625 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. “The scroll is written in code, but its actual content is simple and well-known, and there was no reason to conceal it,” they write in the Journal of Biblical Literature. “This practice is also found in many places outside the land of Israel, where leaders write in secret code even when discussing universally known matters, as a reflection of their status. The custom was intended to show that the author was familiar with the code, while others were not.”

      Ancient scribes sometimes wrote in code even though the topics at hand were well known as a means of showing their status.

    1. Creating a community network ontology is therefore about much more than just knowledge representation. It also requires us to think about how this conceptual knowledge model affects real-world knowledge creation and application processes, in our case concerning participatory community network mapping. Its participatory nature means that we need to think hard about how to explicitly involve the community in the construction, evolution, and use of the ontology.
    1. We need more SCOSS-like experimentation. We need initiatives with short iterations of conceptualization and execution, a sort of trial-and-error mentality as we navigate this complex issue. We need research organisations and libraries to create budget lines for open infrastructures. We need funders to start supporting the maintenance of open infrastructures like the eLife Innovation Initiative or the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation.

    1. Knowledge Futures Group is a 501c3 nonprofit building open source technology and collaborating with communities of practice to design and build the public digital infrastructure needed for effective, equitable, and sustainable knowledge futures.
    1. When asked for his views on which classic works to include among the Great Books, the science historian George Sarton pronounced the exercise futile: “Newton’s achievement and personality are immortal; his book is dead except from the archaeological point of view.”

      How does one keep the spirit of these older books alive? Is it only by subsuming into and expanding upon a larger body of common knowledge?

      What do they still have to teach us?

    1. It will be argued here that the new configuration of three possible degrees of freedom—markets, governance, and knowledge production—can be modeled in terms of a triple helix of university-industry-government relations (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1997; Leydesdorff & Etzkowitz, 1998). Governance can be considered as the variable that instantiates and organizes systems in the geographical dimension of the model, while industry is the main carrier of economic production and exchange. Thirdly, academe can play a leading role in the organization of the knowledge production function (Godin & Gingras, 2000).

      university, government, and industry.

  2. Aug 2021
    1. by the eighteenth century, suchchapters were being expanded into sizeable books that functioned primarily as natural historybibliographies in their own right. An early example of this practice was Johann JakobScheuchzer’s Bibliotheca scriptorium(1716).
    2. The foregoing studies suggest two strands of commonplacing circa 1700. The first was thecollection of authoritative knowledge, usually in the form of quotations. The second was thecollection of personal or natural knowledge, with Francis Bacon’s lists, desiderata and apho-risms serving as early examples. While Moss has shown that the first strand was losing popular-ity by the 1680s, recent scholarship has shown that the second retained momentum through theeighteenth century,9especially in scientific dictionaries,10instructional cards,11catalogues,12

      loose-leaf manuscripts,13syllabi14and, most especially, notebooks.15

      There are two strands of commonplacing around 1700: one is the traditional collection of authoritative knowledge while the second was an emergent collection of more personal knowledge and exploration.

    1. Great writers become great by closely studying and copying other great writers. This is how cultural knowledge works. We learn the foundational skills from each other first, and then get all weird and experimental later on once the normal rules become boring.
    1. In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms 'hypertext' and 'hypermedia' as part of a model he developed for creating and using linked content (first published reference 1965).[7] He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University.
    1. My process for collecting and synthesizing information used to be exactly that: make highlights, sync them to Roam, tag the articles’ pages, and the respective blocks/highlights. And when it was time to write I would think of applicable tags for drafting the outline of an article, open their linked references in the sidebar, drag relevant ones into the outline, and draft the manuscript.

      work flow of roambrain/Maarten van Doornm page, example of catch knowledge

  3. Jul 2021
    1. Flavell (1979) further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: Person variables: What one recognizes about his or her strengths and weaknesses in learning and processing information. Task variables: What one knows or can figure out about the nature of a task and the processing demands required to complete the task—for example, knowledge that it will take more time to read, comprehend, and remember a technical article than it will a similar-length passage from a novel. Strategy variables: The strategies a person has “at the ready” to apply in a flexible way to successfully accomplish a task; for example, knowing how to activate prior knowledge before reading a technical article, using a glossary to look up unfamiliar words, or recognizing that sometimes one has to reread a paragraph several times before it makes sense.
    2. Elements of Metacognition Researchers distinguish between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation (Flavell, 1979, 1987; Schraw & Dennison, 1994).

      metacognitive knowledge vs metacognitive regulation

      • Metacognitive knowledge refers to what individuals know about themselves as cognitive processors
      • Metacognitive regulation refers to adjustments individuals make to their processes to help control their learning, such as planning, information management strategies, comprehension monitoring, de-bugging strategies, and evaluation of progress and goal
    1. Hayek draws attention to the fact that the most relevant knowledge for economic decision-making is not the general knowledge of the economist or philosopher, but rather the dispersed, local, and often tacit knowledge of myriad individuals in an economy

      will big data change the situation? What used to be impossible now starts to seem likely.

    1. Blogging about your work hits both of those marks. It also means that you have to translate your work from academese to language that non-academics will understand (i.e. jargon) and also foreground the relevance of your work. You have to tell people why your work is important and what it adds to the world.

      This is such an important point. Donald Trump did such an excellent job speaking at a level a lay person could understand when downplaying the seriousness of the Covid-19 virus thus undermining the scientific and medical community voices, that many Americans are refusing to vaccinate. This puts the world at risk for future variants that might be much worse than the ones we have now. More academics simplifying knowledge will help stem the tide of fake news, political propaganda and truly harmful misinformation.

    1. On the difference for writing for one's self and for others. Of course there's also the need to be able to re-decifer one's notes again in the future. It may be best to keep more detailed for your future self as if you're writing for the public.

      I like the idea of distance in "communication space" which comes up in the comments. This is related to context collapse and shared contexts which are often too-important in our communication with regard to being understood in the far future.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Matthias Melcher</span> in Commonplace Book | x28's new Blog (<time class='dt-published'>07/06/2021 11:13:34</time>)</cite></small>

    1. Forty years ago, Michel Foucault observed in a footnote that, curiously, historians had neglected the invention of the index card. The book was Discipline and Punish, which explores the relationship between knowledge and power. The index card was a turning point, Foucault believed, in the relationship between power and technology.

      This piece definitely makes an interesting point about the use of index cards (a knowledge management tool) and power.

      Things have only accelerated dramatically with the rise of computers and the creation of data lakes and the leverage of power over people by Facebook, Google, Amazon, et al.

  4. Jun 2021
    1. orchestrating knowledge construction

      While I don't disagree with the concept, it's interesting that the instructor has the agency here in what is often seen as a more horizontal activity.

    1. one of the beliefs that seems to be characteristic of the postmodernist mind set is the idea that politics and cleverness are the basis for all judgments about quality or truth, regardless of the subject matter or who is making the judgment

      hmmm...this needs to be unpacked...I might start by suggesting that critical theory does indeed often explore how judgements of quality and truth are shaped by politics, power, desire, knowledge, etc, but that's not a point against such work, but rather a recognition of part of its main practice.

      Cleverness is another matter...there's quite a bit of cleverness here in Morningstar's post, so should we judge it less worthy?

  5. May 2021
    1. And asking them if they think they know what they are doing will not help, because many people will overestimate their knowledge, making the support even more complicated as the tech guy may at first believe them and only find out later that they told wrong things because they do not actually know what they are pretending to know.
    1. Being opportunistic can be useful, but having a big positive impact often requires doing something unusual and on developing strong skills, which can take 10+ years.

      Academics (and other knowledge workers) tend not to focus too much attention on getting better. Skills development happens in an ad hoc way rather than a structured and focused approach to improvement.

    1. I had always assumed – without realising the assumption – that the ancient knowledge keepers would have progressed around the henge posts or stones much as I do around a memory palace. It hadn’t occurred to me that there may be experts on each topic, ‘owning’ each post or stone and the knowledge it represented. Is there any way the archaeology could ever tell us if this is the case?

      Personally, I had assumed from Kelly's work that individual knowledge keepers may have done this. Particularly in the cases of the most advanced and protected knowledge based on the private spaces she discussed.

      The question about archaeology being able to tell us is a very good one. Nothing immediately comes to mind, but it's worthwhile to look at this. Could some artifacts indicate different artists through their own craft be a way of differentiation?

    1. A fourth theme to emerge from the analysis of the data, is the highly relevant ‘cultural’ aspect to this memorization technique which students greatly appreciated. As one student notes: “I like the idea of connecting Indigenous culture with science learning…”. The theme of culture overlays learning and demonstrates the importance of conceptualising Australian Aboriginal ways of knowing or learning with or from rather than about Australian Aboriginal people and their knowledge systems. As Yunkaporta [2, p. 15] states, it is important not to examine Australian Aboriginal knowledge systems, but to explore the external systems “from an Indigenous knowledge perspective”.

      This is so heartwarming to me.

    2. Further, while the notion of ‘steps’ is often used in education as a way to scaffold knowledge, in the case of the Australian Aboriginal memory technique, there is also literal use of the term ‘steps’ as the following quote highlights: “[w]alking around and looking at the trees was a good visual tool to relate to corresponding steps in the cycle”. Kelly [1, p. 20] concurs and refers to the way Indigenous cultures use geography and landscape to create “memory spaces” and even “narrative landscapes”.

      Steps, diagrams, and other structures have been almost all that is left of potential mnemotechniques following educational reform in the late 1500s.

      Is there any research on these sorts of knowledge scaffolds in modern education?

      A classic example in Western culture can be seen in Eusebius' breaking the Bible down into smaller pieces using verses, though I don't think it was made canonical until during the Renaissance.

    3. Each student was assigned randomly to one of three study groups and assigned an individual study ID number.

      Were students queried as to their knowledge or experience with any of the techniques prior to the study?

    4. Systems for encoding, transmission, and protection of essential knowledge for group survival and cohesion were developed by multiple cultures long before the advent of alphabetic writing.

      Focusing in on the phrase:

      essential knowledge for group survival

      makes me wonder if we haven't evolutionarily primed ourselves to use knowledge and group knowledge in particular to create group cohesion and therefor survival?

      Cross reference: https://hyp.is/LWtjtLhjEeuTqHPwUUMUbA/threadreaderapp.com/thread/1381933685713289216.html and the paper https://www.academia.edu/46814693/The_Signaling_Function_of_Sharing_Fake_Stories

  6. commonplace.knowledgefutures.org commonplace.knowledgefutures.org
    1. This almost appears to be a small, community-based commonplace book.

      And apparently published on PubPub.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Samuel Klein</span> in Samuel Klein on Twitter: "@flancian See also https://t.co/KMmU7pDuQx" / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>05/18/2021 19:30:42</time>)</cite></small>

    1. “Monetising what we see as sacred knowledge, our way of being – driving, walking – is sacred knowledge and the only people who should have any purview over that is our community. … What if we look at what the data could do for our community and how to achieve that? … We are gathering our data because we love our people, we want a better future for the next generations. What if all data was gathered for those reasons? What would it look like?”

      A great quote and framing from Abigail Echo-Hawk.

      This reliance on going to community elders (primarily because they have more knowledge and wisdom) is similar to designing for the commons and working backward. Elders in many indigenous cultures represent the the commons.

      This isn't to say that we shouldn't continue to innovate and explore the evolutionary space for better answers, but going slow and fixing things is far more likely to be helpful than moving fast and breaking things as has been the mode for the last fifteen years. Who's watching the long horizon in these scenarios?

      This quote and set up deserves some additional thought into the ideas and power structures described by Lynne Kelly in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies Orality, Memory and the Transmission of Culture

    1. Darren Dahly. (2021, February 24). @SciBeh One thought is that we generally don’t ‘press’ strangers or even colleagues in face to face conversations, and when we do, it’s usually perceived as pretty aggressive. Not sure why anyone would expect it to work better on twitter. Https://t.co/r94i22mP9Q [Tweet]. @statsepi. https://twitter.com/statsepi/status/1364482411803906048

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘the SciBeh initiative is about bringing knowledge to policy makers and the general public, but I have to say this advert I just came across worries me: Where are the preceding data integrity and data analysis classes? Https://t.co/5LwkC1SVyF’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 18 February 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1362344945697308674

    1. Dr Zoë Hyde. (2021, February 23). I don’t like to dwell on negatives, but something important happened recently that I’d like to make public. Shortly before Christmas, @mugecevik made a complaint to my university about me. When asked for details, she didn’t provide any. My employer took a dim view of the matter. [Tweet]. @DrZoeHyde. https://twitter.com/DrZoeHyde/status/1364184623262048259

  7. Apr 2021
    1. This post articulates a lot of what I've been thinking about for the past 18 months or so, but it adds the additional concept of community integration.

      Interestingly, this aligns with the early, tentative ideas around what the future of In Beta might look like as a learning community, rather than a repository of content.

  8. Mar 2021
    1. A great little outline for how to do class retrospectives. While there's a lot of subtlety and a huge gradient between individual learners many of the methods and pro/con lists help to show the differences between them. I'd be curious to see one try all (or as many as possibly) to cover as many of the eventualities as possible.

      Too often teachers don't bother with these, but they can be incredibly useful, particularly for helping to attempt to improve future incarnations, as well as to guard against the curse of knowledge.

      I like that hyperlink.academy is doing some of the necessary work to expose their teachers to this sort of material. Too often it is only done in the academy in perfunctory ways which aren't designed to improve anything. Additionally the academy provides little, if any, training in the areas of pedagogy. Hyperlink.academy is making strides to provide some of this material and doing a reasonable job of exposing their teachers to it.

    2. We encourage course creators to dedicate time in their courses for a retro. Every cohort of a course is an experiment shaped by all participants, and what you learn can improve the course in important ways. Getting good feedback from learners is a key part of making sure that the course is always evolving in the right direction.

      This really should be done each class and even down to the atomic level as just once at the end is not going to pull out enough to be as beneficial as one might hope to help to overcome the curse of knowledge.

    1. In the Camerer, Loewenstein and Weber's article, it is mentioned that the setting closest in structure to the market experiments done would be underwriting, a task in which well-informed experts price goods that are sold to a less-informed public. Investment bankers value securities, experts taste cheese, store buyers observe jewelry being modeled, and theater owners see movies before they are released. They then sell those goods to a less-informed public. If they suffer from the curse of knowledge, high-quality goods will be overpriced and low-quality goods underpriced relative to optimal, profit-maximizing prices; prices will reflect characteristics (e.g., quality) that are unobservable to uninformed buyers ("you get what you pay for").[5] The curse of knowledge has a paradoxical effect in these settings. By making better-informed agents think that their knowledge is shared by others, the curse helps alleviate the inefficiencies that result from information asymmetries (a better informed party having an advantage in a bargaining situation), bringing outcomes closer to complete information. In such settings, the curse on individuals may actually improve social welfare.

      How might one exploit this effect to more proactively improve and promote social welfare?

    2. Such research drew from Baruch Fischhoff's work in 1975 surrounding hindsight bias, a cognitive bias that knowing the outcome of a certain event makes it seem more predictable than may actually be true.[5] Research conducted by Fischhoff revealed that participants did not know that their outcome knowledge affected their responses, and, if they did know, they could still not ignore or defeat the effects of the bias.
    3. This curse of knowledge also explains the danger behind thinking about student learning based on what appears best to faculty members, as opposed to what has been verified with students.

      Are there other axes or criteria that might be used other than these two? One seems better than the other, but what appears best to teachers is potentially better than nothing. (Though in cases it could be so bad that nothing may be preferable to a teacher's viewpoint.)

    1. you are sent only the numbers (t(s)h(s) k) and (w(s)v(s) k)

      Who is sending to whom? What does it prove if you are sent two identical numbers? Poor explanation :-(

    2. a secret evaluation point s

      only one?

    3. permutes

      How is that permuting? Permutation means changing the ordering.

    4. t(s)h(s) = w(s)v(s)

      Seems to imply calculation of E(t(s))E(h(s)) etc. using homomorphic properties, but fails to explain that, or even what the homomorphic properties allow.

    1. Furthermore, to help encourage and value evi-dence over opinion, managers should be carefulwhom they consult. While they should seek sub-stantive debate about statements and supportingevidence, they should only involve well-informedand value-adding experts. Social media andcrowdsourcing initiatives regularly remind us thatthe wisdom of the crowd is not as judicious as wethink.
    1. Mike Caulfield. (2021, March 10). One of the drivers of Twitter daily topics is that topics must be participatory to trend, which means one must be able to form a firm opinion on a given subject in the absence of previous knowledge. And, it turns out, this is a bit of a flaw. [Tweet]. @holden. https://twitter.com/holden/status/1369551099489779714

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 9). Now underway at SciBeh workshop are our 3 hackathons: 1. Combatting COVID-19 misinformation with lessons from climate change denial 2. Optimising research dissemination and curation 3. ReSearch Engine: Search Engine for SciBeh’s knowledge base & beyond [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1325796158887882752

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘Session 1: “Open Science and Crisis Knowledge Management now underway with Chiara Varazzani from the OECD” How can we adapt tools, policies, and strategies for open science to provide what is needed for policy response to COVID-19? #scibeh2020’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 March 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1325720293965443072

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘1 week to the SciBeh workshop “Building an online information environment for policy relevant science” Join us, register now! Topics: Crisis open science, interfacing to policy, online discourse, tools for research curation talks, panels, hackathons https://t.co/Gsr66BRGcJ https://t.co/uRrhSb9t05’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 2 March 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1323207455283826690

  9. Feb 2021
    1. Zero-knowledge proofs present the solution. The enterprise can prove it's the recipient of upcoming payments without revealing all the business details it may rightly want to keep private.

      zero knowledge proofs

    1. Foucault probably offers the most helpful theoretical approach. His “archaeology of knowledge” suggests a way to study texts as sites that bear the marks of epistemological activity, and it has the advantage of doing justice to the social dimension of thought.

    1. The Garden of Forking Paths

      El Jardín de los Senderos que se Bifurcan.

      After reading the short story once more, I can't see how it relates to this context beyond the title. Sure, it's a garden and has paths, but the ideas behind it have nothing to do with how we build knowledge, it is all about how we perceive time and potentially how we interpret the many-worlds theory.

    2. You’re asked “So basically a book is just words someone said written down?” And you say no, it’s more than that. But how is it more than that?

      I think this is exactly what Hegel meant by Aufhebung, just that technologically speaking there was no concrete way of showing it.

    1. One can now picture a future investigator in his laboratory. His hands are free, and he is not anchored. As he moves about and observes, he photographs and comments. Time is automatically recorded to tie the two records together. If he goes into the field, he may be connected by radio to his recorder. As he ponders over his notes in the evening, he again talks his comments into the record. His typed record, as well as his photographs, may both be in miniature, so that he projects them for examination.

      This is one of the most important aspects of the essay. Noting that he is continuously talking about the work of a scientist, he stresses the act of recording, of looking at reality. This is radically different from what Ahrens claims in his book "How to take Smart Notes", in which there is not a single hint to the fact that you must look through the window and not just into previous works.

    1. Nisus said: ‘Euryalus, do the gods set this fire in our hearts, or does each man’s fatal desire become godlike to him? My mind has long urged me to rush to battle, or high adventure, and is not content with peace and quiet.

      This further highlights the theme of the Trojans establishing the ideal characteristics of the future Romans. Romans were to be men of action, not passive and accepting of the fate that has been thrown before them.

  10. Jan 2021
    1. In fact, such small effectively closed scientific communities built on interpersonal relationships already exist to some extent

      so the weights in the reputation graph are personal knowledge, not citations or whatever.

  11. Dec 2020
    1. introduction and in its summary at the end: “a graph of data intended to accumulate and convey knowledge of the real world, whose nodes represent entities of interest and whose edges represent relations between these entities”. We

      comprehensive definition

    2. but these same vendors were also talking about Semantic Web and Linked Data capabilities before that, so I thought that they were just rebranding with the new buzz phrase as a marketing strategy.

      Maybe the vendor dependency is one of the problems.

    1. Put yourself in the reader’s position and see if you can get a grip on how they might respond to your writing.

      It seems like good advice but it's actually quite hard to divorce yourself from what you know. See the curse of knowledge.

      This is why I think that having this list of questions is a good idea; you don't have to rely solely on putting yourself in the reader's shoes.

    1. They should be well-organized and easy for customers to locate the information they need. 

      This articles focused on the structure of knowledge bases, whereas the Hubspot intro is focused on the features they provide.

    1. More than anything, however, consumers want to find answers on their own. A study by Forrester confirmed that customers prefer knowledge bases over all other self-service channels. This is likely because the vast majority of customers want an immediate response to their customer service question — 90%, in fact.
    1. A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system. The initial use of the term was in connection with expert systems; which were the first knowledge-based systems.
  12. Nov 2020
  13. osf.io