130 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Other physicists and mathematicians at the turn of the century came close to arriving at what is currently known as spacetime. Einstein himself noted, that with so many people unraveling separate pieces of the puzzle, "the special theory of relativity, if we regard its development in retrospect, was ripe for discovery in 1905."

      Interesting. This acts as evidence for the hypothesis that environments/conditions are powerful forcing functions.

      It also acts as evidence against the argument of the "lone genius".

  2. Mar 2021
    1. Or if you need to change the way the string is assembled, you can provide a proc, for example: if defined?(BetterErrors) BetterErrors.editor = proc { |file, line| "vscode://file/%{file}:%{line}" % { file: URI.encode_www_form_component(file), line: line } } end
    1. Suppose that the validate task was getting quite complex and bloated. When writing “normal” Ruby, you’d break up one method into several. In Trailblazer, that’s when you introduce a new, smaller activity.
  3. Feb 2021
    1. Attribution requires knowledge of two facts: who holds the asset, and who has created it and is party to the contract.

      Basic functions of blockchain: Attribution

    1. Though rarer in computer science, one can use category theory directly, which defines a monad as a functor with two additional natural transformations. So to begin, a structure requires a higher-order function (or "functional") named map to qualify as a functor:

      rare in computer science using category theory directly in computer science What other areas of math can be used / are rare to use directly in computer science?

    1. # Set the model name to change the field names generated by the Rails form helpers def self.model_name=(name) @_model_name = ActiveModel::Name.new(self, nil, name) end
    1. The central ideas of this design pattern closely mirror the semantics of first-class functions and higher-order functions in functional programming languages. Specifically, the invoker object is a higher-order function of which the command object is a first-class argument.
    1. def self.attribute(name, type = ActiveModel::Type::Value.new, **options) super attribute_type = attribute_types[name.to_s] # Add the ? method for boolean attributes alias_boolean(name) if attribute_type.is_a?(ActiveModel::Type::Boolean) # store date attribute names so we can merge the params during # initialization date_attributes << name if attribute_type.class.in?(DATE_TYPES) end
  4. Jan 2021
    1. While custom iterators are a useful tool, their creation requires careful programming due to the need to explicitly maintain their internal state. Generator functions provide a powerful alternative: they allow you to define an iterative algorithm by writing a single function whose execution is not continuous. Generator functions are written using the function* syntax.
  5. Dec 2020
    1. Remember that async functions always return promises. This promise rejects if any uncaught error occurs in the function. If your async function body returns a promise that rejects, the returned promise will reject too.
  6. Nov 2020
    1. // DO NOT INLINE this variable. For backward compatibility, foundations take a Partial<MDCFooAdapter>. // To ensure we don't accidentally omit any methods, we need a separate, strongly typed adapter variable.

      I wish I understood what they meant and why this is necessary

    1. proteases

      Is a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is hydrolyzing peptide bonds of proteins. Also referred to as proteolytic enzymes or even proteinases.

    1. Frontend frameworks are a positive sum game! Svelte has no monopoly on the compiler paradigm either. Just like I think React is worth learning for the mental model it imparts, where UI is a (pure) function of state, I think the frontend framework-as-compiler paradigm is worth understanding. We're going to see a lot more of it because the tradeoffs are fantastic, to where it'll be a boring talking point before we know it.
    1. διαδικασία Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary Jump to navigation Jump to search Greek

      Greek Noun

      διαδικασία • (diadikasía) f (plural διαδικασίες)

      1. procedure, process, method, protocol
      2. (computing) function, subroutine, procedure
  7. Oct 2020
    1. Final Form makes the assumption that your validation functions are "pure" or "idempotent", i.e. will always return the same result when given the same values. This is why it doesn't run the synchronous validation again (just to double check) before allowing the submission: because it's already stored the results of the last time it ran it.
    1. Another example:

      const expensiveOperation = async (value) => {
        // return Promise.resolve(value)
          // console.log('value:', value)
          await sleep(1000)
          console.log('expensiveOperation: value:', value, 'finished')
          return value
      var expensiveOperationDebounce = debounce(expensiveOperation, 100);
      // for (let num of [1, 2]) {
      //   expensiveOperationDebounce(num).then(value => {
      //     console.log(value)
      //   })
      // }
      (async () => { await sleep(0   ); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(1)) })();
      (async () => { await sleep(200 ); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(2)) })();
      (async () => { await sleep(1300); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(3)) })();
      // setTimeout(async () => {
      //   console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(3))
      // }, 1300)

      Outputs: 1, 2, 3

      Why, if I change it to:

      (async () => { await sleep(0   ); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(1)) })();
      (async () => { await sleep(200 ); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(2)) })();
      (async () => { await sleep(1100); console.log(await expensiveOperationDebounce(3)) })();

      Does it only output 2, 3?

    1. Methods have fixed arities to support auto-currying.
    2. // `lodash/padStart` accepts an optional `chars` param. _.padStart('a', 3, '-') // ➜ '--a' // `lodash/fp/padStart` does not. fp.padStart(3)('a'); // ➜ ' a'
    3. The lodash/fp module promotes a more functional programming (FP) friendly style by exporting an instance of lodash with its methods wrapped to produce immutable auto-curried iteratee-first data-last methods.
    1. One of the significant differences between the two is that a call to a partially applied function returns the result right away, not another function down the currying chain; this distinction can be illustrated clearly for functions whose arity is greater than two.
    2. Currying and partial function application are often conflated.
    1. It looks like you accidentally passed resolve() (immediately invoking the function) directly to setTimeout rather than passing a function to invoke it. So it was being resolved immediately instead of after a 1000 ms delay as intended.

      I guess this is the "immediately invoked function" problem.

      Not to be confused with: immediately invoked function expression. (Since it is a regular named function and not a function expression.)

    2. You should not create a new debounce function on every render with: return new Promise(resolve => { debounce(() => resolve(this.getIsNameUnique(name)), 2000); }); Instead you should just wrap your whole function isNameUnique with the debounce (see my sandbox). By creating a new debounce function on every hit, it cannot 'remember' that is was called or that is will be called again. This will prevent the debouncing.
    1. If you define a variable outside of your form, you can then set the value of that variable to the handleSubmit function that 🏁 React Final Form gives you, and then you can call that function from outside of the form.
    1. The results of a DEXA scan are most often reported as T-scores. A T-score compares a person’s bone density to the average peak bone density of a healthy 30-year-old population of the same gender. A T-score of −1.0 or above indicates normal bone density. A person with a T-score between −1.0 and −2.5 has low bone density, which is a condition referred to as osteopenia. A person with a T-score of −2.5 or below is diagnosed with osteoporosis.

      T score levels for bone density.

    1. In the third step of bone remodeling, the site is prepared for building. In this stage, sugars and proteins accumulate along the bone’s surface, forming a cement line which acts to form a strong bond between the old bone and the new bone that will be made. These first three steps take approximately two to three weeks to complete.

      Bone remodeling process.

    2. In adulthood, our bones stop growing and modeling, but continue to go through a process of bone remodeling.

      I would challenge that fact.

    3. Bone tissue cells include osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. The osteoprogenitor cells are cells that have not matured yet. Once they are stimulated, some will become osteoblasts, the bone builders, and others will become osteoclasts, the cells that break bone down. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone tissue. Osteocytes are star-shaped cells that are connected throughout the bone and exchange nutrients from bones to the blood and lymph.

      The Asteo Class of Bone Tissue

    4. Your bones are stronger than reinforced concrete. Bone tissue is a composite of fibrous collagen strands that resemble the steel rebar in concrete and a hardened mineralized matrix that contains large amounts of calcium, just like concrete.

      What Is Bone?

    1. In React 0.12 time frame we did a bunch of small changes to how key, ref and defaultProps works. Particularly, they get resolved early on in the React.createElement(...) call. This made sense when everything was classes, but since then, we've introduced function components. Hooks have also make function components more prevalent. It might be time to reevaluate some of those designs to simplify things (at least for function components).
    1. Return a tagged template function hx from a hyperscript-style factory function h
  8. Sep 2020
    1. It looks like the issue stems from having "svelte" as a dependency instead of a devDependencies in package.json within the sapper project. This causes import 'svelte' to load the rollup excluded npm package's set_current_component instead of from within the sapper generated server.js.
    1. By default, in order to allow inline fat-arrow validation functions, the field will not rerender if you change your validation function to an alternate function that has a different behavior. If you need your field to rerender with a new validation function, you will need to update another prop on the Field, such as key
    1. here I wrapped the function call in an IIFE - that's what that (async () => {....})() is if you've never seen it. This is simply because we need to wrap the await call in a function that uses the async keyword, and we also want to "immediately invoke" the function (IIFE = "Immediately Invoked Function Execution") in order to call it.
    1. Here we store the three Promise objects in variables, which has the effect of setting off their associated processes all running simultaneously. Next, we await their results — because the promises all started processing at essentially the same time, the promises will all fulfill at the same time
    2. By only adding the necessary handling when the function is declared async, the JavaScript engine can optimize your program for you.
  9. Jul 2020
    1. Dessa ingångar eller portar, som han kallar dem, kan alla användas för att ta oss tillbaka till nuet, där inga problem finns. Det är bara i nuet som vi hittar glädjen och kan omfamna vårt sanna jag.

      Här verkar han utgå från att det faktiskt finns minst fyra "portar" vilket stämmer överens med Carl Jungs teori att den MINST utvecklade funktionen hos en individ är "porten till det undermedvetna" varigenom all mänsklig transformation sker.

      Man går helt enkelt in genom sitt MINST utvecklade personlighetsdrag och kan då nå sitt meditativa jag som ligger under och bakom alla personlighetsdrag. De olika personlighetsdragen är tänkande (eld), kännande (vatten), kroppsliga intryck (jord) respektive intuition (luft).

      Det är i sin tur samma sak som indiankulturernas medicinhjuls fyra väderstreck med människan i mitten.

    2. Dessa ingångar eller portar, som han kallar dem, kan alla användas för att ta oss tillbaka till nuet, där inga problem finns.

      Men här skriver de att han pekar på FLERA portar. Kanske utgår Eckhart Tolle från Jungs funktioner och säger att det finns fyra - tänkande, kännande, intuition och sinnesintryck. Bakom/under dessa finns den fullt ut levande människan som gör att vi upplever glädjen och kan omfamna vårt sanna jag.

      Exakt samma fyra mänskliga medvetande-funktioner som återfinns i indiankulturernas medicinhjul som de fyra väderstrecken och i den antika elementlärans vatten (känsla), eld (tänkande), luft (intuition) och jord (sinnesintryck)

    3. Eckhart Tolle klargör också att kroppen är nyckeln till vår inre ocean av kunskap och vägen till sinnesro.

      Ja, för Eckhart Tolle som sannolikt är dominant iNtuitiv och därefter Thinker (exempelvis INTJ eller INFJ som båda har dominant introverterad intuition) är extraverterad Sensing, dvs den fysiska världens sinnesintryck på kroppen den minst utvecklade funktionen (i alla fall den fjärde sämsta). Carl Jung sa att porten till det undermedvetna, och därför all verklig personlig transformation, är den minst utvecklade funktionen.

      Så hade Eckhart Tolle varit som min brorsa, en ESTP, så hade introverterad intiuition (en av mina bästa förmågor exempelvis, som INTJ) varit nyckeln till vår "inre ocean av kunskap och vägen till sinnesro"

  10. Jun 2020
    1. 14 Essential Functions of the Human Resource Department Leave a Comment / Blog Contact According to Storey (1995), HRM is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. An efficiently run human resources department can provide your organization with structure and the ability to meet business needs through managing your company’s most valuable resources – its employees. There are several HR disciplines, but HR practitioners in each discipline may perform more than one of the more than six essential functions. In small businesses without a dedicated HR department, it’s possible to achieve the same level of efficiency and workforce management through outsourcing HR functions or joining a professional employer organization. In this article, we will go over the 14 essential Functions of Human Resource departments and explain how they help move the organization forward. These functions are as follows: Human Resource Planning The first function of HR is all about knowing the future needs of the organization. What kind of people does the organization need, and how many? Knowing this will shape the recruitment, selection, performance management, learning and development, and all other HR functions. Human resources planning is similar to workforce planning. Both focus on where the organization is today and what it needs to be successful in the future. Recruitment And Selection Recruitment process outsourcing is the process of captivating, screening, and selecting potential and qualified candidates based on objective criteria for a particular job. The goal of this process is to attract qualified applicants and to encourage the unqualified applicants to opt themselves out. The recruitment and selection process is very important to every organization because it reduces the costs of mistakes such as engaging incompetent, unmotivated, and under-qualified employees. Firing the unqualified candidate and hiring the new employee is again an expensive process. Training and Development Employers must provide employees with the tools necessary for their success which, in many cases, means giving new employees extensive orientation training to help them transition into a new organizational culture. Many HR departments also provide leadership training and professional development. Corporate training may be required of newly hired and promoted supervisors and managers on topics such as performance management and how to handle employee relations matters at the department level. Employer-Employee Relations In a unionized work environment, the employee and labor relations functions of HR may be combined and handled by one specialist or be entirely separate functions managed by two HR specialists with specific expertise in each area. Employee relations is the HR discipline concerned with strengthening the employer-employee relationship through measuring job satisfaction, employee engagement and resolving workplace conflict. Labor relations functions may include developing management response to union organizing campaigns, negotiating collective bargaining agreements and rendering interpretations of labor union contract issues. Compensation and Benefits Like employee and labor relations, the compensation and benefits functions of HR often can be handled by one HR specialist with dual expertise. On the compensation side, the HR functions include setting compensation structures and evaluating competitive pay practices. A comp and benefits specialist also may negotiate group health coverage rates with insurers and coordinate activities with the retirement savings fund administrator. Payroll can be a component of the compensation and benefits section of HR; however, in many cases, employers outsource such administrative functions as payroll. Labor Law Compliance Compliance with labor and employment laws is a critical HR function. Noncompliance can result in workplace complaints based on unfair employment practices, unsafe working conditions and general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and ultimately, profitability. HR staff must be aware of federal and state employment laws such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the National Labor Relations Act and many other rules and regulations. Recognition and Rewards Rewards & Recognitions are a way of making employees feel worthy of their work as appreciation serves as the best motivation. recognitions and Rewards can be monetary or non-monetary. A task or goal or performance linked to rewards, and further evaluation and reward is usually the cycle.Rewards could be a sponsored vacation, raise in salary, bonus, performance-based pay. Recognitions could be a higher post, job security, growth opportunities, a good work environment, accolades, and offering credibility across the company. Rewards & Recognitions not only motivates employees but also helps to retain them. Long-term advantages of rewards and recognition are – Rewards and recognitions have a direct impact on attrition rates.Performance can be enhanced through rewards & recognitions.Higher loyalty standards can be established.Better teamwork can be best explored.Absenteeism and negative behavior can be curtailed.Employees are engaged and enjoy their work. Health and safety Health & Safety is a prime HR function in the entire landscape of Human Resource Management. Employees spend most of their time at work and to bring them a safe environment, that is amicable and guarded is the prerogative of the organization. Organizations should consider- Safety and health policies according to industry benchmarks.Safety and health training from time to time.Sexual harassment act for women employees.Health initiatives within the company premises. Companies should focus not only on a plush working environment too. From the health perspective, various drives, seminars and workshops are an undisputed need in the interest of the employees. Free health camps and paid medical insurance policies for employee& family are some of the initiatives companies can engage in for their employee health & safety. Maintaining Good Working Conditions It is the responsibility of the human resource management to provide good working conditions to the employee so that they may like the workplace and the work environment. It is the fundamental duty of the HR department to motivate the employees. The study has been found that employees don’t contribute to the goals of the organization as much as they can. This is because of the lack of motivation. Human resource management should come up with a system to provide financial and non-financial benefits to the employee from the various departments. Employee welfare is another concept which should be managed by HR team. Employee welfare promotes job satisfaction. Administrative Responsibilities Another function of HR is its administrative responsibility. These include personnel procedures and Human Resource Information Systems. Personnel procedures involve the handling of promotions, relocations, discipline, performance improvement, illness, regulations, cultural and racial diversity, unwanted intimacies, bullying, and so on. For each of these situations, policies and procedures need to be developed and followed to successfully comply with the requests, or overcome these challenges. Career/Succession Planning As an HR function, succession planning is an initiative towards monitoring and working an existing employees’ growth path such that he can be promoted within. Companies can identify bright and promising employees inside an organization and work on developing their growth path. Employees who feel assured of a promising work environment within the company will not leave. Companies should work out strategies for individual development, engage employees in grooming and challenging activities to develop them towards a higher role.  Showing employees how their personal ambition can align with the future of the company helps to engage and retain them. For the organization, there are the benefits of better succession planning, higher productivity, and a stronger employer brand. Industrial Relations Industrial Relations as a HR function is primarily practised in manufacturing & production units. Unions rule industrial units with a motive that collectively speaks of the goodwill of the employees. A company in the production & manufacturing domain should have prevalent Industrial Relations practises and should continuously engage in talks with unions to maintain an amicable situation. Industrial Relations aims towards a continuous production process, reducing production time and resource wastage, reduce serious disputes including strikes and protests, better and safer working conditions, meeting wage standards and expectation. Industrial Relations if handled sensitively can avoid lawsuits, protests, walkouts, loss of production time, and money.Unionization is still very prevalent in Europe. In 2015, 92% of employees in Iceland were a member of a union, followed by Sweden (67%), Belgium (55%), Italy (37%), Ireland (27%) and Canada (27%). Maintaining good relations with unions will help to spot and resolve potential conflicts quickly and will also be beneficial in more difficult economic times when layoffs or other actions are required. Performance Management Performance management is essential in ensuring that workers stay productive and engaged. Good performance management involves good leadership, clear goal-setting, and open feedback. Performance management tools include the (bi)annual performance review, in which the employee is reviewed by his/her manager. It also includes 360-degree feedback tools in which peers, managers, subordinates, and sometimes even customers review the employee’s performance. These kinds of tools can be very helpful in providing feedback. Ideally, employees should be reviewed on a 360-degree scale, where peers, subordinates, seniors and even customers offer feedback on an employee’s performance. The performance management system is effective in identifying the gaps in performances that can be filled with training and skill enhancement. Performance management system, in the long run, is a profitable affair. Clear accountabilities, better productivity, reduced conflicts, job satisfaction and enhanced productivity levels all, in the long run, materialize to lesser attrition. Function Evaluation Function evaluation is a more technical role of HR that involves comparing various functions in terms of qualification, the quality, and availability of workers, job location, working times, the economic situation, job responsibility, and how much value this job adds to the organization. The idea behind function evaluation is that similar jobs should be rewarded similarly. There are different ways of internally ranking functions: Ranking Method: a method in which subject matter experts rank functions in terms of how much they contribute to the organization as a whole. Functions are paired and raters have to decide which one is more valuable. This is done with all functions and based on the outcome, a ranking is established. Classification method: jobs can also be classified in different categories using classification methods. In this case, jobs are categorized and then ranked within these categories to come up with a ranking. Categorizations can include education, experience, the degree of specialized skills needed to do the job, the degree to which these skills are in-demand, and so on. Points method: jobs are categorized according to the factors the organization believes contribute most to its success. Points are then awarded to each category for every job. These categories can include key competencies, like problem-solving, technical knowledge, communication and influencing skills, innovative capability, business acumen, and so on. These competencies will differ per organization Personal method: in this method, the job itself is not evaluated but the person doing the job is. Here, employees are rewarded based on their personal skills and competencies. Apart from the above, the HR function involves managing change, technology, innovation, and diversity. It is no longer confined to the culture or ethos of any single organization; its keynote is a cross-fertilization of ideas from different organizations. Periodic social audits of HR functions are considered essential. HR professionals have an all-encompassing role. They are required to have a thorough knowledge of the organization and its intricacies and complexities. The ultimate goal of every HR manager should be to develop a linkage between the employee and the organization because the employee’s commitment to the organization is crucial. The first and foremost role of HR functionary is to impart continuous education to employees about the changes and challenges facing the country in general and their organization in particular. The employees should know about their balance sheet, sales progress, diversification plans, restructuring plans, sharp price movements, turnover, and all such details. The HR professionals should impart education to all employees through small booklets, video films, and lectures. I hope this article helped you in finding out what main purposes do the HR have and you found out ways to accomplish those. All the best!

      The function of Human Resource department is one of the most important parts of a business, HR Department helps the business in managing employees. These are the 14 essential Functions of the Human Resource department.

  11. May 2020
  12. Apr 2020
    1. Why Use Lambda Functions? The power of lambda is better shown when you use them as an anonymous function inside another function. Say you have a function definition that takes one argument, and that argument will be multiplied with an unknown number: def myfunc(n):   return lambda a : a * n Use that function definition to make a function that always doubles the number you send in:
  13. Dec 2019
  14. Nov 2019
    1. However, in this case you would lose the possibility to render something in between. You are strictly coupled to the higher-order component's render method. If you need to add something in between of the currency components, you would have to do it in the higher-order component. It would be quite similar as you have done it previously by rendering the currency components straight away in the Amount component. If using a render prop component instead, you would be flexible in your composition.
    2. For the sake of completeness, the following code demonstrates that the problem could be solved with a higher-order component (HOC) as well:
    3. However, again you would have to lift state up to the App component in order to pass the amount to the currency components. As you can see, the component composition on its own doesn't help us to solve the problem. That's the point where React's render props pattern comes into play which enhances React's component composition with an important ingredient: a render function.
    1. React guarantees that setState function identity is stable and won’t change on re-renders. This is why it’s safe to omit from the useEffect or useCallback dependency list.
  15. Oct 2019
    1. export function A(param: string): void export function A(param: { param: string, otherProp?: string }): void export function A(paramOrObj: string | { param: string, otherProp?: string } = { param: "initial"}): void {
    1. async function createRequest( url: URL | string, { az, queries, ...parameters }: Params & { az: "text" } ): Promise<string>; async function createRequest<R>( url: URL | string, { az, queries, ...parameters }: Params & { az?: "json" } ): Promise<R>; async function createRequest<R>( url: URL | string, { az, queries, ...parameters }: Params ): Promise<R | string> {
    1. the generator and discriminator losses derive from a single measure of distance between probability distributions. In both of these schemes, however, the generator can only affect one term in the distance measure: the term that reflects the distribution of the fake data. So during generator training we drop the other term, which reflects the distribution of the real data.

      Loss of GAN- How the two loss function are working on GAN training

  16. Sep 2019
    1. // If we want to perform an action, we can get dispatch from context. const dispatch = useContext(TodosDispatch);
  17. Jul 2019
    1. linear regression function

      This is linear regression model. Function is the deterministic (systematic) part of it without the error term.

    1. Note that, three often used transformations can be specified using the argument fun: “log”: log transformation of the survivor function, “event”: plots cumulative events (f(y) = 1-y). It’s also known as the cumulative incidence, “cumhaz” plots the cumulative hazard function (f(y) = -log(y))
    1. Thesurvival function gives,for every time,the probability of surviving(or not experiencing the event) up to that time.The hazard function gives the potential that the event will occur, per time unit, given that an individual has survived up to the specified time.
    1. 8.3.2 Business Function A business function is a collection of business behavior based on a chosen set of criteria (typically required business resources and/or competencies), closely aligned to an organization, but not necessarily explicitly governed by the organization. Just like a business process, a business function also describes internal behavior performed by a business role. However, while a business process groups behavior based on a sequence or flow of activities that is needed to realize a product or service, a business function typically groups behavior based on required business resources, skills, competencies, knowledge, etc. There is a potential many-to-many relation between business processes and business functions. Complex processes in general involve activities that offer various functions. In this sense a business process forms a string of business functions. In general, a business function delivers added value from a business point of view. Organizational units or applications may coincide with business functions due to their specific grouping of business activities. A business function may be triggered by, or trigger, any other business behavior element (business event, business process, business function, or business interaction). A business function may access business objects. A business function may realize one or more business services and may be served by business, application, or technology services. A business role may be assigned to a business function. The name of a business function should clearly indicate a well-defined behavior. Examples are customer management, claims administration, member services, recycling, or payment processing. Figure 57: Business Function Notation


  18. Dec 2018
  19. Oct 2018
    1. In contrast to his concept of a simple circular orbit with a fixed radius, orbitals are mathematically derived regions of space with different probabilities of having an electron.

      In this case, the QM model allows for probabilistic radii, not fixed radii, and the quantization is the energy level. An electron with principal quantum number n = 2 will always have quantized energy corresponding to \( E = R(1/n^2) \), but the exact minimal and maximal radial distance from the nucleus is not specified as in the Bohr model of the atom. Similar to the Bohr model though, the most probable radial distance is quantifiable, and that is the radius the electron is most likely to inhabit, however it will be found elsewhere at other times.

  20. Mar 2018
    1. if i != 0


      if i != 0

      会被 compiler 自动解析为 PF 的 isDefinedAt() 函数,这个函数返回 boolean,用来确定 PF 的定义域。

    2. a val function, all you’re really doing with code like this is assigning a variable name to an anonymous function

      val function like

      val f = (a:Int, b:Int) => a+b

      就是定义了一个 literal function, 然后给他一个名字 : f

    3. A block of code with one or more case expressions is a legal way to define an anonymous function

      用 case 构建 literal function

  21. Nov 2017
    1. To understand his duties to his neighbours, & country, and to discharge with competence the functions confided to him by either.

      I agree with this statement because even though educating the youth is important there are other things in life that are more significant to being a person. In this case, it mentions how crucial it is for the person to work with others to achieve something greater. In addition, it states that we have to be together as a country and help each other in times of need. This can be related to current day such as voting and self run student government and honor system. -Alexander An

  22. Oct 2017
    1. len

      len(s) is built-in function

      Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (such as a string, bytes, tuple, list, or range) or a collection (such as a dictionary, set, or frozen set).

  23. Jul 2017
    1. Partial loss-of-func- tion alleles cause the preferential loss of ventral structures and the expansion of remaining lateral and dorsal struc- tures (Figure 1 c) (Anderson and Niisslein-Volhard, 1988). These loss-of-function mutations in spz produce the same phenotypes as maternal effect mutations in the 10 other genes of the dorsal group.

      This paper has been curated by Flybase.

    1. ideologies are systems of beliefwhich:legitimate the class-based system of production by making it appear right and just, and/orobscure the reality of its consequences for those involved.

      A set of beliefs that justifies the division of labor, wealth and social relations in society. They act to explain away the real negative experiences with the system it underlies while glorifying it. Functions to maintain subordination of the productive class to the owner class.

  24. Feb 2017
    1. SVM only cares that the difference is at least 10

      The margin seems to be manually set by the creator in the loss function. In the sample code, the margin is 1-- so the incorrect class has to be scored lower than the correct class by 1.

      How is this margin determined? It seems like one would have to know the magnitude of the scores beforehand.

      Diving deeper, is the scoring magnitude always the same if the parameters are normalized by their average and scaled to be between 0 and 1? (or -1 and -1... not sure of the correct scaling implementation)

      Coming back to the topic -- is this 'minimum margin' or delta a tune-able parameter?

      What effects do we see on the model by adjusting this parameter?

      What are best and worst case scenarios of playing with this parameter?

  25. Sep 2016
    1. ategory consists of objects and arrows that go between them

      Based on the arrow being a morphism/function (see below), it seems that the domain and the co-domain should be able to be disjoint.

      Also, here A->B and A->C; the dual map means that an arrow is not a function.

  26. Jun 2016
  27. screen.oxfordjournals.org screen.oxfordjournals.org
    1. can easily imagine a culture wherediscourse would circulate without any need for an author. Dis-courses, whatever their status, form, or value, and regardless of ourmanner of handling them, would unfold in a pervasive anonymity.No longer the tiresome repetitions: 'Who is the real author?' 'H

      Great epigraph for article on scientific authorship

      We can easily imagine a culture where discourse would circulate without any need for an author. Discourses, whatever their status, form, or value, and regardless of our manner of handling them, would unfold in a pervasive anonymity. No longer the tiresome repetitions: 'Who is the real author?' 'Have we proof of his authenticity and originality?' 'What has he revealed of his most profound self in his language?' New questions will be heard: 'What are the modes of existence of this discourse?' 'Where does it come from; how is it circulated; who controls it,' 'What placements are determined for possible subjects?' 'Who can fulfill these diverse functions of the subject?' Behind all these questions we would hear little more than the murmur of indifference: 'What matter who's speaking?'

    2. author-function' is tiedto the legal and institutional systems that circumscribe, determine,and articulate the realm of discourses; it does not operate in auniform manner in all discourses, at all times, and in any givenculture; it is not defined by the spontaneous attribution of a textto its creator, but through a series of precise and complex pro-cedures; it does not refer, purely and simply, to an actual individualinsofar as it simultaneously gives rise to a variety of egos and to aseries of subjective positions that individuals of any class may

      Four characteristics of the "author-function":

      1. "the 'author-function' is tied to the legal and institutional systems that circumscribe, determine,and articulate the realm of discourses;"
      2. "it does not operate in a uniform manner in all discourses, at all times, and in any given culture";
      3. "it is not defined by the spontaneous attribution of a text to its creator, but through a series of precise and complex procedures";
      4. it does not refer, purely and simply, to an actual individual in so far as it simultaneously gives rise to a variety of egos and to aseries of subjective positions that individuals of any class may come to occupy"
    3. ight object that thisphenomenon only applies to novels or poetry, to a context of 'quasi-discourse', but, in fact, all discourse that supports this 'author-function' is characterized by the plurality of egos. In a

      There you go: he means that grammar changes in all texts that support the "author-function". Somehow he distinguishes this from simply "poetic texts," but I'm not sure why or how.

    4. ave a different bearing on texts with an author and 23on those without one. In the latter, these 'shifters' refer to a realspeaker and to an actual deictic situation, with certain exceptionssuch as the case of indirect speech in the first person. When dis-course is linked to an author, however, the role of 'shifters' is morecomplex and variable. It is well known that in a novel narrated inthe first person, neither the first person pronoun, the presentindicative tense, nor, for that matter, its signs of localization referdirectly to the %vriter, either to the time when he wrote, or to thespecific act of writing; rather, they stand for a 'second self whosesimilarity to the author is never fixed and undergoes considerablealteration within the course of a single book. It

      Grammar has different meaning with fictional author and non-author texts: in the second case (not fiction), the grammar is deictic; in the former, it is literary.

      This is a really interesting point, by I think MF is confusing terms a little. the issue has to do with the deictic nature of the text rather than the availability of an author-attribution (unless he means "literary author of the kind I've been discussing as an author-function").

    5. First, they are objects of appropriation; the form of propertythey have become is of a particular type whose legal codificationwas accomplished some years ago. It is important to notice, aswell, that its status as property is historically secondary to thepenal code controlling its appropriation. Speeches and books wereassigned real authors, other than mythical or important religiousfigures, only when the author became subject to punishment andto the extent that his discourse was considered transgressive. Inour culture - undoubtedly in others as well - discourse was notoriginally a thing, a product, or a possession, but an action situatedin a bipolar field of sacred and profane, lawful and unlawful, reli-gious and blasphemous. It was a gesture charged with risks longbefore it became a possession caught in a circuit of property values.But it was at the moment when a system of ownership and strictcopyright rules were established (toward the end of the eighteenthand beginning of the nineteenth century) that the transgressiveproperties always intrinsic to the act of writing became the force-ful imperative of literature. It is as if the author, at the momenthe was accepted into the social order of property which governsour culture, was compensating for this new status by revivingthe older bipolar field of discourse in a systematic practice of trans-gression and by restoring the danger of writing which, on anotherside, had been conferred the benefits of property

      Importance of "author" for commerce and control. This is true of scientific writing, but in a slightly different way. The type of thing he is talking about here has to do with Oeuvre.

    6. nsequently, we cansay that in our culture, the name of an author is a variable thataccompanies only certain texts to the exclusion of others: a privateletter may have a signatory, but it does not have an author; acontract can have an underwriter, but not an author; and, similarlyan anonymous poster attached to a wall may have a writer, buthe cannot be an author. In this sense, the function of an author isto characterize the existence, circulation, and operation of certaindiscourses within a society

      Very useful statement of where foucault applies in this case: to literary discussion, not advertising, not letters, and so on.

      Science would fall into the "not this" category, I suspect.

    7. We can conclude that, unlike a proper name, which moves fromthe interior of a discourse to the real person outside who producedit, the name of the author remains at the contours of texts -separating one from the other, defining their form, and character-izing their mode of existence. It points to the existence of certaingroups of discourse and refers to the status of this discourse withina society and culture. The author's name is not a function of aman's civil status, nor is it fictional; it is situated in the breach,among the discontinuities, which gives rise to new groups of dis-course and their singular mode of existence. C

      Again, an "Implied Author" type idea that is completely not relevant to science--although ironically, the H-index tries to make it relevant. In science, the author name is not the function that defines the text; it is the person to whom the credit it to be given rather than a definition of Oeuvre. This is really useful distinction for discussing what is different between the two discourses.

    8. The name of an author poses all the problems related to thecategory of the proper name. (Here, I am referring to the work ofJohn Searle,3 among others.) Obviously not a pure and simplereference, the proper name (and the author's name as well) hasother than indicative functions. It is more than a gesture, a fingerpointed at someone; it is, to a certain extent, the equivalent of adescription. When we say 'Aristotle', we are using a word thatmeans one or a series of definite descriptions of the type: 'theauthor of the Analytics', or 'the founder of ontology', and so forth.Furthermore, a proper name has other functions than that of sig-nification: when we discover that Rimbaud has not written LaChasse spirituelle, we cannot maintain that the meaning of theproper name or this author's name has been altered. The propername and the name of an author oscillate between the poles ofdescription and designation, and, granting that they are linked towhat they name, they are not totally determined either by theirdescriptive or designative functions. Yet - and it is here that thespecific difficulties attending an author's name appear - the linkbetween a proper name and the individual being named and the linkbetween an author's name and that which it names are not iso-morphous and do not function in the same way; and these dif-ferences require clarification.

      And, of course, it is an economic and reputational thing as well

      What is the purpose of an author's name?

    9. It is obviously insufficient to repeat empty slogans: the authorhas disappeared; God and man died a common death. Rather, weshould re-examine the empty space left by the author's disappear-ance, we should attentively observe, along its gaps and fault lines,its new demarcations, and the reapportionment of this void; weshould await the fluid functions released by this disappearance.In this context we can briefly consider the problems that ari

      It is obviously insufficient to repeat empty slogans: the author has disappeared; God and man died a common death. Rather, we should re-examine the empty space left by the author's disappearance, we should attentively observe, along its gaps and fault lines,its new demarcations, and the reapportionment of this void; we should await the fluid functions released by this disappearance.In this context we can briefly consider the problems that arise in the use of an author's name. What is the name of an author? How does it function? Far from offering a solution, I will attempt to indicate some of the difficulties related to these questions.

      Great epigraph for an article on scientific authorship. Also relevant, especially the bottom bit.

    10. Another thesis has detained us from taking full measure of the 17author's disappearance. It avoids confronting the specific event thatmakes it possible and, in subtle ways, continues to preserve theexistence of the author. This is the notion of icriture. Strictlyspeaking,.it should allow us not only to circumvent references toan author, but to situate his recent absence. The conception oficriture, as currently employed, is concerned with neither the actof writing nor the indications, as symptoms or signs within a text,of an author's meaning; rather, it stands for a remarkably profoundattempt to elaborate the conditions of any text, both the conditionsof its spatial dispersion and its temporal deployment

      écriture is a fasle way of stepping around the problem in literary criticism, because it simply defers the identity of the author, without stopping treating the author as a unit. But it might be a solution to science writing, in that a credit system, for example, doesn't need an author-function to exist.

    11. en now, when we studythe history of a concept, a literary genre, or a branch of philo-sophy, these concerns assume a relatively weak and secondaryposition in relation to the solid and fundamental role of an authorand his works

      On extent to which we assume the author is real and solid even if we are doubtful about the nature of the field in which the author is working.

  28. Dec 2015
    1. If “form follows function,” then it is imperative that your attention be on the function and not the form. What is the Function which you see as the unfolding of daily activities? It is the unfolding of Your Being, identifying and fulfilling Itself as Itself. Activity, money and profit are all aspects of that identification. Money—income—is not the end goal of it all. Every aspect of your day identifies your Being, and not any one is more important or less important than another. Work does not generate income. Being generates work and income and leisure and growth. Yet, not any one of these things exist for their own independent purpose or identity. They identify Being, and Being is the Alpha and Omega—that which is and is identifying Itself completely and successfully. It is the flow of Being which is the Function. It is identified by the forms which constitute your daily activities. Your need is to identify yourself as Being and not as form.

      The Function of your daily activities is the unfolding of Your Being Identifying itself as Itself.

      Every aspect of your day identifies your Being and not any one part is more important than another.

      The Flow of Being is the Function. It (the Flow?) is identified by the forms of your daily activities.

      Your Need is to identify yourself as Being, not form.

  29. Nov 2015
    1. Remember that every activity, and every apparent result of that activity in your daily affairs, does not constitute a cause and effect at all. More properly, it is the apparent activities and their apparent results that constitute the “effect” or “form” that follows the Function that is You, Your Being.

      Your activities and their results constitute the effect or form that follows the Function of your Being.

      Being is cause, form is effect.

    2. Every aspect of your day identifies your Being, and not any one is more important or less important than another. Work does not generate income. Being generates work and income and leisure and growth. Yet, not any one of these things exist for their own independent purpose or identity. They identify Being, and Being is the Alpha and Omega—that which is and is identifying Itself completely and successfully. It is the flow of Being which is the Function. It is identified by the forms which constitute your daily activities. Your need is to identify yourself as Being and not as form.

      I love how Raj speaks in such a practical way..."Being generates work and income and leisure and growth."

      And Raj clearly shares that "the flow of Being which is the Function".

    1. PAUL: What is the function of Substance? RAJ: Its function is congruency, integrity, confluency, and inseparable Oneness, the inviolable substantiality of Infinity, of Reality. It is the constituting indivisibility of Conscious Being. It is the Absolute Law of the intelligent, harmonious blending of the infinite manifestations which constitute the experience of being as Conscious Being. Substance is Omnipotence. There is nothing passive, whatsoever, about it. It is the adhesion, cohesion, and attraction which constitute the immutable orderliness of the Totality of Being.

      The function of Substance"is congruency, integrity, confluency, and inseparable Oneness, the inviolable substantiality of Infinity, of Reality. It is the constituting indivisibility of Conscious Being...."

    2. PAUL: How does Substance function? RAJ: It functions by being the omnipresent omniaction of Being. The substance of Mind is Consciousness. The substance of Truth is Principle. The substance of Principle is Intelligence/Law. The substance of Soul is Love. The substance of Love is Life. And the substance of Life is Mind.

      "Substance functions by being the omnipresent omniaction of Being. The substance of Mind is Consciousness. The substance of Truth is Principle. The substance of Principle is Intelligence/Law. The substance of Soul is Love. The substance of Love is Life. And the substance of Life is Mind."

  30. Sep 2015
    1. A function can have multiple parameters or no parameters at all. In the following example, makeNoise does not list any parameter names, whereas power lists two:

      Readress var power after reading chapter, a t m parameters seem most important.