99 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2023
    1. The Western powers believed they were bringing superior culture and trade opportunities to China, while the Chinese valued their own history and traditions
    2. This text describes a violent incident that occurred in an orphanage in China in 1870.
    3. nd some even called for armed invasion by Western countries.
    4. treaties signed with foreign countries took away China's ability to control its own tariffs and rivers.
    5. missionaries in China used force, such as gunboats, to gain access and privileges for themselves and their converts.
    6. treaties allowed foreigners to have control over certain areas in Chinese cities, where they collected taxes and enforced their own laws.


    7. Manchu policy of opening up more ports for trade and foreign residence was seen as weak by the Han Chinese

      Han vs Manchu

    8. ifferent groups within the Chinese government who had different opinions
    9. Treaty of Nanjing, which gave Hong Kong Island to Britain, was the first of many unequal treaties between China and foreign nations.
    10. Lin, a Chinese official, tried to stop the importation by demanding that foreigners turn over their opium stocks, but they refused.
    11. economic crisis,
    12. The British were benefiting economically from the opium trade, while the Chinese were becoming addicted to the drug.
    13. conquer territory and expand
  2. Sep 2023
    1. The light, the study found, can impact birds and insects that fly at night.
    2. additional light beyond normal daylight hours does more than prevent us from seeing our starry skies


  3. Aug 2023
    1. Whole humans and more than human. Sustainability and systems are a window into the spiritual for many because it’s about wholes.So not a pillar. Rather a deeper level of understanding.
    1. The challenge is that we're now nearly thirty years in the future and despite the best efforts of many people, we haven't yet cracked the nut of sustainable business or sustainability more broadly.
      • new trailmark: - new trailmark
        • replace "for" with "adjacency"
      • adjacency
        • between
          • sustainability
          • failure,
          • root causes
      • source: reason why the author started asking the question:
        • what's missing in sustainability that makes it unachievable after decades of trying?
    1. While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, population growth), the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
      • for: climate change - evolutionary causes, cultural evolution - unsustainability, unsustainability
      • definition: Anthroecological theory (AET)
        • This theory proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering
  4. Jul 2023
    1. most of what we do when we look at power is we say, "This person is bad, let's get them out." And then we end up with another bad person a few minutes later or a few months later. And as a result of that, we end up replicating the exact same problems over and over and over.
      • we look at a bad person
      • try to get rid of him/her
      • when we do, then another bad person ends up in the role
      • this is because we are treating the symptom, not the root cause
  5. Apr 2023
    1. al-Ghazali to investigate a form of theological occasionalism, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present will of God.

      al-Ghazali practiced a theological form of occasionalism, which suggested that God was the cause of events. This was rebutted by Averroes a century later, but al-Ghazali's influence on Islamic thought broadly won out.

    1. 57:17 I mean, when we think of the ways57:20 in which ISIS is not only using images for propaganda,57:25 to see a statue,57:28 both of historic worth and of aesthetic value57:32 being so destroyed,57:33 gives you a kind of visceral shock because you feel,57:37 not only the assault on our cultural heritage,57:39 but you feel the assault on the body.

      Aby Warburg's views on art history and memory may have a lot to say with respect to our cultural movement of destroying and removing Civil War Monuments which glorify the "Lost Cause" of the South in the United States.

  6. Oct 2022
    1. I am not much like Turner ; but I believe that I am like him in that Iam aware that in history you cannot prove an inference. You cannotprove causation, much as you crave to do it. You may present sequencesof events, whose relationship suggests a link-up of cause and consequence ;

      you may carry on the inquiry for a lifetime without discovering other events inconsistent with the hypothesis which has caught your eye. But you can never get beyond a circumstantial case. . . .<br /> "A Footnote to the Safety-Valve," August 15, 1940, Paxson Papers (University of California Library, Berkeley)

  7. Aug 2022
  8. Jul 2022
    1. Yet not all of the sciences use (or require) mathematics to the same extent, for example, the lifesciences. There, the descriptive, analytical methods of Aristotle remain important, as does the(somewhat casual) recourse to final causes.

      Is the disappearance of the Aristotelian final cause in modern science part of the reason for the rise of an anti-science perspective for the religious right in 21st century America?

      People would seem to want or need a purpose to underlie their lives or they otherwise seem to be left adrift.

      Why are things the way they are? What are they for?

      Is the question: "why?" really so strong?

  9. May 2022
    1. “race for what’s left”

      This terminology articulates an existing competitive paradigm, and this brings awareness to a root problem - At the root of much of our conflicts which add enormous friction to fighting the hyperthreat is the lack of empathy for the other In other spiritual, contemplative, religious terminology, it is the loss of the living principle of the sacred in our normative, personal lives which maintains self-destructive othering leading to armed conflict .

  10. Apr 2022
  11. Mar 2022
    1. climate change may cause severe flooding and droughts inneighbouring countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, which cancause crop failure and in turn affect supply.
    2. he current COVID-19 pandemic perfectly re-flects Singapore's vulnerability in food security with supermarketsrunning sho
    3. changing consumer palate, climate change and natural resource


    4. Anthropogenic factors such asrapid urbanization and industrialization have strained finite resources like land and water.

      Causes of food insecurity

    5. With the world's population projected to increase from the current7.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050, food security is becoming an in-creasingly important global issue




  12. Oct 2021
    1. Police all over the country tear-gassed protesters, drove vehicles through crowds, opened fire with nonlethal rounds on journalists or people on their own property, and in at least one instance, pushed over an elderly man who was walking away with a cane

      This can cause a lot of problems and it will not calm things down.

    1. Anyone walking into a three-star restaurant can see that often, the people who have speaking parts at the front of the house are white, while those working for lower wages in the back of the house are employees of color.

      this what causes discrimination.

  13. Sep 2021
    1. gainst pouring raw sewage into storm drains and against the illegal cultivation of crops on the contaminated floodplain.
    2. When this underserved population openly defecates, Delhi Water Board CEO Keshav Chandra says the waste finds its way into drains that dump directly into the river

      defecation in the water is one of the causes of water pollution.

    3. funeral pyre

      It is one of the reasons that lead to water pollution.

    1. Pneumonia is a common disease that’s characterized by an infection in the lungs.
    2. caused by a wide variety of bacterias or viruses that can inflame air sacs in a person’s lungs.
    3. caused by a bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae,

      cause pneumonia

  14. Jul 2021
    1. Kraemer, M. U. G., Hill, V., Ruis, C., Dellicour, S., Bajaj, S., McCrone, J. T., Baele, G., Parag, K. V., Battle, A. L., Gutierrez, B., Jackson, B., Colquhoun, R., O’Toole, Á., Klein, B., Vespignani, A., Consortium‡, T. C.-19 G. U. (CoG-U., Volz, E., Faria, N. R., Aanensen, D., … Pybus, O. G. (2021). Spatiotemporal invasion dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 emergence. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abj0113

  15. Mar 2021
  16. Nov 2020
    1. If the goal of this is purely to avoid showing a runtime warning (and isn't needed for other functionality) I think we should try to consider other ways of dealing with the root issue. See also #4652, which has been opened for just this concern.
  17. Oct 2020
    1. John Glubb and Avoiding the Fate of Empires

      John Glubb was an English Army officer who created a theory called the "Fate of Empires", which catalogues the typical rise and fall of hegemonic orders and attempts to explain why they fall. He wanted to understand where the North Atlantic European Hegemonic Order is in its cycle, in the hopes that we could avoid making the same mistakes as those before us.

      This is the typical cycle of empires:

      1. Age of Pioneers

      A small and insignificant nation on takes over its more powerful neighbors. This new nation is driven by a need to grow and improve, to become the power they took over. This phase is characterized by an optimistic sense of improvisation and initiative.

      1. The Age of Commerce

      The new empire has a lot of new territory, which is safer due to recent military successes. This sets the stage for economic growth. The conquering class benefits from the merchants but aren't motivated solely by material gains.

      1. Age of Affluence

      The ruling class look for ways to spend their new-found wealth, and because they still feel an idealistic sense of noble nationalism, they spend their money on large-scale civic and building projects and invest in art and culture.

      1. The Age of Intellect

      Gradually this material success corrodes the values of the ruling class and material wealth replaces nationalism as the primary virtue. This phase is characterized by a defensiveness and the need to protect what they have. Wall building comes at this phase.

      Often seen as a golden age, this is the phase that often comes before its downfall.

      1. The Age of Decadence

      The ruling class is completely disengaged from the issues of the state and are focussed almost completely on sport, entertainment, and personal gain.

    1. ou might think that on a high-intensity stressful day would cause you to burn more calories, but research shows you’d likely be wrong.


  18. Sep 2020
  19. Aug 2020
    1. One final questionable aspect of the jury's verdict relates to the legal requirement that before a judgment of malpractice can be reached, any departures from the standard of care must be shown to have been the proximate cause of the resulting harms. The most common test for whether an act or omission constitutes a proximate cause is whether it was reasonably foreseeable at the time that the negligent act occurred that would result in the consequent harms. Williamson had no history of violent behavior and had never revealed a violent impulse during treatment. It is impossible to conclude that he was foreseeably dangerous at the time he was seen by Dr. Liptzin.

      The test for proximate cause "is whether it was reasonably foreseeable at the time that the negligent act occurred that would result in the consequent harms"

      In this case, Dr. Liptzin, having seen Williamson having no history of violence or anything else, could not reasonably foresee that Williamson was going to do something illegal.

  20. Jul 2020
  21. May 2020
  22. Apr 2020
  23. Mar 2020
  24. Nov 2019
    1. être ma propre cause et ma propre fin

      Il y a quelque chose de Spinoza peut-être dans cette idée de cause et de fin.

      Quoi qu’il en soit, Beauvoir recherche l’autonomie.

    1. Many of these metro areas are characterized by low densities and a separation of residential and business construction that forces homes out into the suburbs where transit is either spotty or non-existent. That makes cars necessary for even the most mundane trips.

      cause of problem

    2. The reason is a mix of topography and public policy.

      possible cause of transit problem

    1. Today, many regions have cheap gas, easy-come auto loans, Uber, Lyft, and now a new breed of bike- and scooter-share. So transit users aren’t riding like they used to.

      what caused this problem/source neither agrees nor disagrees, hence the "Don't Blame Uber" in the title

    2. Americans are getting even more into cars. More survey respondents said they had full-time car access today than did two years ago, 54 percent compared with 43 percent. Similarly, the number of respondents who said they didn’t have access to a car decreased, from 27 percent to 21 percent.

      background/what caused this problem

  25. Feb 2019
  26. Jan 2019
    1. recede the media concepts they generate

      This brings to mind Cicero's De Oratore, where Crassus discusses art (in the sense of a skill, systematic knowledge of a particular field) and eloquence. Instead of a theory of rhetoric/oratory leading to eloquence, "certain people have observed and collected the practices that eloquent men have followed of their own accord. Thus, eloquence is not the offspring of art, but art [is the offspring] of eloquence." The skill itself always precedes the systematization of the skill.

  27. Oct 2018
    1. some organizations and individuals have a disproportionate and unfair influence over what the government does

      I agree and believe there is a lot of evidence for this, but you could also say that it has been this way forever, so it hasn't been increasing

    1. As prosperity continues to increase and demands on the bureaucracy grow, the limits of this approach are beginning to loom large.” More on: U.S. Foreign Policy Health Biotechnology Democracy

      Supports theory from my class - as a country develops economically, it become more likely to become democratic to a point, after which is decreases again. Also connects to another theory, in which "soft-liners" in an authoritarian regime will try to give some dem freedoms to prevent a full transition.

  28. Aug 2018
    1. “If you’re not on MySpace, you don’t exist.”

      In prior generations, if you couldn't borrow dad's car, you didn't exist...

      Cross reference the 1955 cultural touchstone film Rebel Without a Cause. While the common perception is that James Dean, portraying Jim Stark, was the rebel (as seen in the IMDB.com description of the film "A rebellious young man with a troubled past comes to a new town, finding friends and enemies."), it is in fact Plato, portrayed by Sal Mineo, who is the true rebel. Plato is the one who is the disruptive and rebellious youth who is always disrupting the lives of those around him. (As an aside, should we note Plato's namesake was also a rebel philosopher in his time?!?)

      Plato's first disruption in the film is the firing of the cannon at school. While unstated directly, due to the cultural mores of Hollywood at the time, Plato is a closeted homosexual who's looking to befriend someone, anyone. His best shot is the new kid before the new kid manages to find his place in the pecking order. Again Jim Stark does nothing in the film but attempt to fit into the social fabric around him, his only problem is that he's the new guy. Most telling here about their social structures is that Jim has ready access to an automobile (a literal rolling social club--notice multiple scenes in the film with cars full of teenagers) while Plato is relegated to an old scooter (a mode of transport focused on the singleton--the transport of the outcast, the rebel).

      The Rebel Plato, with his scooter--and a gun, no less! Plato as portrayed by Sal Mineo in Rebel Without a Cause (1955). Notice that as the rebel, he's pictured in the middleground with a gun while his scooter protects him in the foreground. In the background is the automobile, the teens' coveted source of freedom at the time.

  29. Nov 2017
    1. la causeformelle est la causalité des propriétés émergentes

      Dans la définition de la cause formelle, la notion d'émergence introduite ici : "causalité des propriétés émergentes" me paraît centrale. Elle n'est guère reprise (en tant que telle) ailleurs dans le présent article, ni dans celui de Louise. Toutefois, cette question de phénomènes émergents liés aux dispositifs d'éditorialisation permet peut-être d'indiquer certains limites à l'usage des mots "circulaire" ou "récursif" qui semblent à la fois décrire des processus similaires tout en contenant une contradiction interne : un phénomène récursif n'est justement pas circulaire... (http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/r%C3%A9cursivit%C3%A9)

  30. Oct 2017
    1. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    2. Drunk with fatigue

      War is not only difficult on the physical aspect of an individual; it is just as difficult on the emotional and mental capacity of a human. It is factual that WWI culminated an astronomical amount of casualties, destruction, and disablement. This reference to being “drunk” may help guide us into the notion that soldiers are not able to differentiate between fantasy and reality under the duress of mentioned “fatigue.” We can understand that the state of "drunk" alters your reality and can have dangerous repercussions; in this sense, the loss of one's mind or life. In the prior lines we have loss of physical functionalities of the human body with words such as “limped on,” “lame,” and “blind,” which coincides with the premature aging or physical deterioration of the soldiers.

  31. Nov 2016
  32. Jan 2016
    1. Raj: Paul, this anxiety is inherent in the level which you are choosing to invest energy. At this moment you are hearing me, but you are not experiencing the fact that you are with me. You are listening from within the framework of personal bias, the tiny sense of self, the three-dimensional-only frame of reference. Again, you must understand that this is not where Cause lies. This is not where movement originates. This is not where anything is done. This is not where Being is being. It is just the visibility and tangibility of Being-—visibility and tangibility only! You could say the three-dimensional-only frame of reference is the visibility-and-tangibility-only frame of reference. What it is the visibility and tangibility of exists only Fourth-dimensionally.
    1. unlawfully assembling themselves together

      in other words, if you are black or mixed-race you have to have permission to gather in a group. Did they have permission to gather in churches? Might this be one way they "legally" gathered and help explain the prominence of black churches in the Civil Rights Movement many years later?

  33. Nov 2015
    1. Remember that every activity, and every apparent result of that activity in your daily affairs, does not constitute a cause and effect at all. More properly, it is the apparent activities and their apparent results that constitute the “effect” or “form” that follows the Function that is You, Your Being.

      Your activities and their results constitute the effect or form that follows the Function of your Being.

      Being is cause, form is effect.

    1. Spirit is the substance of all of these, both nondimensionaly and dimensionally. It is the Light, Itself, which illuminates and is illumined. It is That which shines, and That which is shone upon. Spirit is, Itself, the Life Principle, the Life Force, the Initiator and Initiated, the Cause and the Effect.

      "Spirit is the substance of all of these, both nondimensionaly and dimensionally. It is the Light, Itself, which illuminates and is illumined. It is That which shines, and That which is shone upon. Spirit is, Itself, the Life Principle, the Life Force, the Initiator and Initiated, the Cause and the Effect."

  34. Oct 2015
    1. Until you thoroughly understand that nothing occurs at the point of the “image”—the three-dimensional frame of reference—until you realize that Cause does not reside at that point, out of habit you will be inclined to continue to try to rearrange things on the screen, to try to improve them, to try to make them more comfortable. And this will be a waste of time.

      it is a waste of time to try and 'fix' from the 3d point of experience.

  35. Apr 2015
    1. 00: https://googledrive.com/host/0B7V0qtHflXc5d3dyYlV5ckIzWGM/index.html 00: https://via.hypothes.is/https://googledrive.com/host/0B7V0qtHflXc5d3dyYlV5ckIzWGM/index.html
    2. 00: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/17/science/earth/2014-was-hottest-year-on-record-surpassing-2010.html
    3. 00: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html 00: https://via.hypothes.is/http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
    4. 00: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_text/v018/18.2terranova.html 00: https://via.hypothes.is/http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_text/v018/18.2terranova.html
    5. 00: http://www.wsj.com/articles/climate-science-is-not-settled-1411143565
  36. Feb 2014
    1. This paper establishes cause to suspect that current intellectual property policy overstep s utilitarian justification, and suggests that a clearer distinction should be drawn between the proper role of U.S. law in intellectual property (that which promotes innovation) and moral questions of creator’s rights.