 Feb 2019

paleorxiv.org paleorxiv.org

n they will share similar genes, but it 18is the phenotype –upon which selection acts –which is crucia
There two important things to note.
If the same genetic programme leads to two phenotypes because of the environment, this falls in the category of epigenetics. Epigenetic processes are usually not treelike, hence, poorly modelled by inferring a tree.
You implicitly assume (via your Rscript) that homoiologies (in a strict sense, i.e. parallelism) are rare and not beneficial (neutral). But if the homoiology is beneficial (i.e. positively selected for), it will be much more common in a clade of close relatives than the primitive phenotype (the symplesiomorphy). We can further assume that beneficial homoiologies will accumulate in the mostderived, advanced, specialised taxa, in the worst case (from the mainstream cladistic viewpoint) mimicking or even outcompeting synapomorphies. A simply thought example: let's say we have a monophylum (fide Hennig) with two sublineages, each sublineage defined by a single synapormorphy. Both sublineages radiate and invade in parallel a new niche (geographically separated from each other) and fix (evolve) a set of homoiologies in adaptation to that new niche. The members of both sublineages with the homoiologies will be resolved as one clade, a pseudomonophylum, supported by the homoiologies as pseudosynapomorphies. And the actual synapomorphies will be resolved as plesiomorphies or autapomorphies.
Without molecular (and sometime even with, many molecular trees are based on plastid in plants and mitochondria in animals, and both are maternally inherited, hence, geographically controlled) or ontologicalphysiological control it will be impossible to make a call what is derived (hence a potential homoiology) and what ancestral in a group of organisms sharing a relative recent common origin and a still similiar genetic programme.

 Oct 2018

chem.libretexts.org chem.libretexts.org

In contrast to his concept of a simple circular orbit with a fixed radius, orbitals are mathematically derived regions of space with different probabilities of having an electron.
In this case, the QM model allows for probabilistic radii, not fixed radii, and the quantization is the energy level. An electron with principal quantum number n = 2 will always have quantized energy corresponding to \( E = R(1/n^2) \), but the exact minimal and maximal radial distance from the nucleus is not specified as in the Bohr model of the atom. Similar to the Bohr model though, the most probable radial distance is quantifiable, and that is the radius the electron is most likely to inhabit, however it will be found elsewhere at other times.

 Sep 2017

thebulletin.org thebulletin.org

Terrorist use of an actual nuclear bomb is a lowprobability event
Low probability and high impact but not a black swan

 Feb 2017

static1.squarespace.com static1.squarespace.com

These two qualities, therefore, PROBABILITY and PLAUSIBILITY
This is an important set of terms to think through in terms of come to think about and with rhetoric.

CHAPTER VI
Chapter VII: General Audience Awareness
But, really, Mere Rhetoric has a nice (I'm assuming she's mostly on point here) summary of some of the concepts to follow.

 Jan 2017

static1.squarespace.com static1.squarespace.com

Hume considers the possibility that there is, indeed, complete relativism in this matter. But his purpose is to find ways to reduce or eliminate disagreement, to set a standard
A rhetorical concern dating back to at least Aristotle: how to decide upon things in the realm of the probable rather than the absolute.

 Nov 2016

journals.plos.org journals.plos.org

Finally, by assuming the nondetection of a species to indicate absence from a given grid cell, we introduced an extra level of error into our models. This error depends on the probability of false absence given imperfect detection (i.e., the probability that a species was present but remained undetected in a given grid cell [73]): the higher this probability, the higher the risk of incorrectly quantifying speciesclimate relationships [73].
This will be an ongoing challenge for species distribution modeling, because most of the data appropriate for these purposes is not collected in such a way as to allow the straightforward application of standard detection probability/occupancy models. This could potentially be addressed by developing models for detection probability based on species and habitat type. These models could be built on smaller/different datasets that include the required data for estimating detectability.

 Jul 2016

www.quantamagazine.org www.quantamagazine.org

hyperuniform distribution  Appears random at smaller scales, but more predictable at larger scales.

 Feb 2016

blog.cloudera.com blog.cloudera.com

Great explanation of 15 common probability distributions: Bernouli, Uniform, Binomial, Geometric, Negative Binomial, Exponential, Weibull, Hypergeometric, Poisson, Normal, Log Normal, Student's t, ChiSquared, Gamma, Beta.

 Jan 2016

blogs.scientificamerican.com blogs.scientificamerican.com

P(BE) = P(B) X P(EB) / P(E), with P standing for probability, B for belief and E for evidence. P(B) is the probability that B is true, and P(E) is the probability that E is true. P(BE) means the probability of B if E is true, and P(EB) is the probability of E if B is true.


phys.org phys.org

paradox of unanimity  Unanimous or nearly unanimous agreement doesn't always indicate the correct answer. If agreement is unlikely, it indicates a problem with the system.
Witnesses who only saw a suspect for a moment are not likely to be able to pick them out of a lineup accurately. If several witnesses all pick the same suspect, you should be suspicious that bias is at work. Perhaps these witnesses were cherrypicked, or they were somehow encouraged to choose a particular suspect.

 Oct 2015


Nearly all applications of probability to cryptography depend on the factor principle (or Bayes’ Theorem).
This is easily the most interesting sentence in the paper: Turing used Bayesian analysis for codebreaking during WWII.

 Oct 2013

rhetoric.eserver.org rhetoric.eserver.org

Now the propositions of Rhetoric are Complete Proofs, Probabilities, and Signs.
From chapter 2.


rhetoric.eserver.org rhetoric.eserver.org

the materials of enthymemes are Probabilities and Signs


rhetoric.eserver.org rhetoric.eserver.org

The premisses from which enthymemes are formed are "probabilities" and "signs"
