397 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The point of Zettelkasten is to digest each thing you read well so you don’t need to go back to look at it again.

      I don't agree with this viewpoint. Just like Heraclitus' river, the information in an article or book may not change, but there is a contextual change in the reader, in their thinking, their circumstances, and their time that may give them a different reading or perspective of the same material at later dates.

      Of course not all material is actually worth reading more than once either. But for some material a second or third reading may help them create new ideas and new links to prior ideas.

    1. Thus we can roughly define what we mean by the art of reading as follows: the process whereby a mind, with nothing to operate on but the symbols of the readable matter, and with no help from outside, 0 elevates itself by the power of its own operations. The mind passes from understanding less to under­standing more. The skilled operations that cause this to hap­pen are the various acts that constitute the art of reading.

      I'm not sure I agree with this perspective of not necessarily asking for outside help.

      What if the author is at fault for not communicating properly or leaving things too obscure? Is this the exception of which he speaks?

      What if the author isn't properly contextualizing all the necessary information to the reader? This can be a particular problem when writing history across large spans of both time and culture or even language.

    1. Perhaps a better way of understanding what Anaximander has to say is to study carefully the doxography, which goes back to people like Aristotle and Theophrastus, who probably have had Anaximander’s book before their eyes, and who tried to reformulate what they thought were its central claims.

      doxography

      Much like attempting to reconstruct history from portions of the Bible, one must consider the context of the pieces in its own time and with the context of the authors' time, space, and other thought.

    2. It is certainly important that we possess one text from Anaximander’s book. On the other hand, we must recognize that we know hardly anything of its original context, as the rest of the book has been lost. We do not know from which part of his book it is, nor whether it is a text the author himself thought crucial or just a line that caught one reader’s attention as an example of Anaximander’s poetic writing style.

      This is one of the first (existing) annotations in Western culture. One must be careful however as the context of the rest is missing.

      What techniques might we use to help rebuild the context? What would Bart Ehrman's text suggest?

  2. Jul 2021
    1. https://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2008/2008.12.41/

      A searing review of David R. Slavitt's translation of Lucretius.

      The "close enough" nature of the translation seems like the intellectual slide shown by too many moderns which decontextualizes our historical precedents. Perhaps fine for a quick view, but could be a slippery slope for taking as part of the basis for Western intellectual tradition.

    1. Feature Idea: Chaos Monkey for PKM

      This idea is a bit on the extreme side, but it does suggest that having a multi-card comparison view in a PKM system would be useful.

      Drawing on Raymond Llull's combitorial memory system from the 12th century and a bit of Herman Ebbinghaus' spaced repetition (though this is also seen in earlier non-literate cultures), one could present two (or more) random atomic notes together as a way of juxtaposing disparate ideas from one's notes.

      The spaced repetition of the cards would be helpful for one's long term memory of the ideas, but it could also have the secondary effect of nudging one to potentially find links or connections between the two ideas and help to spur creativity for the generation of new hybrid ideas or connection to other current ideas based on a person's changed context.

      I've thought about this in the past (most likely while reading Frances Yates' Art of Memory), but don't think I've bothered to write it down (or it's hiding in untranscribed marginalia).

    1. On the difference for writing for one's self and for others. Of course there's also the need to be able to re-decifer one's notes again in the future. It may be best to keep more detailed for your future self as if you're writing for the public.

      I like the idea of distance in "communication space" which comes up in the comments. This is related to context collapse and shared contexts which are often too-important in our communication with regard to being understood in the far future.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Matthias Melcher</span> in Commonplace Book | x28's new Blog (<time class='dt-published'>07/06/2021 11:13:34</time>)</cite></small>

    1. In other cases, it’s impossible for an outsider to guess what inspired the note or where it led.

      Reminder that there's value in capturing the context of one's ideas. Who knows what might be missing or what others may wish to know in the future?

  3. Jun 2021
    1. Alle Gäste ab 6 Jahren müssen einen negativen Test vorweisen, der nicht älter als 24 Stunden ist. Die Tests können entweder in einem Testzentrum erfolgen oder unter Aufsicht des Gaststättenpersonals vor Ort. [berlin.de] Genesene oder geimpfte Personen müssen ebenfalls einen entsprechenden Nachweis vorlegen.
    1. Demnach sind bis Ende Juli Events mit maximal 300 Menschen erlaubt. Am 1. August erhöht sich diese Zahl auf 500, am 1. September auf 750, am 1. Oktober auf 1000 – immer unter Wahrung der Abstands- und Hygieneregeln.
    2. Nach dem Beschluss gibt es künftig vor allem keine Kontaktverbote mehr: Durften sich bislang nur maximal fünf Personen oder Angehörige zweier Haushalte treffen, so gilt diese Einschränkung nun nicht mehr.
    1. Gute Nachrichten auch für die Abschlussklassen in Berlin: Abifeiern dürfen wieder stattfinden, genauso Abschlussfeiern von Berufsausbildungen.
    2. Im privaten Bereich bleiben die alten Regeln vorerst bestehen
    3. Kneipen, Restaurants und Spätis dürfen nachts, also zwischen 0 und 5 Uhr wieder Alkohol ausschenken. Das nächtliche Verkaufsverbot entfällt.
    1. Dort dürfen zweimal Geimpfte bereits wieder zu körpernahen Dienstleistungen oder in Biergärten. Der Nachweis über den vollständigen Impfschutz müsse den Betreibern schriftlich oder digital nachgewiesen werden. Diese Änderung gilt seit Sonntag, zunächst bis zum 25. April.
    2. Betroffene dürfen demzufolge ohne vorherigen Corona-Test auch abseits des Lebensmittelhandels Einkaufen gehen, einen Friseur oder Kosmetiksalon, ein Museum oder eine Ausstellung besuchen. Greifen soll die Regelung 15 Tage nach der Zweitimpfung.
    1. Gültigkeit von Test-Bestätigungen:Bisher musste zum Beispiel in Geschäften oder Museen ein tagesaktuelles negatives Testergebnis vorgelegt werden.
    2. Keine Privilegien für Corona-Genesene:  Menschen, die schon einmal an Corona erkrankt waren und inzwischen wieder gesund sind, profitieren nicht. Wer geltend macht, er sei dadurch vor Infektionen geschützt und die gleichen Rechte wie Geimpfte verlangt, kommt damit nicht durch.
    3. Corona-Lockdown bis 9. Mai verlängert:Die übrigen bisher schon geltenden Corona-Maßnahmen werden bis zum 9. Mai verlängert. Die bisherige Verordnung war bis Sonntag (18.4.) befristet.
    4. Kontaktbeschärnkungen:Damit gelten zum Beispiel Kontaktbeschränkungen weiter.
    5. Das war bisher nicht geregelt.
    6. Zuvor galt für die Kinder ein Höchstalter von 12 Jahren, ab Samstag sind es 14 Jahre.
    7. Als Nachweis gilt der Impfpass. Voraussetzung ist, dass die Zweitimpfung mindestens 15 Tage zurückliegt.
    1. Polen gilt laut RKI aktuell als Risikogebiet.
    2. Ausnahmen gelten zudem für Menschen, die aus beruflichen Gründen reisen und zu systemrelevanten Berufsgruppen, etwa aus dem Gesundheitsbereich gehören. Auch Personen, die Verwandte ersten oder zweiten Grades, Ehegatten, Lebensgefährten oder Personen, für welche ein gemeinsames oder geteiltes Sorge- oder Umgangsrecht besteht, besuchen, müssen nicht automatisch in die Quarantäne. Das gilt auch für Beistandsbesuche für schutz- oder hilfebedürftigen Personen, Patienten mit dringenden medizinischen Behandlungen und Durchreisende.
    1. Restaurants, Bars, Theater, Kinos müssen im November schließen.
    2. Und nur zwei Haushalte dürfen sich dann (ab 2. November) noch treffen, maximal zehn Personen.
    3. Ab kommender Woche gelten strengere Corona-Regeln: Nur noch zwei Haushalte dürfen sich dann treffen.
    1. Anders als im März, sollen Besuche in Krankenhäusern und Pflegeheimen aber nicht generell untersagt werden, damit keine soziale Isolation herrsche.
    2. Den kompletten November und mindestens bis zum 20. Dezember 2020 bleiben Events, Vorstellungen und größere Zusammenkünfte untersagt.
    3. Auf jeder Straße, in der Einzelhandel und Handwerksbetriebe ansässig sind, gilt ab 01. Dezember Maskenpflicht. Bislang galt eine solche Pflicht in öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln und Bahnhöfen, in Büros, im Einzelhandel und Supermärkten, aber auch vor Einkaufsmärkten sowie an belebteren Orten wie beispielsweise Parkplätzen. Auch Wochen-, Floh- und Weihnachtsmärkte gehören dazu, unerheblich, in welcher Form diese stattfinden.
    4. Angehörige über 12 Jahre werden mitgezählt, womit Familien mit drei Kindern, die das Alter erreicht haben, sich theoretisch nicht gemeinsam mit anderen Menschen treffen dürfen
    5. Stand jetzt dürfen sich in Berlin auch über Weihnachten und Silvester, also vom 23. Dezember 2020 bis zum 01. Januar 2021, wie bisher maximal 5 Personen aus 2 Haushalten treffen. Von der Zahl der Einzelpersonen sind dabei Kinder bis 12 Jahre explizit ausgenommen.
    1. Bundesweit werden ab 2. November bis Ende des Monats Freizeiteinrichtungen und Gastronomie geschlossen, Unterhaltungsveranstaltungen verboten und Kontakte in der Öffentlichkeit sowie Feiern auf Plätzen und in Wohnungen müssen eingeschränkt werden.
    1. Der Senat hat beschlossen, dass bei privaten Feiern im Freien künftig eine maximale Zahl von 50 Teilnehmern gelten soll
    2. Gastwirten, die sich nicht darum kümmern, Name und Telefonnummer ihrer Gäste festzuhalten, drohen Bußgelder. Je nach Schwere der Verstöße können bis zu 5000 Euro fällig werden
    3. Die Abstandsregel von 1,50 Meter muss in den Schulen nicht mehr eingehalten werden
    4. Für Demonstrationen gilt keine Begrenzung der Teilnehmerzahl mehr
    5. Künftig gilt die Maskenpflicht auch für Wochenmärkte, bestimmte Einkaufsstraßen und Warteschlangen gelten, in denen der Mindestabstand von 1,5 Metern nicht einzuhalten ist.
    6. Abstands- und Hygieneregeln gelten dabei weiterhin
    1. i feel like if i if i use the word new somewhere i want to go through and like no no no no

      i feel like if i if i use the word new somewhere i want to go through and like no no no no new to who and put the question mark there just to remember that there are those um models that come before us right and there are those traditions that come before us that are even in some ways operating when we don't even you know notice or recognize them

      Asking the question "new to who?" can be important whenever using the word new can be very revealing. We need to recall and respect that everyone comes from a different context.

    1. Eine Terminvereinbarung bleibt ebenfalls nötig. Dasselbe gilt für den Besuch kultureller Einrichtungen wie Museen, Galerien und Gedenkstätten.
    2. Berliner Unternehmen müssen ihren Mitarbeitern künftig zwei Mal in der Woche einen kostenlosen Corona-Test ermöglichen.
    1. Die befristete Geltungsdauer für Personenobergrenzen bei Veranstaltungen lediglich bis zum 30. November wird gestrichen.
    2. Die Ausnahme beim Aufenthalt im öffentlichen Raum für die Erbringung von Leistungen der Eingliederungshilfe wird erweitert, um die Teilhabebedarfe von Menschen mit Behinderungen zu decken.
    1. Anders als die Hotels mussten Kneipen und Gaststätten ab Mitte März komplett schließen und damit fast vollständig auf Umsätze verzichten. Erst nach zwei Monaten durften Restaurants Mitte Mai wieder öffnen, Kneipen ab dem 2. Juni.
    2. Bisher müssen in Gaststätten die Stühle so stehen, dass zwischen den Gästen ein Mindestabstand von 1,5 Metern eingehalten wird. Ausnahmen gelten für Ehe- und Lebenspartner und Angehörige des eigenen Haushalts - mit Arbeitskollegen und Bekannten wird das vertraute Gespräch über den Tisch hinweg dagegen manchmal schwierig.
    3. Der Mindestabstand von 1,5 Metern zwischen den Tischen muss allerdings weiter eingehalten werden.
    4. Die bisher wegen der Corona-Pandemie geltenden Abstandsregeln in Gaststätten werden in Berlin gelockert.
    5. Nach Monaten des Abstands in Gaststätten dürfen Berliner Gäste wieder enger am Tisch zusammenrücken.
    1. Der Höchstbetrag der möglichen Geldbuße liegt bei 25.000 Euro.
    2. Seit Sonntag dürfen Cafés und Restaurants auch tagsüber nicht mehr öffnen. Bisher konnten Restaurants von 6 bis 18 Uhr öffnen, nicht aber am Abend.
    3. Bei der Öffnung sind geeignete Vorkehrung zur Hygiene, zur Steuerung des Zutritts und zur Vermeidung von Warteschlangen zu treffen.
    4. Ausgenommen davon sind:der Besuch bei Lebenspartnerinnen und Lebenspartnern, Alten, Kranken oder Menschen mit Einschränkungen (außerhalb von Einrichtungen) und die Wahrnehmung des Sorgerechts im jeweiligen privaten Bereichdie Begleitung von unterstützungsbedürftigen Personen und Minderjährigendie Begleitung Sterbender sowie Beerdigungen im engsten Familienkreis
    1. In der Zeit von 23 bis 5 Uhr ist der Ausschank, die Abgabe und der Verkauf von alkoholischen Getränken verboten.
    2. Mitarbeiter und Gäste, die sich nicht an ihrem Sitzplatz befinden, müssen eine medizinische Gesichtsmaske tragen.
    3. An einem Tisch dürfen nicht mehr als fünf Personen aus maximal zwei Haushalten gemeinsam sitzen – Kinder unter 14 Jahren sowie geimpfte und genesene Personen werden hierbei nicht mitgezählt.
    1. Seit Montag dürfen die Berliner Friseursalons wieder öffnen. Da diese unter einem anderen Paragraphen erfasst sind als die körpernahen Dienstleistungen, trifft die Testpflicht für Mitarbeiter hier nicht zu.

      § 17 (1) S. 1, 2 InfSchMV

    2. Seit Beginn des bundesweiten Lockdowns Mitte Dezember sind auch in Berlin große Teile des Einzelhandels mit Ausnahme etwa von Supermärkten, Drogerien oder Apotheken geschlossen. Restaurants, Museen, Kinos, Theater, Freizeit- und Sporteinrichtungen sind schon seit Anfang November für das Publikum zu.
    3. Die Beschränkung der Bewegungsfreiheit, die sogenannte 15-Kilometer-Regel, bei hohen Inzidenzen fällt weg.

      § 2 (1a) InfSchMV

    4. Zuvor war nur eine haushaltsfremde Person erlaubt.
    1. Haben Geschäfte über Ostern geöffnet?Ja, wie üblich bis einschließlich Gründonnerstag und am Karsamstag.
    2. Gilt weiterhin Maskenpflicht?Ja, sie wurde sogar verschärft. Waren bisher FFP2- oder einfachere sogenannte OP-Masken vorgeschrieben, sind ab Mittwoch nur noch FFP2-Masken erlaubt. Das gilt übrigens für alle Innenräume jenseits der eigenen vier Wände, also auch im ÖPNV, Arztpraxen, Schulen, Museen.
    3. Muss man weiter Termine bei den Geschäften buchen?Nein, diese Vorgabe fällt mit der neuen Strategie wieder weg.
    4. Auch im Einzelhandel müssten bestimmte Geschäfte wieder dichtmachen, zum Beispiel Bau- und Gartenmärkte, Modeläden, Elektronikmärkte, Kaufhäuser.
    5. Käme diese zur Anwendung, müssten Anbieter körpernaher Dienstleistungen wie Kosmetiksalons wieder schließen, nicht aber Friseure, die bereits ab 1. März öffnen dürfen.
    6. Auch Abstandsregeln und Hygienemaßnahmen greifen weiterhin.
    1. Eine Terminbuchung ist nicht mehr nötig - die maximalen Kundenzahlen gelten weiterhin. 
    2. Für die Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer besteht keine Testpflicht.
    3. Tagsüber dürfen sich dann nur noch Angehörige eines Haushalts plus eine weitere Person zusammen aufhalten. Auch hier werden Kinder bis 14 nicht mitgezählt. Zwischen 21 und 5 Uhr sind dann gar keine Besuche mehr erlaubt.
    4. Ab Dienstag, 6. April, werden die Regeln für private Treffen drinnen nochmals verschärft.
    5. Tagsüber bleibt es bei der bisherigen Regelung.
    6. In Berlin gelten seit Karfreitag, 2. April, schärfere Kontaktbeschränkungen.
    1. "Dear Jenny: What am I working on? How is it going?

      I love that after the break, he brings it back around to something from the beginning to close things out nicely. Something done by the best writers and usually the best comedians).

      Create some context, then use that context to your advantage.

    1. We need to be really careful about what's 'same origin' because the server has no idea what host/path the various cookies are associated with. It just has a list of cookies that the browser had determined to be relevant for this SSR'd page, and not for any other subrequests.
  4. May 2021
    1. One goal of these hyper-personalised gardens is deep contextualisation. The overwhelming lesson of the Web 2.0 social media age is that dumping millions of people together into decontextualised social spaces is a shit show.
    1. ‘This morphological law can always be expressed in the same general form: X—>r (A,B, ... 3, which means: Within a context of type X, the parts A, B, . .. are related by the relationship r.
    1. Sidewiki does another interesting thing - it matches comments to the same words elsewhere on the web. For example, my comment on Douglas Adams excellent 1999 piece also shows up in SideWiki on JP Rangiswami's blog where he quotes Douglas Adams too.This hints at a greater possibility for SideWiki - to weave the web together by better by showing commentary across the web from all places that quote and cite each other, correlating by textual quotation and adding annotated links to the commentary from people we trust most.
  5. Apr 2021
    1. Firefox extension: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/promnesia/

      Promnesia is a browser extension for Chrome/Firefox (including Firefox for Android!) which serves as a web surfing copilot, enhancing your browsing history and web exploration experience.

      TLDR: it lets you explore your browsing history in context: where you encountered it, in chat, on Twitter, on Reddit, or just in one of the text files on your computer. This is unlike most modern browsers, where you can only see when you visited the link.

      I've been doing something a bit like this manually and it looks a lot like the sort of UI examples I've been collecting at https://boffosocko.com/2019/06/29/social-reading-user-interface-for-discovery/

    1. It has two very different meanings, that you would have to distinguish by context. One meaning is just expressing that we have limitations. If you don't know something, that's just tough, you don't know it and you have to live with that. You don't have information if you don't have that information. The other meaning is that not only are there gaps in our knowledge, but often we don't even know what the gaps in our knowledge are. I don't know how to speak Finnish. That's a gap in my knowledge that I know about. I know that I don't know how to speak Finnish. But there are gaps in my knowledge that I'm not even aware of. That's where you can say "You don't know what you don't know" meaning that you don't even know what knowledge you are missing.

      I had this thought too.

  6. Mar 2021
    1. *For the uninitiated, I spent years working in product and design in news media companies before becoming a journalist.

      It would be wonderful if people had spaces on their websites for adding in this sort of personal context with respect to what they were writing about.

    1. I really like this and want to figure out way to do it on my own website. It could be fun to tuck it in with the weather and location data I'm already collecting.

    1. from SenorG’s comment that began with the caveat “Allow me to push back a bit here,” and which inspired four replies from three other annotators, to actualham’s observation

      There's something discordant here in a scholarly article about having academic participants with names like SenorG and actualham. It's almost like a 70's farce starring truckers with bizarre CB handles. It's even more bizarre since I know some of the researchers behind these screennames.

      Is the pseudonymous nature of some of these handles useful in hiding the identity of the participants and thereby forcing one to grapple only with their ideas and not the personas, histories and contexts behind them?

    1. This is the story of how a bill to save the vote and preserve a semblance of democracy for millions of Americans died at the hands of an intransigent, reactionary minority in the Senate, which used the filibuster to do its dirty work

      The author starts off by personifying "the bill" as something that was supposed to save millions of Americans, but rather was killed by Senators. He immediately provides a brief overview of the claim of his essay before developing his narrative. This way, the audience gets a glimpse of the issue that the author will tackle. Also, by using words such as "intransigent and reactionary", the audience already understands that the author is going to be criticizing the senators for their action.

  7. Feb 2021
    1. And thanks in large part to the work of John Lewis and those who followed in his footsteps, it rests on two senators from Georgia,

      The author is praising the Democrats and displays a satisfied tone as he exclaims how because of people like John Lewis, every voter has equal access to the ballot. This can also provide context on the wider issue that the author is describing. By praising Democrats, it is clear that the author is most likely a Democrat and thus, it is clear that he will have a negative attitude toward Republicans.

    2. Let’s honor him by revitalizing the law that he was willing to die for.”

      John Lewis is a representative who advocated for some important changes in the federal system, but unfortunately, they were never approved. Barack Obama exaggerates that he was "willing to die for" this purpose or goal he was trying to achieve. This just hints that some act was Lewis's life time goal, but he died before, it could become a reality. When Obama exclaims lets "honor hum by revitalizing the law", it foreshadows that this will be about an essay on either the law getting approved or why it still hasn't been approved.

    1. For example, what if your site has a customer interface and an “admin” interface? If the two have totally different designs and features, then it might be considerable overhead to ship the entirety of the admin interface to every customer on the regular site.
    1. So far, the official local death toll from the snow, ice and power outages stands at 24.

      The addition of the statistic helps the author situate the context and explains why a call to action is needed immediately. The tone is also regretful and serious to invoke sympathy feelings from the audience and make them understand the bigger crisis that is happening in Texas.

    1. famous movie review which describes the Wizard of Oz as: “Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first person she meets and then teams up with three strangers to kill again.”

      This is a great example of context collapse. It's factually true, but almost no one who's seen it would describe it this way.

      It's reminiscent of how advertising and politics can twist meaning. Another great example is the horror cut of Disney's Frozen trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIMk1_wwxz8

    1. We’ve always used the term ‘social networking’ to refer to the process of finding and connecting with those people. And that process has always depended on a fabric of trust woven most easily in the context of local communities and face-to-face interaction.

      Too much of modern social networking suffers from this fabric of trust and rampant context collapse. How can we improve on these looking forward?

  8. Jan 2021
  9. Dec 2020
    1. The more I think about this, the more I think that using the context API (for all the stores — page, preloading and session) is the most regret-proof approach, using the proposal above

      Looks like this is the approach that they went with

    1. Just realised this doesn't actually work. If store is just something exported by the app, there's no way to prevent leakage. Instead, it needs to be tied to rendering, which means we need to use the context API. Sapper needs to provide a top level component that sets the store as context for the rest of the app. You would therefore only be able to access it during initialisation, which means you couldn't do it inside a setTimeout and get someone else's session by accident:
    1. mars. One parameter, whose positive value is instantiated in languages with rich agreement such as Italian and Spanish, is the Null Pronoun Parameter, in which the null subject (i.e., pro) is identified through agreement. Another parameter, whose positive value is instantiated in languages without agreement such as Chinese and Japanese, is the Discourse Oriented Parameter (DOP). Such discourse-oriented languages allow null arguments in both subject and object positions, and the null argument is identified by a discourse topic or through co-indexation with a c-commanding nominal. A language such as English instantiates the negative value with respect to both the DOP and the Null Pronoun Parame

      Examples of situations in which adults can omit subjects.

    1. According to the best estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 99.997 percent of individuals aged 19 and younger who contract coronavirus make a full recovery, 99.98 percent of those aged 20 to 49 make a full recovery, and 99.5 percent aged 50 to 69 fully recover.

      The takeaway: >99% of people age 0-69 infected with SARS-CoV-2 survive COVID based on the CDC's current best estimate of infection fatality ratio. A subset of those infected will suffer from continued symptoms even though they did not die from COVID.

      The claim: Greater than 99% of people age 0-69 fully recover from COVID-19.

      The evidence: This numbers align with the CDC's current best estimate of the infection fatality ratio (1). Infection fatality ratio is the number of people that die from a disease divided by the number of people who get the disease. These numbers do not account for people with symptoms such as lung damage, chronic fatigue, and mental illness which may follow a COVID infection (2, 3).

      In a study of 143 hospitalized patients from Italy after an average of 60.3 days, only 12.6% were symptom free (4). Per Mayo Clinic guidelines, long term effects can occur in those with mild symptoms but most often occur in severe cases (5). Mental health problems were diagnosed 14-90 days after COVID in 18.1% of COVID patients studied (3).

      A more accurate estimate of the number of people that fully recover may be obtained if the number of people who recovered without hospitalization is used. The numbers presented are the CDC's current best estimate of the number of people that survive COVID not the number of people that fully recover.

      Sources:

      1) https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html

      2) https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02598-6

      3) https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(20)30462-4/fulltext

      4) https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768351/

      5) https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-long-term-effects/art-20490351

    1. Clusters of infections within families living in Bnei Brak were identified and investigated. The parents were asked regarding the first case of the infection in the family and regarding the pre-sumed source of the infection.In addition, household members underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing whether they were symptomatic or not

      testing regime: exhaustive (whether symptomatic or not)

    2. Thirteen family clusters were investigated; all families reside in the city of Bnei Brak.

      N=13 families

    3. Mayenei Hayeshuah Medical center is located in the city of Bnei Brak, Central Israel.Bnei Brak is a “young” city. Children of 0–19 years of age comprise almost 50% of its 200,000 population, and the average number of children in a family is 4.57

      setting: central Israel

    4. SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR was documented in the different age groups as follows:1. In 21 of 36 adults (>18 years) (58.3%).2. In 13 of 40 children, 5–17 years (32.5%), (P = 0.037 for the difference between group 1 and group 2, risk ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–0.96).3. In 2 of 18 children, 0–4 (<5) years of age (11.8%), (P < 0.002 for the difference between group 1 and group 3, risk ratio: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.30–0.71)

      main result: children ~half as likely to get infected given equivalent exposure in same household

  10. Nov 2020
    1. The recommendation to wear surgical masks to supplement other public health measures did not reduce the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate among wearers by more than 50% in a community with modest infection rates, some degree of social distancing, and uncommon general mask use.

      The takeaway: While minimal protection occurs when a mask is worn in a place where many others are not wearing a mask, community masking is associated with a reduction in COVID cases.

      The claim: In a community with modest infection rates, some social distancing, and most people not wearing masks, wearing a surgical mask did not reduce the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate by more than 50%.

      The evidence: This study showed that wearing a mask in a community where most people did not wear a mask, did not reduce the risk of getting infected by 50%. Fewer COVID infections were reported in the mask group than in the unmasked group. This study agrees with a meta analysis which showed that masks resulted in a decrease in infections but did not prevent all infections (1) According to the CDC, seven studies have shown community level benefit when masking recommendations were made (2).

      When most in the community are not wearing masks, social distancing, and washing hands, wearing a mask alone provides minimal protection to the mask wearer. Community wide masking is associated with a reduction in COVID cases (2).

      Sources:

      1) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29140516/

      2) https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/masking-science-sars-cov2.html

    1. Gov. Kristi Noem defended her hands-off approach to managing the deadly COVID-19 pandemic while addressing lawmakers earlier this week and called mandatory stay-at home orders "useless" in helping lower the spread.

      Take away: Lower COVID-19 spread occurred after stay-at home orders were issued. Room for debate exists on how restrictive lockdowns should be.

      The claim: Mandatory stay-at home orders are "useless" in helping lower the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

      The evidence: Two publications showed that lower COVID-19 spread occurred after stay-at home orders were issued (1, 2). Hospitalizations were lower than predicted exponential growth rates after implementation of stay-at home orders (3). Some caveats to consider include that it is impossible to tease apart the effects of the stay-at home orders from other measure implemented simultaneously with stay-at home orders such as increased hygiene measures, social distancing guidelines, and school closures. It is also impossible to conclusively state that the effect is from the stay-at home order and not the natural progression of the disease.

      The comparison between Illinois with stay-at home orders and Iowa without stay-at home orders resulted in an estimated 217 additional COVID-19 cases in Iowa over the course of a month (2). This small number raises the question, "are stay-at home orders worth it?" It is important to remember that comparison of Iowa and Illinois is the comparison of two social distancing strategies. Stay-at home orders close everything and then write the exceptions that can remain open. Iowa took the approach of leaving everything open except what the government choose to close (4). Some businesses in Iowa were still closed and many federal guidelines were still followed. A negative control showing disease progression without any mitigation measures does not exist in published literature.

      Sources:

      1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246016/

      2 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32413112/

      3 https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/news/2020/04/07/iowa-equivalent-stay-at-home-order-coronavirus-kim-reynolds/2961810001/

      4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254451/

    1. Schleiss says a better analogy for COVID-19 is the mumps. For more than 45 years, we’ve had a very effective vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (which are also RNA viruses).

      The takeaway: Even though mutations happen in all virus, vaccines still work. Current evidence about SARS-CoV-2 indicates that an effective COVID-19 vaccine can be obtained, and that it should be able to provide immunity against the virus.

      The claim: A better analogy for COVID-19 is the mumps. For more than 45 years, we’ve had a very effective vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (which are also RNA viruses).

      The evidence: We are all imperfect and we all make mistakes. For a virus, a mistake means the introduction of a mutation in its sequence, and RNA viruses (like the flu, mumps, measles virus, and SARS-CoV-2) have the highest error rates in nature. Mutations are indispensable for viral survival and evolution; this property is believed to benefit the viral population, allowing it to adapt and respond to different complex environments encountered during spread between hosts, within organs and tissues, and in response to the pressure of the host immune response [1]. How fast a virus is changing can be estimated by measuring its mutation rate, and then they can be classified as changing fast – high mutation rate – like HIV or Influenza, or as stable, like measles or mumps virus. SARS-CoV-2 has a mutation rate three times slower than the flu virus [2], but it's still changing faster than the mumps virus (the mutation rate of influenza is more than 10 times higher than mumps) [3]. Of course, how fast a virus can change has implications in the efficacy of treatments and vaccines, but it's not the only determinant. Even though mutations happen in all viruses, vaccines still work. A great example is the measles virus, as the antigenic composition of the vaccine (the molecules that “wake up” the immune system) used to prevent it has remained efficient since it was developed, in the 1960s, and confers protection against the 24 circulating genotypes [4]. The same is true for the mumps virus, with a vaccine that has been efficient for many decades [5]. Sequencing data suggest that coronaviruses change more slowly than most other RNA viruses, probably because of a viral ‘proofreading’ activity that corrects all the copying mistakes [6]. Taken together, all this evidence indicates that an effective COVID-19 vaccine can be obtained, and that it should be able to provide lasting immunity against the virus.

      Sources:<br> 1

      2 SARS-CoV-2 mutation rate: 1.26 x 10-3 substitutions/site/year

      3 Influenza (flu-virus) mutation rate: 3.68 x 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Mumps mutation rate: 2.98 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year

      4

      5

      6

    1. Anxiety From Reactions to Covid-19 Will Destroy At Least Seven Times More Years of Life Than Can Be Saved by Lockdowns

      Take away: Though the number of COVID deaths prevented and the exact number of years lost due directly to decreases in mental health from lockdowns is at best a rough estimate, several facts are known. Lockdowns decrease mental health, and a decrease in mental health shortens lives too.

      The claim: Anxiety from reactions to COVID-19 will destroy at least seven times more years of life than can be saved by lockdowns.

      The evidence: This article references many studies detailing the anxiety surrounding COVID-19 (1-4). These studies indicate that many people have increased stress due to COVID. Nature Public Health Emergency Collection reports that the mental health cost of widespread lockdowns may negate the lives saved by this policy (5). This article lists many articles which describe the effect of stay-at-home orders on mental health. Additionally, the effect of poor mental health on physical outcomes is well-defined. Poor mental health shortens lives. Other factors with COVID such as negative media coverage and dealing with job loss and death are also described as negatively affecting mental health. It is unclear how much of the negative mental health outcomes is directly related to lockdowns and what is contributed to the disease, job loss, future uncertainty, and continuous media coverage.

      Several supporting facts used in this article are now outdated or could use clarification. Many assumptions are detailed in this article to estimate the number of years lost due to mental harm caused by lockdowns. One example is the authors used a survey of 1,266 patients to estimate the number of people in the United States who have suffered mental harm from lockdowns. These estimates are challenging to conclusively verify. The authors did choose the conservative estimate for each of their numbers. One example of an outdated number is the predicted number of deaths was 114,228 by August 4th. The actual number of deaths per Johns Hopkins was 157,500 (6).

      Based on the facts, anxiety and mental disorders can be deadly. Lockdowns result in an increase in poor mental health. The exact number of years lost due to poor mental health directly resulting from lockdowns is less clear. Poor mental health may also result from constant media coverage, loss of loved ones and fear of the future.

      The sources:

      1) https://www.psychiatry.org/newsroom/news-releases/new-poll-covid-19-impacting-mental-well-being-americans-feeling-anxious-especially-for-loved-ones-older-adults-are-less-anxious

      2) https://www.kff.org/health-reform/report/kff-health-tracking-poll-early-april-2020/

      3) https://www.bsgco.com/post/coronavirus-and-americans-mental-health-insights-from-bsg-s-pulse-of-america-poll

      4) https://www.kff.org/report-section/kff-health-tracking-poll-late-april-2020-economic-and-mental-health-impacts-of-coronavirus/

      5) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431738/#

      6) https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/us-map

    1. This module should not be used in other npm modules since it modifies the default require behavior! It is designed to be used for development of final projects i.e. web-sites, applications etc.
    1. The first benefit of working this way is that you become interruption-proof. Because you rarely even attempt to load the entire project into your mind all at once, there’s not much to “unload” if someone interrupts you. It’s much easier to pick up where you left off, because you’re not trying to juggle all the work-in-process in your head.

      The intermittent packet approach makes you more resilient towards interruptions

      Because you're not loading an entire project in your mind at once, you're not losing as much context when you get interrupted.

    1. On every measure — new infections, hospitalizations, and deaths — the U.S. is headed in the wrong direction

      The takeaway: Though COVID-19 cases are at a record high, the number of deaths from COVID-19 has not followed the steep rise in cases. An increase in the number of deaths may be reported later as deaths lag cases by several weeks.

      The claim: On every measure - new infections, hospitalizations, and deaths - the U.S. is headed in the wrong direction.

      The evidence: New COVID infections in the US are the highest they have ever been with a 7-day moving average of 104,417 cases/day (1). The number of deaths in the US is similar to the number of deaths in August, lower than the number of deaths in the spring and higher than the number of deaths in the summer (2). A slight increase was seen in the number of deaths for the first two weeks in October followed by a slight decline which may change as more data is added (3). The number of emergency department visits for coronavirus like symptoms is on an upward trajectory nationwide (4). The CDC states "At least one indicator used to monitor COVID-19 activity is increasing in each of the ten HHS regions, and many regions are reporting increases in multiple indicators" (3).

      Though COVID-19 cases are at a record high, the number of deaths from COVID-19 has not followed the steep rise in cases. An increase in the number of deaths may be reported later as deaths lag cases by several weeks.

      Sources:

      1) https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#trends_dailytrendscases

      2) https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#trends_dailytrendsdeaths

      3) https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/index.html

      4) https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#ed-visits

    1. We have designed a dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor that blocks this critical first step of infection for emerging coronaviruses and document that it completely prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in ferrets.

      The takeaway: Dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in all six ferrets tested. Much more work is needed before this could be used in humans.

      The claim: Treatment of ferrets with a dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor completely prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in ferrets.

      The evidence: Per Figure 3, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all three animals inoculated with the virus, all six animals treated with a placebo, and none of the animals treated with the dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor (1). Animals treated with dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor did not mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 while an immune response was seen in inoculated animals and placebo treated animals (Figure 4).

      More research is needed before this treatment can be used in humans. This preliminary study showed that in a small sample of animals which do not typically show COVID symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 infection was blocked by the dimeric lipopeptide fusion inhibitor. This paper describes the first step in a long journey. Before a new treatment is approved for use in humans, Phase I, II and III clinical trials must be completed (2) which includes showing that a treatment does no harm to healthy humans and proving that it works in humans. This work also needs peer-review in a published journal which may occur with time.

      Sources:

      1) https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.04.361154v1.full.pdf

      2) https://www.fda.gov/patients/drug-development-process/step-3-clinical-research

    1. The coronavirus pandemic is expected to take the U.S. national debt to levels not seen since World War II.

      The takeaway: The debt to GDP ratio after coronavirus relief spending is higher than it has ever been.

      The claim: The coronavirus pandemic is expected to take the U.S. national debt to levels not seen since World War II.

      The evidence: A number of COVID-19 spending acts and executive orders include: Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2020, Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), CARES Act, Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, and President Trump's Executive Actions (1). Prior to these bills and executive actions, the fiscal year 2020 federal deficit was predicted to be $3.1 trillion (1). The total cost of the coronavirus relief measures is $2,607,000,000,000 (1). The debt to GDP ratio in 2020 at the end of quarter 2 is 136% (2). The debt had previously peaked in 1946 after WWII at 118% debt to GDP ratio (2).

      Sources:

      1) https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertberger/2020/10/18/5-big-numbers-reveal-the-unsettling-scope-of-stimulus-spending/?sh=26ae8057142b

      2) https://www.thebalance.com/national-debt-by-year-compared-to-gdp-and-major-events-3306287

  11. Oct 2020
    1. Take away: Even though mini-lungs (and mini-organs) are extremely valuable tools for scientist to study disease and prospective therapeutics, results obtained with these models are hardly generalizable and normally need to be validated in animal models and clinical studies.

      The claim: Based on our model we can tackle many unanswered key questions, such as understanding genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, assessing relative infectivity of viral mutants, and revealing the damage processes of the virus in human alveolar cells. Most importantly, it provides the opportunity to develop and screen potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

      The evidence: Regardless of their name, mini-organs are hardly real miniature organs, these clumps of cells resemble organs in many ways, but they lack certain features that allow real organs to function and grow. For now, mini-organs don’t develop beyond tiny and simplistic models of organs, and remain hard to produce in the large, consistent batches needed for drug screening and other efforts. But, in spite of their limitations, they still are a giant step up from 2D cultures of cells that scientists have long grown in the lab. In particular, studies of SARS-CoV-2 in mini-organs have limitations because they do not reflect the crosstalk between organs and systems that happens in the body. Here for example, the mini-organs do not produce the full cellular spectrum present in the adult alveoli. Also, the mini-lungs in this study cannot mimic an interaction with the immune system, which likely influences how the disease develops. Some groups are beginning to test existing drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in mini-organs in a small scale, but we will only know at the end of this process what the predictive value of these systems are for testing drug efficacy.

      Source: https://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(20)30498-7 https://www.nature.com/articles/ncb3312 https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.10.144816v1 https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.25.115600v2

    1. We find that COVID-19 has likely become the leading cause of death (surpassing unintentional overdoses) among young adults aged 25-44 in some areas of the United States during substantial COVID-19 outbreaks.

      The takeaway: During the peak of infections during large outbreaks, COVID-19 deaths in age group 25-44 is higher than drug overdose deaths.

      The claim: COVID-19 has likely become the leading cause of death in age group 25-44.

      The evidence: This article compares COVID-19 deaths to opioid deaths during 2018. When the hardest hit areas are combined and areas not hit are excluded, the number of COVID-19 deaths is five deaths more than the opioid deaths during the same period in 2018. Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in the age group 25-44 (1-2). In 2018, opioid overdose resulted in 24,253 deaths in the age group of 25-44 in the United States (3). Transportation fatal injuries for the age group 25-44 in 2018 was 12,904 (4). In 2020, deaths from all causes for age group 25-44 is 124,736 with 5,911 directly attributable to COVID-19 (5, accessed 10/28/2020).

      COVID-19 was briefly the leading cause of death in the hardest hit areas during the peak of the epidemic for age group 25-44 if unintentional injuries is broken into subcategories.

      Sources: 1 https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/animated-leading-causes.html

      2 https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr68/nvsr68_06-508.pdf

      3 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6911a4.ht m

      4 https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/mortrate.html

      5 https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm