业应用方面独特的技术创新,并且能够实现稳定运行。这显然不是一般行业应用团队可以实现的事情。”

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>市面上的多数白皮书是否都在摊大饼?或许在回答这个问题前,我们应该多多学习李笑来「不断厘清自己概念」的精神。为什么原本属于 Business Plan 范畴的文档会被冠以 “White Paper” 的称号?在维基百科的词条里我们可以找到如下定义:</br></br>A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.

      White papers are a "... tool of participatory democracy ... not [an] unalterable policy commitment."

      "White papers have tried to perform the dual role of presenting firm government policies while at the same time inviting opinions upon them."</i></br></br> “authoritative” 一词在精神上与 “decentralized” 构成对立,但前者却是迄今为止所有组织都偏好的行动范式,甚至喜欢到了上瘾的地步。人们很难揣测第一个在密码社群抛出 “White Paper” 概念的人是否对此概念有细致的探究,但这并不妨碍那些雄心勃勃想要改变世界,抑或是打算割完韭菜就走的团队借此「文化活用」,向外输出它们的价值哲学。他们的立场很决绝,但鲜有做到广纳群言。

    1. Know yourself.

      Great talk on the subject of coaching yourself for public speaking: video here

    2. Know the difference between a good talk and a bad talk

      I believe that the single greatest factor for a decent talk is doing your homework. And the greatest difference between a decent talk and a great talk is the speaker's experience on stage.

    3. If you’re walking into a speaking gig without knowing your audience, you’re bound to fall flat and end up looking at the tops of their heads as they check their cell phones.

      This is what Pedro Salomão calls "the speaker's fault". He has a great point on millenials: if they are bored, either in a lecture or a classroom, it's the speaker's fault. No one is bored while watching the world cup or an amazing keynote.

    4. Know how to pitch.

      A great framework on pichting comes from Dan Pink on this short video.

  5. Dec 2018
    1. 雖然許多公鏈開發項目方自稱為「第三代區塊鏈系統」,但本質上只是「更快的以太坊」,內部也沒有任何落地的應用出現,僅僅是個空轉的伺服器群,這背後的隱憂是,一旦以太坊完成 POS 實作,解決了 TPS 的交易處理性能問題,可滿足一定程度的商用場景,這些新公鏈的開發者與使用者將一哄而散,重新回到市占率最高的以太坊進行開發。

      <big>评:</big><br/><br/>应对此类预判的有效回应:为什么我们只能有一个以太坊?为什么不能同时存在多个「快速的类以太坊」?<br/><br/>看看国产手机厂商们基于 Android OS 定制的 UI 在大中华区的市场表现吧!自从 Google 退华后,相关的流言就未曾间断——比市面上这群竞品更强更好、哪怕是阉割版的 Google 将重返中国市场,扭转格局。但明眼人们心里清楚,这个全球最大市场已今非昔比,后来居上的模仿者们甚至成功改写了游戏规则。<br/><br/>总有东西能够超越人类的朴素共识,它可能是商品拜物教、地缘政治、意识形态、文化鸿沟中的任意一项。百舸争流,成王败寇。

    1. As technologies change, and as they alter the societal architectures of visi-bility, access, and community, they also affect the contours of the public sphere, which in turn affects social norms and political structures.
    1. On the net, you have public, or you have secrets. The private intermediate sphere, with its careful buffering. is shattered. E-mails are forwarded verbatim. IRC transcripts, with throwaway comments, are preserved forever. You talk to your friends online, you talk to the world.
    2. The problem here is one (ironically) of register. In the real world, we have conversations in public, in private, and in secret. All three are quite separate. The public is what we say to a crowd; the private is what we chatter amongst ourselves, when free from the demands of the crowd; and the secret is what we keep from everyone but our confidant. Secrecy implies intrigue, implies you have something to hide. Being private doesn’t. You can have a private gathering, but it isn’t necessarily a secret. All these conversations have different implications, different tones.
  6. Nov 2018
    1. OER matters not because textbooks matter. OER matters because it highlights an example of how something central to our public missions, the transfer of our foundational disciplinary knowledge from one generation of scholars to the next, has been co-opted by private profit. And OER is not a solution, but a systemic shift from private to public architecture in how we deliver learning.

      I love this framing of OER as public infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of knowledge. I think it is not only generational, but also more broadly to the public. OER use is not limited to just students within our institutions, but are available freely and openly more broadly to the public. To anyone. I think we need to make that point more widely known. Every OER that is made freely available is making knowledge more open to not only students in our institutions, but to anyone, anywhere. It truly is "public" infrastructure.

    1. Probing the Pareto frontier for basis pursuit solutionsE Van Den Berg, MP FriedlanderSIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 31 (2), 890-912

      woah! so popular

    1. We have real insights to offer the world as academics and not only should universities encourage us toward the public square, but they should expect us not to shy away from it.

      writing for the public

    1. Polls show that doctors are trusted by the public more than politicians, which means it’s hard for public policy to shape the healthcare system unless medical associations sign off on it.
    1. Use of Slack in a FACE-TO-FACE class and how much it increased interaction; brings up a point that concerns me and that's what happens when the instructor/TA appear to be available 24/7 given the nature of Slack; good exploration of motivating students to use it (4/5)

  7. Sep 2018
    1. The Free Software Foundation[11][12] and the Open Knowledge Foundation approved CC0 as a recommended license to dedicate content and software to the public domain.
    1. In October 2014 the Open Knowledge Foundation recommends the Creative Commons CC0 license to dedicate content to the public domain,[51][52] and the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) for data.[53]
  8. Aug 2018
    1. ‘‘The liberation of ourjudgments from subjective private conditions is anecessary condition for weighing our judgments withthe possible judgments of others, by putting ourselvesin the position of everyone else.’’
    1. Most of the actual texts in the Heath were public domain texts, freely available and not under any copyright restrictions.  As the Heath produced new editions (of literature from roughly 1400-1800!), forcing students to buy new textbooks or be irritatingly out of sync with page numbers, and as students turned to rental markets that necessitated them giving their books back at the end of the semester, I began to look in earnest for an alternative.

      Repackaging public domain texts and charging a steep markup too much above and beyond the cost of the paper is just highway robbery. Unless a publisher is adding some actual annotative or analytical value, they shouldn't be charging outrageous prices for textbooks of this nature.

    1. However, as admirable as James’ philanthropic efforts are, they are not a solution to the problems in public education.

      I don't think James ever claimed he was solving "the problems in public education." How about he's shining a light on ways increased public funding could stimulate public education?

    1. She reached behind her to her bookshelf, which held about a dozen blue bottles of something called Real Water, which is not stripped of “valuable electrons,” which supposedly creates free radicals something something from the body’s cells.

      I question her credibility to market claims like this. I suspect she has no staff scientist or people with the sort of background to make such claims. Even snake oil salesmen like Dr. Oz are pointedly putting us in hands way too make a buck.

    1. How public do you want to be? and How do you want to be public?

      Seems like a good pair of guiding questions.

    1. I am not, and will never be, a simple writer. I have sought to convict, accuse, comfort, and plead with my readers. I’m leaving the majority of my flaws online: Go for it, you can find them if you want. It’s a choice I made long ago.
  9. Jul 2018
    1. To summarize his argument, the media industry wants to broaden our definition of the public so that it will be fair game for discussion and content creation, meaning they can create more articles and videos, meaning they can sell more ads. The tech industry wants everything to be public because coding for privacy is difficult, and because our data, if public, is something they can sell. Our policy makers have failed to define what’s public in this digital age because, well, they don’t understand it and wouldn’t know where to begin. And also, because lobbyists don’t want them to.
    1. A 2016 Lancet study found that universal breast-feeding would prevent 800,000 child deaths a year across the globe and yield $300 billion in savings from reduced health care costs and improved economic outcomes for those reared on breast milk.

      Pure corruption here. Protectionism to prop up profits of approximately 630 million versus major benefits and savings of 300 billion. Even if you look at the calculus of the entire industry of 70 billion it becomes a no brainer.

  10. May 2018
    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

    3. Two years later, scientists managed to revive an 8-million-year-old bacterium that had been lying dormant in ice, beneath the surface of a glacier in the Beacon and Mullins valleys of Antarctica. In the same study, bacteria were also revived from ice that was over 100,000 years old.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Two years later, scientists managed to revive an 8-million-year-old bacterium that had been lying dormant in ice, beneath the surface of a glacier in the Beacon and Mullins valleys of Antarctica. In the same study, bacteria were also revived from ice that was over 100,000 years old.

    4. In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years. The microbes, called Carnobacterium pleistocenium, had been frozen since the Pleistocene period, when woolly mammoths still roamed the Earth. Once the ice melted, they began swimming around, seemingly unaffected.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years. The microbes, called Carnobacterium pleistocenium, had been frozen since the Pleistocene period, when woolly mammoths still roamed the Earth. Once the ice melted, they began swimming around, seemingly unaffected.

    5. For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

    6. For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

    7. In August 2016, in a remote corner of Siberian tundra called the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle, a 12-year-old boy died and at least twenty people were hospitalised after being infected by anthrax. The theory is that, over 75 years ago, a reindeer infected with anthrax died and its frozen carcass became trapped under a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost. There it stayed until a heatwave in the summer of 2016, when the permafrost thawed.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      In August 2016, in a remote corner of Siberian tundra called the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle, a 12-year-old boy died and at least twenty people were hospitalised after being infected by anthrax.

      The theory is that, over 75 years ago, a reindeer infected with anthrax died and its frozen carcass became trapped under a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost. There it stayed until a heatwave in the summer of 2016, when the permafrost thawed.

    8. Climate change is melting permafrost soils that have been frozen for thousands of years, and as the soils melt they are releasing ancient viruses and bacteria that, having lain dormant, are springing back to life.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Climate change is melting permafrost soils that have been frozen for thousands of years, and as the soils melt they are releasing ancient viruses and bacteria that, having lain dormant, are springing back to life.

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. In February 2017, NASA scientists announced that they had found 10-50,000-year-old microbes inside crystals in a Mexican mine.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      In February 2017, NASA scientists announced that they had found 10-50,000-year-old microbes inside crystals in a Mexican mine.

    19. In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

    20. In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years.

    21. In a project that began in the 1990s, scientists from the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Novosibirsk have tested the remains of Stone Age people that had been found in southern Siberia, in the region of Gorny Altai.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In a project that began in the 1990s, scientists from the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Novosibirsk have tested the remains of Stone Age people that had been found in southern Siberia, in the region of Gorny Altai.

    22. microbiologist Hazel Barton

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      microbiologist Hazel Barton

    23. Boris Revich and Marina Podolnaya

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Boris Revich and Marina Podolnaya

    24. evolutionary biologist Jean-Michel Claverie

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      evolutionary biologist Jean-Michel Claverie

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    27. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    28. diseases hidden in ice,

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      diseases hidden in ice,

    29. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    30. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    31. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. When read carefully, the CDC acknowledges that studies finding any perceived reduction in death rates may be due to the healthy-user effect- the tendency for healthier people to be vaccinated more than less-healthy people.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      When read carefully, the CDC acknowledges that studies finding any perceived reduction in death rates may be due to the healthy-user effect- the tendency for healthier people to be vaccinated more than less-healthy people.

    3. One study found that those who get the vaccine for three to five years increase their risk of Alzheimer's disease 10-fold.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      One study found that those who get the vaccine for three to five years increase their risk of Alzheimer's disease 10-fold.

    4. A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

    5. randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

    6. The only randomized trial of influenza vaccine in older people found no decrease in deaths...

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      The only randomized trial of influenza vaccine in older people found no decrease in deaths...

    7. what's in the vaccines--especially those from 2015 and after--might actually be more damaging then simply rolling the dice on getting the flu.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      what's in the vaccines--especially those from 2015 and after--might actually be more damaging then simply rolling the dice on getting the flu.

    8. Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. they know it contains a dose of mercury that is toxic to the brain...They

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      they know it contains a dose of mercury that is toxic to the brain...They

    11. Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even

    12. work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. While it may be a contested subject,

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      While it may be a contested subject,

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

    19. Yet a study by the Cochrane group studied hundreds of thousands of people and found it offered zero protection for those three things in the general community.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      Yet a study by the Cochrane group studied hundreds of thousands of people and found it offered zero protection for those three things in the general community.

    20. (In) an Australian study (it was) found (that) one in every 110 children under the age of five had convulsions following vaccinations in 2009 for H1N1 influenza.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      (In) an Australian study (it was) found (that) one in every 110 children under the age of five had convulsions following vaccinations in 2009 for H1N1 influenza.

    21. randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

    22. Dr. Russell Blaylock,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Dr. Russell Blaylock,

    23. Peter Doshi's

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Peter Doshi's

    24. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. releases shocking report

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      releases shocking report

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:A cause-and-effect chain of biological events is provided.

      Highlight:

      When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

    3. Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:A cause-and-effect chain of biological events is provided.

      Highlight:

      Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

    4. Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

    5. When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

    6. The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. Let me repeat that: The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Let me repeat that: The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

    9. The process that began with a sweet roll turns into a vicious cycle over time that creates heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and finally, Alzheimer’s disease, as the inflammatory process continues unabated.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The process that began with a sweet roll turns into a vicious cycle over time that creates heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and finally, Alzheimer’s disease, as the inflammatory process continues unabated.

    10. The ratio of imbalance ranges from 15:1 to as high as 30:1 in favor of omega-6. That’s a tremendous amount of cytokines causing inflammation. In today’s food environment, a 3:1 ratio would be optimal and healthy.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The ratio of imbalance ranges from 15:1 to as high as 30:1 in favor of omega-6. That’s a tremendous amount of cytokines causing inflammation. In today’s food environment, a 3:1 ratio would be optimal and healthy.

    11. There is but one answer to quieting inflammation, and that is returning to foods closer to their natural state.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      There is but one answer to quieting inflammation, and that is returning to foods closer to their natural state.

    12. While we savor the tantalizing taste of a sweet roll, our bodies respond alarmingly as if a foreign invader arrived declaring war.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      While we savor the tantalizing taste of a sweet roll, our bodies respond alarmingly as if a foreign invader arrived declaring war.

    13. By eliminating inflammatory foods and adding essential nutrients from fresh unprocessed food, you will reverse years of damage in your arteries and throughout your body from consuming the typical American diet.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      By eliminating inflammatory foods and adding essential nutrients from fresh unprocessed food, you will reverse years of damage in your arteries and throughout your body from consuming the typical American diet.

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    18. American Heart Association

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      American Heart Association

    19. heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,

    20. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    21. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    22. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    23. What Really Causes Heart Disease

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      What Really Causes Heart Disease

    24. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    25. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    26. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:No evidence given

    3. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    4. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    5. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    6. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    13. Raw Story,

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      Raw Story,

    14. Huffington Post

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Huffington Post

    15. Physicians for Reproductive Health advocacy fellow Dr. Diane Horvath-Cosper

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Physicians for Reproductive Health advocacy fellow Dr. Diane Horvath-Cosper

    16. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    17. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    18. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    19. sexual assault could be considered a pre-existing condition

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Cliffhanger to a story (“You Won’t Believe What Happens Next”, “Man Divorces His Wife After Overhearing This Conversation”)

      Highlight:

      sexual assault could be considered a pre-existing condition

    20. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    21. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    22. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. http://cdc.news/2017-06-01-autism-risk-420-higher-in-vaccinated-children-vs-non-vaccinated-published-science-confirms.html http://www.bewellbuzz.com/general/10-reasons-flu-shots-dangerous-flu/ http://www.rejuvenation-science.com/medication-depletion http://chemo.news/ https://realfarmacy.com/75-of-physicians-in-the-world-refuse-chemotherapy-for-themselves/
    3. Prescription pills and treatments have many dangerous side effects.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Prescription pills and treatments have many dangerous side effects.

    4. Injecting mercury into your muscle tissue will send a widespread shock through your body, which causes a severe, instant hyper-immune reply from the central nervous system.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Injecting mercury into your muscle tissue will send a widespread shock through your body, which causes a severe, instant hyper-immune reply from the central nervous system.

    5. Chemotherapy should already be illegal, but it’s not.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Chemotherapy should already be illegal, but it’s not.

    6. If you think this is not true, check the Merck vaccine ingredient insert sheet for yourself.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      If you think this is not true, check the Merck vaccine ingredient insert sheet for yourself.

    7. What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

    8. At the moment, doctors in America are not authorized to prescribe or talk about resveratrol because this remedy is a natural remedy for blood clots. If you need some blood thinners, ask a naturopathic doctor and get a natural one.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      At the moment, doctors in America are not authorized to prescribe or talk about resveratrol because this remedy is a natural remedy for blood clots. If you need some blood thinners, ask a naturopathic doctor and get a natural one.

    9. The RotaTeq vaccine created by Dr. Paul Offit contains two strains of a deadly pig virus called circovirus, and there is no real reason to treat infant diarrhea with the same deadly virus that kills thousands of pigs in China.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The RotaTeq vaccine created by Dr. Paul Offit contains two strains of a deadly pig virus called circovirus, and there is no real reason to treat infant diarrhea with the same deadly virus that kills thousands of pigs in China.

    10. What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness. Instead, many of them will likely cause more long-term harm, than good.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness. Instead, many of them will likely cause more long-term harm, than good.

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness.

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness.

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    16. FDA

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      FDA

    17. CDC

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      CDC

    18. http://cdc.news/2017-06-01-autism-risk-420-higher-in-vaccinated-children-vs-non-vaccinated-published-science-confirms.html http://www.bewellbuzz.com/general/10-reasons-flu-shots-dangerous-flu/ http://www.rejuvenation-science.com/medication-depletion http://chemo.news/ https://realfarmacy.com/75-of-physicians-in-the-world-refuse-chemotherapy-for-themselves/
    19. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    20. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    21. Immediately Destroy Your Health

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      Immediately Destroy Your Health

    22. Six Pharmaceutical Drugs

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      Six Pharmaceutical Drugs

    23. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    24. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    25. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Slightly Convincing

    2. Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:Nutritional facts (without sources) are presented to support the effectiveness of the drink.

      Highlight:

      Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

    3. Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:Nutritional facts (without sources) are presented to support the effectiveness of the drink.

      Highlight:

      Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

    4. Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

    5. Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

    6. A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

    7. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    8. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. Many individuals ask: Isn’t really honey a type of sugar? Doesn’t it contribute to weight gain? Won’t the calories in honey negate weight loss efforts?

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Many individuals ask: Isn’t really honey a type of sugar? Doesn’t it contribute to weight gain? Won’t the calories in honey negate weight loss efforts?

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Not at all justified

    17. A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

    18. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    19. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    20. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    21. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Very much clickbaity

    22. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    23. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Very low credibility